SPAST Abstracts https://spast.org/techrep <p><strong>SPAST Abstracts </strong>publishes the extended abstracts of the papers presented in the First International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021</p> <p><strong>SPAST Abstracts </strong>are open access and provide the audience with the insights into the latest research trends in the field.</p> <p><strong>SPAST Abstracts </strong>is the part of the SPAST Open Access Research series and is google scholar indexed.</p> <p> </p> en-US office@spast.org (Office-SPAST) info@spast.org (Support) Sun, 18 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.2.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Preparation of MgCoO2/PEDOT@Nickel Foam as an Anode Electrode Material for Microbial Fuel Cells https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/315 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Physicochemical properties of anode materials are critical for achieving the direct electron transfer between bacteria and anode to get high energy generation via. microbial fuel cells (MFCs) . In this study, the nickel foam anode was treated with hydrochloric acid, ethanol and DI water to remove the surface impurities. We independently synthesized electrode materials MgCoO</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> and PEDOT using sol-gel and chemical oxidative methods. MgCoO</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/PEDOT film was coated on Ni foam by surface coating. The MgCoO</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/PEDOT@Ni foam anode provided a uniform mass dispersion of the growth media as well as a large surface area for microbial growth and electron mediation. The working efficiency of the composite on nickel foam has been studied using wastewater as an anolyte and glucose as its fuel. Notably, the MFC device with stretchable MgCoO</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">/PEDOT@NF electrodes showed a power density of 494 W m</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">-3</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">, which is significantly high compared to bare nickel foam anode, implying increased bioenergy production and enhanced electron transport, when it used as an anodic material inr MFC. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy revealed a significant improvement in electrochemical properties such as higher redox peak currents and lower interface electron-transfer resistance, supporting the idea that nanostructured anode materials perform better. This study has given a new material to prepare anode for use in microbial fuel cells to generate high electricity.</span></p> Brahmari Shetty Copyright (c) 2021 Brahmari Shetty https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/315 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Terahertz Induced Third-harmonic Radiation in an n-GaAs https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2941 <p>Nonlinear effects arise due to the interaction of high-intensity laser beam with plasmas, as&nbsp; v/c~1 for the free electron gas, but the situation is different in a solid-state material, as v/c&lt;&lt;1, so this effect is not relevant there. However, because of band-structure interactions, in degenerate semiconductors, the Hamiltonian in the effective-mass approximation near the bottom of the conduction band formally resembles a relativistic Hamiltonian. This similarity may be exploited to develop a pseudo relativistic dynamic for the conduction electrons.&nbsp; Tzoar et al. [1] proposed that in a semiconductor, a light beam of intensity will self-focus in <em>190</em> vacuum wavelengths. It was reported that at such a high intensity, one cannot study the problem without properly taking into account the nonlinear conductivity of the medium during the propagation of the waves. In narrow bandgap semiconductors, the inter-band transitions create high-density charge carriers. Gallium Arsenide is a semiconductor material of high electron mobility. GaAs is a direct gap material with a maximum valence band and a minimum conduction band and is supposed to coincide in k-space at the Brillouin zone centers, which means that the minimum of the conduction band is directly over the maximum of the valance band, so little momentum change is necessary for the transition of an electron from the valance band to the conduction band. A high density of charge carriers can be generated with a little momentum change. The charge carriers behave collectively at such high densities and the medium acts as a plasma.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Harmonic generation is an important non-linear process because of its numerous applications. There have been various methods proposed till now to generate harmonics of the principal laser beam in a plasma [2-4]. In this work, we came up with the scheme to excite the resonant third-harmonic of terahertz radiation in an <em>n</em>-GaAs semiconductor in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic field. The semiconductor can be placed between the bar magnets of alternate polarity to get the wiggler magnetic field. The wiggler is the photon with zero energy that can balance the uneven momentum between the third harmonic and primary photons. The terahertz electromagnetic radiation interacts with the charge carriers of the semiconductor via ponderomotive force () and produced a nonlinear third harmonic current at the frequency thrice of the fundamental THz. The conversion efficiency of third-harmonic generation is estimated.</p> Mamta Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Mamta Singh https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2941 Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Primordial power spectrum reconstruction from Planck angular power spectrum using MCMC technique https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1809 <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">The physics of the primordial phase of the universe is described with inflationary cosmology </span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\cite</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{guth1981inflationary}. According to which the universe underwent a period of exponential expansion with cosmological scale factor </span><span style="color: #61ce3c;">$a(t) \propto e^{Ht}$</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> resulting in the primordial quantum fluctuations being stretched to macroscopic scales. In the inflationary scenario the perturbation modes of these fields have physical wavelengths </span><span style="color: #61ce3c;">$\lambda_{physical} = a(t) \lambda$</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">. When these perturbation modes have microscopic wavelengths it leads to the formation of frozen primordial perturbations.</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">The large scale structure formation in the universe is believed to be seeded by classical primordial perturbations which are of the form that is observed in Cosmic Microwave Background (</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">) temperature </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">anisotropies</span> <span style="color: #8da6ce;">\cite</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{gawiser2000cosmic}. The features in the </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> spectrum allows us to probe physics at the time of inflation. Each inflationary model predicts different features for the </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> power spectrum. The near-scale invariant power spectrum corresponds to be the simplest inflationary model. The primordial version of the power spectrum characterizes the quantum fluctuations in the early universe which is Gaussian in nature. The last scattering surface and the line-of-sight' journey of photons induce primary and secondary </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">anisotropies</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> in the </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> spectrum. The features of the </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> radiation spectrum is captured with the </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">radiative</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> transport kernel. </span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">\Delta_l(k) = T_{SW}(k)j_l(k \chi_*) + T_D(k)j_l'(k \chi_*) \</span><span style="font-weight: 600; color: #fadd2d;">label{transfer}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">The three quantities, </span><span style="color: #61ce3c;">$C_l$</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">, </span><span style="color: #61ce3c;">$P_k$</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> and </span><span style="color: #61ce3c;">$\Delta_{lk}$</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> are related in the form of </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">fredholm</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> integral equation of the first kind.</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">C_l = 4\pi \int d\, \ln k \Delta^2_l(k)P(k) \</span><span style="font-weight: 600; color: #fadd2d;">label{Cl}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">The </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> temperature </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">anisotropy</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> over the entire sky </span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\cite</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{aghanim2020planck} is </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">analysed</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> by decomposing it in the spherical harmonics</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">\left\langle a_{lm}a*_{l'm'}\right\rangle = \delta_{ll'}\delta_{mm'}C_l</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">D_{ll} = l(l+1)\frac{C_l}{2\pi}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{figure}[ht]</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\centering</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="font-weight: 600; color: #fadd2d;">\includegraphics</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">[width=0.6</span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\textwidth</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">]{1567216755656-</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">Planck_power_spectrum_orig</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">.</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">jpg</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\caption</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{</span><span style="color: #61ce3c;">$Cl_{TT}$</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> power spectrum obtained from </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">ESA</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> and the Planck Collaboration}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{figure}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">By plotting the observed </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> microwave power spectrum as a function of the angular size of 1 degree we can extract cosmological information. The first peak of the power spectrum corresponds to primordial matter density at about 400,000 years after the big bang. The succeeding peaks correspond to matter first coming together under the influence of gravity, then rebounding outwards under radiation pressure and then later condensing. The doctrine that Universe grew from quantum fluctuations is observed as harmonic peaks. The different matter densities like baryon, photon and dark matter are calculated by comparing the heights of the first and second peaks. And it seems that ordinary matter or baryons make up only 5 per cent of the universe. The dark matter and dark energy contribute about 30 and 65 per cent respectively to the total energy density.</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">An approximate solution for the integral equation in </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">Eq</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">.</span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\ref</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{Cl} can be computed from the </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">discretized</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> form using quadrature method.</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">C_{l_j} = (4\pi)^2 \frac{\delta k}{2}\left(\Delta_{l_jk_0}^2\frac{P_{k_0}}{k_0} + 2 \sum_{i=1}^{n-1} \Delta_{l_jk_i}^2\frac{P_{k_i}}{k_i}+ \Delta_{l_jk_n}^2\frac{P_{k_n}}{k_n}\right)</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">The above system of linear equations can be represented with an ill-determined matrix as,</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">b_m = A_{mn}x_n + \epsilon \qquad</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">m \ne n \nonumber</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">The system is ill-posed, that a small change in </span><span style="color: #61ce3c;">$b$</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> would cause large changes in the solution </span><span style="color: #61ce3c;">$x$</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">. </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">Tikhonov</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> regularization </span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\cite</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{golub1999tikhonov} is a penalized minimization method to find the approximate solution for such problems. Hence the solution to the above relation is a minimization problem given by,</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">\min_{x\in R}\left|\left|Ax-b\right|\right|_2^2 + \mu^2 \left|\left|x\right|\right|_2^2 \</span><span style="font-weight: 600; color: #fadd2d;">label{fitness}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">with,</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">\hat{x} = \left(A^TA + I\lambda\right)^{-1}A^Tb \</span><span style="font-weight: 600; color: #fadd2d;">label{pps}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">Eq</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">.</span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\ref</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{fitness} shows correspondence to the Bayes theorem,</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\begin</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #61ce3c;">\log posterior \propto \log likelihood + \log prior \</span><span style="font-weight: 600; color: #fadd2d;">label{bayes}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #fadd2d;">\end</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{equation}</span></pre> <pre style="-qt-paragraph-type: empty; -qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;">&nbsp;</pre> <pre style="-qt-block-indent: 0; text-indent: 0px; margin: 0px;"><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">From </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">Eq</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">.</span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\ref</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">pps</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">} </span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\&amp;</span> <span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">Eq</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">.</span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\ref</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">bayes</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">}, it is clear that Monte Carlo Markov Chain is an appropriate choice for the estimation primordial power spectrum from the ill-posed problem in </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">Eq</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">.</span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\ref</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{Cl}. In this work, we propose a method to reconstruct the primordial power spectrum using the MCMC technique from </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> angular power spectrum obtained from the Planck mission. The transfer function is generated with the </span><span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #f8f8f8;">CAMB</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;"> code </span><span style="color: #8da6ce;">\cite</span><span style="color: #f8f8f8;">{Lewis_2000}.</span></pre> Supin P Surendran Copyright (c) 2021 Supin P Surendran https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1809 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 First order phase Transition and Heat Capacity Calculation of a Transuranic Compound at room temperature https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1230 <p>The Modified three body interaction potential model (MTBIM) including the role of temperature is used to calculate the electronic properties such as bulk modulus, lattice constants and structural phase transition of AmTe. Phase transition of AmTe occurs at high pressure 15 GPa. AmTe shows NaCl structure at ambient temperature but at high pressure the structure transform from B1 (NaCl) to B2 (CsCl). AmTe is a combination of two different types of element and these elements have also different type of properties. First&nbsp; Americium (Am) that is a radioactive chemical element and it is a transuranic member of the actinide series located under lanthanides whereas Tellurium (Te) is also a chemical element and its comes from chalcogen groups from the periodic table .Americium is a silvery&nbsp; shiny radioactive metal whereas&nbsp; tellurium is silver white metalloid.[1-5]</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Americium is a chemical element and third element of transuranic series. Am first produced in 1944 by the team of Glenn T. Seaborg in California. Am produced by the bombarding of neutrons on uranium or plutonium. Two isotopes of Am <sup>241</sup>Am&nbsp; and <sup>243</sup>Am are widely used in many applications. Am is widely used in smoke detectors, neutron sources and industrial gauges. Am have oxidation states +2 ,+3,+4 +5,+6, +7 but from the all of them +3 is most common . Am is not a natural element it means it is a artificial element because transuranic element commonly not find in natural environment so they are manufactured in different processes. Am is harmful to life so it cannot be used in biological aspects. At the time of subjection of americium the level of damage must be considered. Age bar, diet gender, type of disclosure and lifestyle are the some important factors to be considered in the subjection of Am.</p> <p>&nbsp;Tellurium is discovered in 1782 in Transylvania .Te has a low electro negativity so it is &nbsp;used in many types of materials and these materials have low band gaps .Because of this property Te is used in solar cells , infrared detectors photoconductive materials . In natural processes Te is harmless. But during decay process of tellurium chloride it may discharge toxic smoke.</p> <p>At present many reports are available on AmTe. &nbsp;First principle calculation of structural phase transition and electronic properties in AmTe (TB- LMTO Method)&nbsp; by J. Pataiya and group. High pressure phase transition and elastic properties of americium telluride (MIPT Method) by Mahendra Ayanyas and group. High pressure phase transition and elastic properties of americium telluride (X-RAY DIFFRACTION Method) by Zvoriste –Walters et al Phonon dynamics of americium telluride (BREATHING SHELL MODELS) by B.S.Arya.[1-5]</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Table 1. Input and model parameter of AmTe</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="83"> <p><strong>Crystal</strong></p> </td> <td colspan="3" width="255"> <p><strong>Input parameters</strong></p> </td> <td colspan="3" width="278"> <p><strong>Model parameters</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="83"> <p>AmTe</p> </td> <td width="70"> <p>r(A<sup>0</sup>)</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>r<sub>i </sub>( A<sup>0</sup>)</p> </td> <td width="72"> <p>r<sub>j </sub>(A<sup>0</sup>)</p> </td> <td width="76"> <p>b(10<sup>-12</sup> ergs)</p> </td> <td width="77"> <p>ρ</p> </td> <td width="125"> <p>f(r)</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="83"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="70"> <p>2.89</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>1.09</p> </td> <td width="72"> <p>1.52</p> </td> <td width="76"> <p>10.4233</p> </td> <td width="77"> <p>0.232</p> </td> <td width="125"> <p>-0.00132</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Telluride, Elastic property, Thermal properties, Americium, Crystal structure</p> Bhavna Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Bhavna Pandey https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1230 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Optoelectronic and Charge Transport Properties of Air-stable Phenanthrene Derivatives: Effects of Functionalized Groups and Atoms https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/747 <p>We used Density Functional Theory (DFT) to calculate the optoelectronic and angular resolution anisotropic charge mobility of the phenanthrene derivatives viz., phenanthrene, 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1,4-phenanthrenequinone, 3,5,8-trimethoxy-1,4-phenanthrenequinone, 3,8-dimethoxy-1,4-phenanthrenequinone, 1,5,6,7-tetramothoxy phenanthrene-2-ol and 7-hydroxy-2,3,4,6-tetramethoxy phenanthrene [1-3]. All the optimization and single point energy calculations have carried out using dispersion-corrected hybrid exchange-correlation functional (B3LYP-D3) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets [4]. The HOMO energy levels of all the studied compounds were found to be lie in the energy range -5.510 to -6.069 eV, suggesting that the compounds are p-type organic semiconductors. The IP values (6.60 to 7.64 eV) larger than 5.3 eV inferring the fact that the studied compounds held considerable air-stability properties [5-6]. Except for TPQ and TPO, all crystals exhibited larger V<sub>eff</sub>(e) than V<sub>eff</sub>(h) along P1 channel, whereas, TPQ1 and TPO crystal have shown comparatively large value of V<sub>eff</sub>(h) along P3 channel respectively. We observed relatively higher hole mobility of crystals TPQ1 and DPQ as compared to TPQ, TPO and HTP [7-12]. The maximum anisotropic mobility (μ<sub>φ </sub>(max)) of the investigated organic crystals are found in the order of 10<sup>-6</sup>-10<sup>-2</sup> cm<sup>2</sup>V<sup>-1</sup>s<sup>-1</sup>.&nbsp; The band gap (E<sub>g</sub>) of the crystals studied phenanthrene derivatives are found to be in the energy range 1.28 eV to 3.20 eV, indicating that the investigated compounds are wideband gap organic semiconductor. The red shifted of the absorption spectra of the compounds are found to be in the wavelength order of TPQ1 &lt; TPQ &lt; DPQ &lt; TPO &lt; HTP &lt; PHN, respectively. The hirshfeld analysis depicting the distribution of surface charge in between the molecular layers of the crystals revealed that the principal interactions are mostly due to the C…H/H…C and H…H contact for all the studied crystals [13]. The chemical structure of the phenanthrene derivatives is listed in fig. 1.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/narayan123/fig.png" alt="" width="322" height="342"></p> Rudranarayan Khatua Copyright (c) 2021 Rudranarayan Khatua https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/747 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigations on the structural and third-order nonlinear optical characteristics of bulk size DAST crystal for photonic applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2923 <p>An organic and optically good quality bulk size 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4-N-methyl stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) single crystal was grown by adopting the conventional slow evaporation technique. The cell dimensions of the as grown single crystals was determined by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction studies which reveals that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The etching study indicates the occurrences of surface dislocations on the crystal.&nbsp; The Vickers microhardness tester was employed to study the mechanical strength and it’s found that the crystal belongs to soft material category. The third order nonlinear optical properties were calculated by Z-scan analysis which shows significantly large value of nonlinear absorption coefficient and third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ<sup>3</sup>=9.84×10<sup>-6</sup> esu). The third order nonlinear performance recommended that the DAST crystal is apt for nonlinear optical applications.</p> Manivannan Moorthy, S. A. Martin Britto Dhas, M. Jose , A. Saranraj Copyright (c) 2021 Manivannan Moorthy, S. A. Martin Britto Dhas, M. Jose , A. Saranraj https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2923 Mon, 25 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the influence of target atomic number (Z_2) on equilibrium mean charge state (q ̅ ) https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1865 <p>Charge changing processes of projectile ions with media particles, occurring in their penetration through gaseous, solid, and plasma targets, are of interest for solving fundamental problems in atomic and nuclear physics, plasma and accelerator physics, as well as for mastering many new applications [1-3]. The process is&nbsp;very&nbsp;complex&nbsp;due to&nbsp;a&nbsp;variety of<strong>&nbsp;</strong>physical phenomena including ionization, excitation, radiative decay, Auger decay, electron decay, radiative and non-radiative electron capture, etc. [4-6]. Several empirical formulae are proposed in order to replicate the value of mean charge states, such as Thomas-Fermi Model, Bohr Model, Betz Model, Nikolaev- Dmitriev Model, To-Drouin Model, Shima-Ishihara-Mikumo Model (S-I-M), Itoh Model, Schiwietz-Grande model (G-F-M), Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark Model (Z-B-L), Schiwietz Model, Fermi-gas-model (F-G-M) [7] have been developed based on the experimental results from electromagnetic measurements. Some of these models (Shima-Ishihara-Mikumo Model, Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark Model, Schiwietz Model, Schiwietz-Grande model, Fermi-gas-model) show a dependence of mean charge state on target materials and some models (Thomas-Fermi Model, Bohr Model, Betz Model, Nikolaev- Dmitriev Model, To-Drouin Model, &nbsp;Itoh Model) show no dependence of mean charge state on target materials. At present, there are a few computer programs ETACHA, GLOBAL, CHARGE, and BREIT for calculating the evolution of charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness, when the ion beam passes through gaseous and solid media. Recently, a new version of the ETACHA program, called ETACHA4, has been developed [8], where the&nbsp;scope&nbsp;of&nbsp;the&nbsp;programme&nbsp;has been&nbsp;expanded&nbsp;to lower energies 0.05-30 MeV/u and also to heavier ions possessing up to 60 electrons.</p> <p>In the present work, we have compared the empirical, semi empirical and theoretical (ETACHA4) model predictions for &nbsp;dependence of the equilibrium mean charge state &nbsp;with experimental results [9].</p> Deepak Kumar Swami Copyright (c) 2021 Deepak Kumar Swami https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1865 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of nuclear driving potential to probe quasi-fission phenomena https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/650 <pre class="western" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The last few decades have witnessed astounding achievements in the synthesis of super heavy elements (SHEs) from Copernicium (Z-112) to Oganesson (Z=118)</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">, finally completing the IUPAC's periodic table to the seventh row. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">These experimental ventures have confirmed the existence of "is</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">land of stability” </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">near spherical nuclear shells at Z = 114, 120, 122 and N = 184 [</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">1-3</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">]. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The study of SHE provides an indispensable ground to explore the attributes of matter to the limit of its existence.</span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">The experimental production of SHE is an extremely challenging issue due to </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">fusion</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> hindrances and optimization of numerous critical parameters. Quasi-fission (QF)</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">, the</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> phenomena</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">, where the system re</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">-</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">separates before forming </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">an </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">equilibrated CN,</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> acts as a major competition to fusion-fission at near barr</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">i</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">er energies. </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="text-decoration: none;">QF</span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> reduces the probability of compound nucleus formation acting as an inevitable hindrance to ER formation. The fusion of heavy ions with massive targets leads to the formation of super-heavy element only if the combined di-nuclear system survives </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">QF</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> and attains a compact shape near the equilibrium ground state. The reported values of the cross-section for SHE synthesis is few </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="text-decoration: none;">femto</span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> barns therefore, it is necessary to know in advance the favorable conditions for the formation of SHE. Few of the primary conditions are: stability of </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="text-decoration: none;">CN</span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> against fission, choice of projectile-target combination and an optimum energy range. This requires a comprehensive study and understanding of the hindrances, namely, </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="text-decoration: none;">QF</span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> involved in SHE synthesis. </span></span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Different factors influencing the QF probability are relative orientation of interacting nuclei, entrance channel coulomb factor, excitation energy, angular momentum, entrance channel mass asymmetry and the shell structure in the entrance channel and the compound nucleus</span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> [4-6]</span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;">. </span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;">The experimental investigations are limited by the availability</span></span></span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;">of targets heavier than Cf and thus, resorting to heavier beams seems </span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;">the </span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;">only option but it poses another series of challenges. Therefore, the theoretical </span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;">work</span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> must supplement the experimental efforts</span></span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> to attain an unambiguous</span></span></span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-IN"><span style="text-decoration: none;">understanding of the fusion mechanism in heavy systems.</span></span></span></span></span> </pre> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">The present theoretical work f</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">ocuses on the investigation of the phenomena of mass drift and the effect of shell structure on nuclear driving potential and their relationship to the mass distribution of fission fragments. For this reason, the potential energy at the scission point as a function of atomic number as shown in Fig. 1 is calculated using the NRV [7] code and presented alongside the experimental mass. </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Fig</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">.</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> 1 presents a systematic study of varied systems with increasing entrance channel mass asymmetry and decreasing coulomb factor.</span></span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">It is observed that with increasing entrance channel mass asymmetry the minima of driving potential shifts towards symmetric mass from 216u of </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">64</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Ni+</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">238</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">U to 185u of </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">26</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Mg+</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">248</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Cm </span></span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">s</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">upporting the thesis of mass drift that is experimentally observed in systems undergoing QF</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> [10]</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">. </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Moreover, asymmetric QF is a manifestation of nuclear shells in the composite system and the concurrent study of the driving potential uni</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">-</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">vocally directs to the presence of Z = 82, N = 126 in the heavy fragment and Z = 28, N = 50 in the lighter fragment of the experimental mass distribution.</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> Furthermore, the topography of the potential energy surface for the </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">58</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Fe+</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">244</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Pu</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> and </span></span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">26</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Mg+</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">248</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Cm</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> reactions as shown in panel (a.) and (b.) of Fig. 2 substantiates this observation.</span></span></span></span></p> <pre class="western" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">It</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> is worthwhile to mention here that </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">a</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> mass drift in the potential energy and experimental mass distribution </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">is </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">observed when a CN is formed through</span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">different channels</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">,</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> namely</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">,</span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">274</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Hs</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> formed </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>via</em></span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">36</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">S+</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">238</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">U and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">26</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Mg+</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">248</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Cm channels and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">302</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">120 formed </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><em>via</em></span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">64</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Ni+</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">238</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">U</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">58</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Fe+</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">244</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Pu</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> channels. </span></span></span> <span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Moreover, Fig 1. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">shows</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> a case study of dependence </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">of</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> QF on target deformation </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><em><span style="text-decoration: none;">via</span></em></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">58</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Fe+</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">244</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Pu</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">, </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">58</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Fe+</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">232</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Th</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">58</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Fe+</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">208</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">Pb</span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">reactions</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> with same mass asymmetry and entrance channel coulomb factor.</span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">The </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">target</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> deformation </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">does</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> in</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">-</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">fact, influence the driving potential and mass drift</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">, around and below the barrier</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">. It is </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">intriguing</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> to point out that at energies below barrier, a wider potential valley corresponds to a wider variance in mass width. These findings suggest that </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">the </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">study of nuclear</span></span></span> <span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;">driving potential at contact configuration is a useful tool for studying QF</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> phenomena</span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="text-decoration: none;"> and indeed can be exploited to predict SHE synthesis.</span></span></span></span></pre> Divya Arora, Sugathan Pullanhiotan Copyright (c) 2021 Divya Arora, Sugathan Pullanhiotan https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/650 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ground State and Electronic Properties of Neodymium Phosphide (NdP) https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/236 <p><strong>Abstract</strong><strong>:</strong> The density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation (GGA) has been used to calculate lattice parameter, total energy, phase transition pressure, elastic constant and electronic properties of neodymium phosphide at ambient as well as at high pressure. Most of the lanthanide monophosphides crystallize in NaCl-type structure with space group symmetry Fm3m at ambient pressure. At high pressure these compounds crystallize in a distorted to CsCl-type structure with space group symmetry P4/mmm. The structural, electronic, magnetic, and electrical properties of these compounds are strongly affected by the degree of localization and itinerancy of <em>f</em>-electrons [1, 2]. Theoretical calculations of the magnetic properties of the neodymium pnictides have been carried out [3] for the antiferomagnetic state. Pagare et al. [4] have investigated the pressure induced structural phase transition of some rare earth mono-antimonides including NdSb using interionic potential model approach. Recently Ciftci et al. [5] have reported the structural and phonon properties of NdP compound by using theoretically VASP (Viena Ab-initio Simulation Package) and found that NdP undergoes B<sub>1</sub> to B<sub>2</sub> structure at 37 GPa. In the present study we have reported structural and mechanical properties of neodymium phosphide using density functional theory within generalized gradient approximation (GGA Formulation</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The present calculations have been performed by using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method as implemented in the WIEN2K code [6], based on the density functional theory (DFT). The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) in the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzrhof (PBE) is used for the exchange and correlation effects [7].</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nilesh Dhurve Nilu Copyright (c) 2021 Nilesh Dhurve Nilu https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/236 Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 FT-IR, XRD and DSC study on Polyvinyl butyral and Poly (vinylidenefuoride-co-Hexafluoropropylene) blends https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/517 <p>The study of processing on the morphology- property relationship of polymeric blends has become a topic of major scientific importance because of intensified technological interest in this area. The application of blended polymeric material has increased significantly and is expected to grow. A proper selection and combination of polymeric component in a certain ratio might result in a blend material with optimal properties for specific application, such as microelectronics, packaging and electrical engineering. A remarkable broad spectrum of properties can often be achieved by blending [1]. These properties include mostly mechanical strength and stiffness, toughness, <em>Processability</em>, heat distortion, chemical and weathering resistance and thermal stability etc. Many polymeric blends have been found and reported over the last few decades [1-5].</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Binary blends of Poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and Poly (vinylidene fuoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) is one such important blends. Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) is a clear, colourless, amorphous thermoplastic composed of vinyl butyral, vinyl alchoal and vinyl acetate monomeric units. Structure and properties are strongly dependent on the hydroxyl content. PVB is known for its excellent flexibility, film-forming and good adhesion properties as well as outstanding UV resistance. The Tg of PVB has been found between 50 to 80°C depends with varying VA content [4]. PVDF-HFP on the other hand is a semicrystalline polymer which has drawn both scientific and technological attention because of its excellent mechanical properties, resistance to severe environmental stress, good chemical resistance and its useful piezo-and pyro-electric properties. PVDF-HFP can be obtained via emulsion polymerization of vinylidene fluoride (VDF) and hexafluoropropylene (HFP) [1, 5]. Compared with Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), PVDF-HFP has better properties, such as higher solubility, higher hydrophobicity and better mechanical strength, owing to the combination of HFP. It is also one of the rarest polymers that exhibits diverse crystalline forms having at least five phases namely α, β, γ, δ and ε. The Tg of PVDF is -30°C.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The commercial PVB (powder) and PVDF-HFP (pallets) used in the present study were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemicals Private Limited (India). Polymers and the chemicals were used as supplied without any further purification. The samples for the present investigation were prepared by the solution cast technique [2]. The solution of particular concentration was prepared by dissolving the two polymers PVB and PVDF-HFP in different weight ratios in their common solvent N, N, Dimethyl formamide (DMF) at 80°C. Blend samples of size 6 cm<sup>2</sup>, with thickness approximately 20±5 μm and of wt% compositions PVB: PVDF:: 100:0; 95:05;90:10;85:15:80:20; 85:15; and 0:100, were prepared. The prepared films were characterized by FTIR, XRD and DSC techniques for structural, morphological and miscibility studies, respectively. FTIR and XRD analysis confirms the molecular interaction between the two polymers and also the dominating presence of α-phase PVDF-HFP in blends. Studies also reveal that the crystallinity occurs in blend samples with increase of PVDF-HFP wt%. Experimental and theoretical DSC analysis exhibited single Tg and position of Tg decreases with increasing wt% of PVDF-HFP in blend sample. Different characterization in the present investigation indicates that prepared blends are compatible in selected composition range.</p> Manjula Bhumarkar, SWARNIM PATEL Copyright (c) 2021 Manjula Bhumarkar, SWARNIM PATEL https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/517 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Terahertz Characterisation of undoped and doped ZnO nanowires https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/292 <p>In recent times, many novel applications for usage in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are<br />being suggested and developed. Similarly, many novel materials are also being studied for<br />prospective applications in these areas [1]. In this context, nanostructured forms are of great<br />interest because they can provide broad spectrum of photonic characteristics [2]. However,<br />these characteristics are not very straightforward to predict. One of the interesting<br />nanomaterials that evolved recently is zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, which is a one-dimensional<br />(1D) nanostructure. However, the performance of nanomaterials-based devices are severely<br />affected by their structure. While sintered nanoparticle films may provide a more efficient<br />electron transport channel, nanowires may give a more direct connection between the source<br />of photogeneration and the conducting substrate [3]. ZnO nanowires having a hexagonal<br />wurtzite structure can be employed as a wide-band-gap semiconductor to construct dyesensitized solar cells which exhibit a wide energy bandgap of 3.45 eV and a large exciton<br />binding energy (60 meV) at room temperature. However, there are ample scopes to<br />understand the characteristics of the ZnO nanowires in order to employ it for the development<br />of various applications in the terahertz domain.<br />Therefore, in this work, we focus on the characterization of undoped zinc oxide (ZnO)<br />nanowires, 5% Ni-doped ZnO nanowires, and 5% Cu-doped ZnO nanowires at the THz<br />frequency domain [6]. Here, the nanowire samples are grown by chemical bath deposition.<br />The peak intensity, strain, crystal size, position, and width, as well as full-width at halfmaximum (FWHM) data of the nanowires are identified through XRD characterization. Further,<br />the refractive index, absorption coefficient, Optical density, and conductivity properties of<br />undoped and doped ZnO nanowires are determined by the THz- time domain spectroscopy<br />(TDS) measurements and extracted by employing the Drude-Lorentz model [4]. The<br />schematic of the THz-TDS measurements of ZnO nanoparticle-based thin films are shown in<br />figure 1A. Fig.1 B) represents the measured terahertz time-domain pulses after passing<br />through the different ZnO samples (undoped &amp; doped). These transmitted THz pulses were<br />detected in the time domain using the typical pump-probe principle.<br />Several optical parameters are extracted from these measured THz pulses. The real part of<br />the refractive index of undoped ZnO nanorods, Ni-doped ZnO nanorods, and Cu-doped ZnO<br />nanorods are fairly constant in the range 0.2-0.8 THz. The refractive index of Cu-doped ZnO<br />is greater than the Ni-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO nanowires. In the whole frequency range,<br />the real part of the refractive index of Cu-doped ZnO is higher than that of Ni-doped ZnO and<br />undoped ZnO nanowires. Also, we obtain lower absorption and less conductivity for all the<br />samples. The real and the imaginary part of conductivity is significant for the full spectral range<br />up to 0.8 THz. We observe that the 830 nm thick Cu-doped ZnO sample is much more<br />conductive than the Ni-doped ZnO (900 nm) and undoped ZnO (940nm) nanowires. Based on our present data, the optical conductivity of the samples is found to be thickness dependent,<br />at least throughout the range of this study. This is most likely due to small perturbations in the<br />deposition techniques as well as a variable ratio of bulk contributions to interface contributions<br />like surface state electrons [3]. We believe the current study will help to understand THz<br />behaviour of ZnO nanorods with different doping elements.</p> Arun Jana Copyright (c) 2021 Arun Jana https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/292 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of NiO Nano-Particles on Colossal Magneto-Resistance of La0.70Ca0.30MnO3 Composite https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1399 <p>Colossal magneto-resistive manganese oxides have gained considerable research interest due to its extra-ordinary properties, likewise very large negative magnetoresistance “called as Colossal-Magnetoresistance (CMR)”. Magneto-resistance is an important phenomenon, which is to be utilised by magnetic field sensing elements for novel technological devices. Magneto-resistance is defined as change in resistance when a conductor is placed under the application of magnetic field. The hole-doped manganites exhibit a phase transition from insulating/semiconducting-paramagnetic to conducting-ferromagnetic phase at Curie temperature along with sheer drop in resistivity [1-2]. A high efficiency magneto-resistive material should be able to respond at low magnetic field for its viability in practical applications. The introduction of secondary phase especially the insulating phase in manganite has been considered as an effective approach for engineering the grain boundaries which in-turn will enhance the low-field magnetoresistance.</p> <p>NiO is an antiferromagnetic insulator with high melting point and is considered to be a good candidate for introducing secondary phase in La<sub>0.70</sub>Ca<sub>0.30</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub>(LCMO) composite [3]. In this work, we report the synthesis of LCMO:10% NiO using conventional solid state reaction route. The observed sharp transition about metal-insulator crossover determines the sensitivity and active zone for magnetic sensors [4]<strong>. </strong>The X-ray diffractograms showed the co-existence of NiO and LCMO. The SEM micrographs revealed the segregation of NiO nanoparticles at grain boundaries or on the surface of LCMO grains which cause more scattering near grain boundaries (Figure 1a and 1b). The Resistance versus temperature measurement is done using four-probe method at 50K-350K which showed an increase in resistivity for LCMO:10%NiO and also the metal-insulator transition temperature shifted from 271 K to 193 K (Figure 1c). The NiO nanoparticles acted as a barrier to charge transport which cause an enhancement in resistivity. The magnetoresistance values of LCMO and its composite are seen to increase monotonically with the decrease in temperature. Magneto-resistance comes out to be reasonably good at 0.5, 1, and 1.5T magnetic field at low temperature and even at room temperature. Magneto resistive phenomenon is useful in spintronic devices, magnetic sensors, magnetic flux concentrator transducers, spin-polarized quasi-particles injector, uncooled IR bolometer sensors, and ferroelectric gates.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Navjyoti Boora Copyright (c) 2021 Navjyoti Boora https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1399 Wed, 06 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Thermal diffusivity measurement of MoS2 &MoS2-GO nano-composite by photoacoustic spectroscopy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2091 <p>Photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS) is a very common technique to measure the non-radiative decay. When modulated light interact with solid sample which is covered by aluminium or other metal plate, first the light is absorbed by the sample and then thermal energy emitted due to non-radiative decay. Thereafter, acoustic wave produced due to different temperature which maintain by an optical chopper. The medium inside the cavity expands or retract according to the chopper frequency. So, the generated pressure fluctuation inside it measures by using a sensitive condenser microphone which fitted inside the cavity by a narrow path. We have successfully synthesized molybdenum disulfide (MoS<sub>2</sub>) and its nanocomposite with graphene oxide (MoS<sub>2</sub>-GO) by simple hydrothermal method. The XRD and FESEM data confirm the crystal phase and morphological structure of the synthesized material. The thermal diffusivity of MoS<sub>2</sub> and MoS<sub>2</sub>-GO nanocomposite are obtained 10.94 mm<sup>2</sup>/s and 14.72 mm<sup>2</sup>/s respectively.</p> MINARUL I.SARKAR K KUMAR Copyright (c) 2021 MINARUL I.SARKAR K KUMAR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2091 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Structural, Electrical and Optical Analysis of Barium Boro-Bismuthate Glass System: Opto-Electronic Devices https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2753 <p>Heavy metal oxide glasses have an wide range of applications due to its properties such as lower phonon energy, large refraction indices in comparison to conventional glasses, transparency in middle infrared region, lasing material, up-conversion and planer optical waveguide since they have better chemical durability in comparison to other halide glasses (lower phonon energy) [1-4]. &nbsp;A composition 25BaO-30B<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-45Bi<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> has been synthesized using melt quench technique since it may have higher density, refractive index and lower phonon energy and can be used in application of opto-electronics. The prepared glass samples were characterised using Density, XRD, FTIR, Raman, Impedance, UV-Vis NIR spectroscopy and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) in order to investigate its physical, structural, electrical, optical and thermal behaviour. The density of prepared sample is of high order&nbsp; i.e. 6.51g/cc. The amorphous and glass ceramic nature of as prepared &nbsp;and annealed (at 450<sup>O</sup>C for 5 hours) sample was confirmed by presence of hump and sharp peaks in XRD profile respectively. The ordered XRD profile of annealed glass sample bear a resemblance to with recorded diffraction pattern of <strong>Bi<sub>45</sub>BO<sub>69 </sub>(</strong>common name b*-Bi<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, JCPDS card no. 42-0194) having an average crystallite size 49.83 nm. The presence of [BiO<sub>3</sub>], [BiO<sub>6</sub>], [BO<sub>4</sub>] and [BO<sub>3</sub>] structural units inside the glass matrix were identified from the analysis of FTIR spectrum and confirmed from Raman study. The semiconducting behaviour of as synthesized glass sample was depicted from impedance spectroscopy by the calculated values of dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant (ε’), dielectric loss (ε”), a.c. conductivity (σ<sub>ac</sub>) and tangent loss (tanδ). The optical bandgap of as prepared glass and annealed sample remains approximate of same order after annealing indicating transparent nature of prepared glass ceramic. The decrease in urbach energy after annealing also indicating towards decreasing disorder inside the matrix [6]. Refractive index of both glasses (as prepared and annealed) &nbsp;was also calculated and found to be almost same which reflects that annealed sample is a transparent glass ceramic. The characteristic temperatures such as glass transition temperature (<em>T<sub>g</sub></em>), crystallization onset temperature (<em>T<sub>x</sub></em>), crystallization temperature (<em>T<sub>c</sub></em>) were calculated from recorded DTA curve of glass sample.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Vikas Attri, Satish Khasa Copyright (c) 2021 Vikas Attri, Satish Khasa https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2753 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Silver doped ZnO nanoparticles for colorimetric detection of heavy metal ions in water https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/363 <p>The pollution of water is one of concerning problems in the world. There are various sources of water pollution such as sewage, waste from industries and factories, oil spills, laboratories, etc. Water pollution by heavy metal ions is very critical as it leads to dangerous diseases and effects. Various ions and compounds of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, platinum, mercury, etc. have been listed as toxic by many government institutions around the globe. These metal ions are harmful for plants, animals, and human beings. Industries have been main sources for the discharge of these heavy metal ions into the water bodies [1]. Thus, polluting rivers, streams, lakes, etc; are the major sources of water to most of the urban and rural areas in the world [2]. In addition to industries, the agricultural activities and domestic wastes also add heavy metal ions to the water [3, 4]. The heavy metals have strong affinity towards water that makes their removal from water very difficult. Moreover, the traditional filtration methods do not work effectively on heavy metal ions [5,6]. The human body does not possess any mechanism to remove these heavy metal ions. Thus, even a small trace of heavy metal ions in the body can be dangerous and lead to failure of multiple organs and nervous system. Therefore, their monitoring and detection is very important to maintain the quality of environment. Recently, researchers have focussed on developing analytical methods for heavy metal ion detection. The available heavy metal detection methods are mass spectroscopy, emission, and absorption. All these methods are performed in laboratories and are based on field sampling, which is laborious and takes huge time. Moreover, the protection and transport of sensitive samples is challenging. The colorimetric methods are more advantageous than the traditional methods [7]. In the colorimetric detection, the results can be analyzed by the naked eye or using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. Also, they have high selectivity and selectivity, high speed, easy to analyze, and are cost-effective. The application of colorimetry in heavy metal detection has gained much popularity in the last decade.<br>In this research work, we have synthesized Ag doped ZnO nanoparticles using co-precipitation method. The purpose of this experiment is to develop a new material and process it by an economical method for the colorimetric detection of heavy metal ions in water. Moreover, the real water samples have also been investigated using the synthesized nanoparticles.</p> AAMIR AHMED AAMIR AHMED Copyright (c) 2021 AAMIR AHMED AAMIR AHMED https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/363 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Co and Mn on Electronic and Magnetic properties of Ni2MnGa Heusler alloy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1152 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; The ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Ni2MnGa had been of major interest in past few years because of its magnetic properties which can be easily tuned[2, 1, 3]. Ni2MnGa heusler alloys are intermetallic alloy with L21 structure.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/karunakaran/x0y50-opt.png" alt="lattice optimization" width="201" height="151"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/karunakaran/x0y50-dos.png" alt="dos" width="189" height="142"></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;(a) Lattice optimis&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;(b) DOS</p> <p>Figure 1: Lattice optimisation and representative DOS of doped Ni2MnGa</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Here we report a detailed investigation of effect of doping of Co and Mn in Ni2MnGa. Magnetic properties and electronic structure of Ni50−xCoxMn25Ga25−yMny heusler alloys have been studied by using Green’s function based kkr-cpa method<br>based DFT calculations. We will show the magnetisation can be tuned depending on the cite Mn occupies. We will also discuss the magnetic interactions and magnetic stability of the systems.<br>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Figure (1) are from the one of the composition of Ni50−xCoxMn25Ga25−yMny (x=0,y=0.50). The first diagram explain the lattice optimisation of the compositions to find optimized lattice parameter and second one is density of states to find the properties of the material.</p> KARUNAKARAN M Copyright (c) 2021 KARUNAKARAN M https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1152 Fri, 24 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of CTAB surfactant on the various properties of CdO nanoparticles and their application in field of dye degradation https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/629 <p>Nowadays, water pollution has become a major threat for human beings. Researchers are trying to find a method to resolve this problem. Due to increasing industrialization, many types of untreated industrial wastes which contain large amount of chemicals, are contaminating our drinking water resources. Dyes originating from various industries like leather industries, Textile industries, Pharmaceutical industries etc. have become a major source in polluting the water. These dyes are carcinogenic and very hazardous for human beings as well as aquatic animals. Various methods like ion exchange, adsorption, filtration and coagulation have been used for the handling of dye waste water. Among these methods, Photocatalytic process is one of the effective processes in advanced oxidation processes<strong> [1-3]</strong>. In this process, mainly electrons and holes take part to carry the reaction <strong>[4-6]</strong> as shown in fig.1. In photocatalytic process, there are various parameters, by controlling them we can prepare desired material according to our needs. Over the last few years, CdO nanoparticles are playing crucial role in photocatalytic applications as shown in table 1. N-type nature of CdO semiconductor with an optical band gap energy of the order of 2.2 to 2.7eV, makes it suitable for photocatalytic application <strong>[7]</strong>. The small optical band gap in CdO makes it a useful photocatalyst in dye degradation in UV and visible light. But in this work, co-precipitation mechanism is used to prepare cadmium oxide nanoparticles. This method provides a simple route to prepare nanoparticles by controlling the pH and temperature of process <strong>[8-9]</strong>. It provides good yield and is less time consuming in comparison to other processes. As we know due to the small band gap in CdO, there is sudden recombination of electrons and holes produced due to irradiation by a light source. Due to sudden recombination, electrons and holes are not able to take part in chemical reaction and the efficiency of CdO in photocatalytic process is not so appreciable. In&nbsp;a previous couple of&nbsp;years,&nbsp;huge research has been&nbsp;done&nbsp;to&nbsp;discover outcomes of addition of surfactant on the various properties of nanomaterials. However, till now there are uncertainty on which parameters growth of nanoparticles depends after addition of surfactants. So, in this supportive work, the repercussions of concentration of CTAB on the numerous properties of CdO nanoparticles and how this changing concentration of CTAB affected the photocatalytic activity of the CdO nanoparticles have been reported.</p> Deepak Singhwal, Amita Khatri, Pawan S rana Copyright (c) 2021 Deepak Singhwal, Amita Khatri, Pawan S rana https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/629 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Nickel Cobalt Oxide-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite using Ammonia for Supercapacitor https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2620 <p class="Abstract" style="margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif';" lang="EN-US">NiCo<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> has been widely used as the electrode material for pseudocapacitors owing to its abundance in nature, good electrochemical and redox behaviour than Ni oxide and Co oxide [1-5]. Also, reduced graphene oxide has been explored a lot for supercapacitors because of its oxide functional groups [6]. As hybrid supercapacitors provide high energy density along with high power density, so in this work, it is decided to prepare nanocomposite of NiCo<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and reduced graphene oxide (NC-RGO) by the hydrothermal synthesis technique using ammonia as the reducing agent. Here we have synthesized nanocomposite of NiCo<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub> and reduced graphene oxide (NC-RGO) by the hydrothermal synthesis technique using ammonia as the reducing agent. We have used ammonia solution as the reducing agent for GO reduction in aqueous solvent as it is more effective and more environment friendly in comparison to hydrazine hydrate or other poisonous reducing agents [7]. We have synthesized this nanocomposite previously also by using different reducing agents [6, 8, 9]. Our aim is to find the suitable environment friendly material for supercapacitor application. As synthesized material has been characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction techniques. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the prepared precursor has been done to find the decomposition temperature. X-ray diffraction has been done to verify the phases present in the material shown in Fig.1. Also, the crystallite size has been calculated using De-bye Scherrer’s formula. The electrochemical behaviour has been studied by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge curves in two electrolytic solutions. The measurements of specific capacitance, energy density and power density have been performed in both 1 M Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and 1 M KOH aqueous electrolytic solutions.It has been observed that the material possesses higher energy density (7 W h kg<sup>-1</sup>) in 1 M Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> aqueous solution in comparison to 1 M KOH aqueous solution (0.867 W h kg<sup>-1</sup>). Such behaviour is because of larger PW exhibited by the material in 1 M Na<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> aqueous solution (1.25 V in GCD plots) than in 1 M KOH solution (0.52 V). These results may prove to be very beneficial for further research on such materials.</span></p> Poonam Siwatch, Kriti Sharma, Nirmal Manyani, S.K. Tripathi Copyright (c) 2021 Poonam Siwatch, Kriti Sharma, Nirmal Manyani, S.K. Tripathi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2620 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studies of variation in Dielectric Constant in Ca, Mg, Sm, and Gd modified Lead Titanate thin ceramics https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2729 <p>Present work is focused on the studies of the variation of Dielectric constant in Lead Titanate ceramics (PT) due to incorporation of paramagnetic rare earth (Gd), rare earth metal (Sm), and the alkali ( Ca &amp; Mg) by adopting high energy ball milling fabrication technique. High Energy Ball milling technique is reported capable of bringing the PT phase without heat treatment (Sintering) of the ceramic powder, this is found true in the case of Ca, Mg, Gd, and Sm modified PT reported in the paper here.&nbsp; Modified lead titanate termed as Pb<sub>1-</sub>xCa<sub>X</sub>TiO<sub>3</sub> , Pb<sub>1-</sub>xMg<sub>X</sub>TiO<sub>3&nbsp; </sub>Pb<sub>1-</sub>xGd<sub>X</sub>TiO<sub>3&nbsp; </sub>and Pb<sub>1-</sub>xSm<sub>X</sub>TiO<sub>3</sub> (where x stands for 1, 3, and 5 wt.%) were synthesized. A noble way of correlating the crystallite size of PT with the dopant concentration with the help of XRD angle cos θ has been discussed here. It has been found that the crystallite size depends on the valance difference between the participating ions and the interstitial distortion. Sm 5 wt% incorporation has shown an increase of 13 % in dielectric constant at the room temperature, while it shows a 22% increase in Dielectric constant at the curie temperature. The reason behind the improved dielectric constant due to Sm ion is due to the positive contribution in the polarization of the PT by the rare-earth dopant. One other finding of study worthy to mention is the distortion produced by Gd ions (Gd<sup>2+</sup>) and lead ions of the lead titanate (PbTi0<sub>3</sub>) ceramic should have been the same but because of the larger charge residing on gadolinium ion, a larger distortion is produced in lead titanate lattice compared to that produced by the calcium ion in the same lattice. The diffuse phase transition in paramagnetic rare earth Gd doped PT was found to prevail. Diffuse phase transition is the broadening of the phase transition region, this feature has benefits in several applications of the perovskite material.</p> Rohit Kumar Sinha, Sanjay Kumar Sinha, Sona Kumari, Rajiv Kumar, Amit Sinha Copyright (c) 2021 Rohit Kumar Sinha, Sanjay Kumar Sinha, Sona Kumari, Rajiv Kumar, Amit Sinha https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2729 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Structure optimization and electronic properties of Co2TiX(X=Si,Ge) heusler alloys: A DFT study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/922 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>A theoretical study of structural, electronic, magnetic, mechanical and vibrational properties of Co-based heusler alloys, namely Co<sub>2</sub>TiX(X=Si,Ge); have been studied by the first principle calculations with the Generalized Gradient approximation(GGA)[1] based on Density functional theory(DFT). The total spin magnetic moments per unit cell is 2µ<sub>B</sub>, obeying the Slater-Pauling rule[2]. The electronic band structure along the high symmetry points reveal that majority spin states have metallic character and minority spin states have a band gap at the Fermi level. The electronic band structure shows that these alloys have half-metallic character with narrow band gaps of 0.72 Ev and 0.53 eV for Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi and Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe in minority spin states. To study the spin- polarized band structure we calculated the total DOS are shown in fig 1. a and b.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/preetibiban/mceclip0.png"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/preetibiban/mceclip1.png"></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Fig 1. Density of states(DOS) for the Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi and Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe</p> <p>From electronic band structure we found a indirect band gap lies from valence band maxima at Γ and conduction band minima at X. Computed values of bulk modulus and young’s modulus are higher which states that these materials are hard. Pugh’s ratio value greater than 1.75 idicates the ductile nature of the Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi and Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe. Poisson’s ratio indicates these materials are less compressible. Positive value of Cauchy pressure reflects the Co<sub>2</sub>TiX(X = Si, Ge) has metallic bonding with ductile nature.The calculated value of elastic constants verify the Born-Hung stability criteria[3].</p> <p><strong>Table 1</strong></p> <p>The computed values of Elastic constants, Shear modulus(G), Young’s modulus(E), Pugh’s ratio(B/G), Poisson’s ratio(ʋ), Frantsevich ratio(G/B).</p> <p>&nbsp; Alloys&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; C<sub>11 </sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;C<sub>12</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; C<sub>44</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; G&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; E&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; B/G&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ʋ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; G/B&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 286.38&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 159.75&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 126.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 95.98&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 248.51&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2.11&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.294&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.47&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 247.29&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 155.41&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 110.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 77.55&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 204.09&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2.39&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.315&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.42&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>There are no imaginary phonon mode which illustrate the dynamical stability. The Bulk modulus, pressure derivative of the bulk modulus, young’s modulus, shear modulus, Pugh’s ratio,Frantsevich ratio,Cauchy pressure, average velocity, shear velocity, compressional velocity, Debye temperature in accordance with the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation[4][5].</p> <p><strong>Table 2</strong></p> <p>The computed values of Cauchy pressure, Debye temperature(Ө<sub>D</sub>), Average velocity(V<sub>m</sub>), Shear velocity(v<sub>s</sub>), Compressional velocity(v<sub>l</sub>)</p> <p>&nbsp; Alloys&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; C<sub>p </sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Ө<sub>D</sub>(K)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; V<sub>m</sub>(m/s)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; v<sub>s</sub>(m/s)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; v<sub>l</sub>(m/s)</p> <p>&nbsp; Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 32.95&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;543.74&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 4167.223&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3765.010&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 6980.200</p> <p>&nbsp; Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 45.31&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 443.79&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3457.560&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3127.581&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 6042.268&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The elastic constant(C<sub>11,</sub> C<sub>12, </sub>C<sub>44</sub>) results show that these alloys are mechanically stable. Our calculation results indicates that Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi and Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe are promising for spintronics application.</p> PREETI ALHAN, Suresh Kumar, Ranjan Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 PREETI ALHAN, Ranjan Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/922 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Binder-free MnO2 Electrodes for Supercapacitor Applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1665 <p>Concerns over the depletion of fossil fuels, as well as the resulting environmental challenges, have pushed towards the evolution of renewable energy sources (such as solar, wind, water, and waves) in recent decades [1]. However, because of the intermittent and variable nature of these sources, the technology of energy storage (ES) is in increasing demand for portable electric devices and hybrid electric vehicles [2]. Two of the most appealing electrochemical energy storage (EES) devices that have been extensively researched in the past are batteries and supercapacitors. The batteries alone could not meet the power requirements due to the long charging time and short device life. Supercapacitors, with high power density (&gt; 10 kW/kg) and cyclic stability (&gt; 10,000 cycles), are most attractive for energy storage applications [3]. However, the poor energy storage capability of these super-capacitive devices is a significant drawback which is not the case for batteries. So, there is an obvious requirement for such energy storage materials that can accomplish both the high energy density of batteries and the high power density of supercapacitors at the same time. The growing research indicates that pseudo-capacitive materials can achieve this goal due to battery-like redox processes occurring at the rates equivalent to double-layer formation as in the case of capacitors [4] Manganese oxide (MnO<sub>2</sub>) is one of the promising pseudocapacitive materials due to its several different oxidation states that makes Mn extremely redox-active so it has high theoretical capacitance (1370 F g<sup>−1</sup>) and exhibit wide positive potential window [5]. So, in this direction, we have synthesized the electrode material of MnO<sub>2</sub> via electrodeposition method for supercapacitor application. The approach used for the fabrication of electrodes is binder-free which improved the electrochemical properties of the material to large extent. The time for which material is deposited on the substrate is varied and the corresponding results are obtained for each electrode. The deposition time is taken as 5, 10 and 15 minutes. The structure and morphology of the material are investigated using XRD and SEM respectively. The electrochemical properties are explored by using the CHI60E workstation for Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Galvanostatic Charge Discharge (GCD) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). We optimized that the better charge storage property is exhibited by the electrode for which deposition time is 10 minutes. We have encapsulated the specific capacitance calculated from GCD in table 1. As seen from the table, although the specific capacitance value is higher for the 15 minute electrode at low current density but its value decreases when the current density is increased. The decrease is large in case of 15 minute electrode when compared with the 10 minute electrode. At high scan rate, it is not possible for the ions to access all the active sites of the material and hence the capacitance decreases. The good charge storing capability for the electrode of 10 minute deposition time can also be understood through the SEM image shown in fig 1(A) which clearly indicating the nanoplatelets-like morphology along with some porous structure that provided various accommodation sites for the charge storage. The CV and GCD curves for the same electrode are shown in fig 1(B) and 1(C). By analyzing the shape of CV curves, one can determine whether the material is exhibiting battery type or supercapacitor type behaviour but the most convenient way is to examine the power law relationship, i.e., i<sub>p </sub>= av<sup>b</sup> where i<sub>p</sub> is peak current at a fixed potential and ‘v’ is the scan rate. For batteries, the ‘b’ value is, 0.5 where the intercalation of metal ions in active material is limited by a diffusion process, while in the case of supercapacitors, the peak current varies linearly with scan rate, which represent a fast surface controlled Faraday process. The GCD curves exhibit the linear increase/decrease in the charge/discharge voltage with time, indicating the supercapacitive nature in contrast to batteries which exhibit constant voltage during charge/discharge process. Therefore, based on the electrochemical performance, binder free MnO<sub>2</sub> electrodes are ideally suitable for electrochemical energy storage applications.</p> Sunaina Copyright (c) 2021 Sunaina https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1665 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dielectric and conductivity studies of NASICON type Na3Zr2Si2PO12 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1053 <p>The NASICON-type Na3Zr2Si2PO12 material is prepared successfully by the solid-state reaction method. The Rietveld analysis confirms the NASICON phase formation. The d. c. resistivity shows the highly resistive nature of the NASICON sample. The resistivity data are fitted using the Arrhenius and NNH model. The dielectric constant increase with increase in temperature. The a. c. conductivity is increases with temperature. These results indicate that NASICON materials can be a good electrolyte for the battery application.</p> RAMCHARAN MEENA Copyright (c) 2021 RAMCHARAN MEENA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1053 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Frequency dependent dielectric properties of SnO2/TiO2 composite thin films deposited by PLD technique https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1745 <p>In the rapidly increasing filed of science and technology, Semiconductor oxide materials have<br>been extensively studied in various forms such as bulk, thin film, polycrystalline powder,<br>nanomaterial and composite. Out of all these forms, composite materials have great<br>importance because of their electrical, magnetic, chemical, optical and dielectric properties<br>which allow their large number of potential applications, particularly in the field of materials<br>science [1]. In last few decades, much attention has been paid to the manufacture of tailored<br>thin films because of its highly specific properties, such as high resistivity, heat reflectivity,<br>catalytic behaviour and, photo thermal or photovoltaic</p> Rashmi Kajal Copyright (c) 2021 Rashmi Kajal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1745 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Thermal degradation process and kinetics of Gelatin/HAP composites https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2419 <p>Hydroxyapatite (HAP) based biopolymer composite have received wide attention in biomedical applications, thanks to its outstanding osteo conductivity and bonding efficiency with surrounding tissues without causing any toxic effects [1]. Among the various bio-polymeric systems, Gelatin, the partial derivative of collagen has been widely employed in making composite structures due to its excellent biocompatibility and biodegradation characteristics. HAP loaded gelatin composites is a potential candidate for biomedical applications such as bone regeneration as it offset certain demerits viz., low fracture stiffness and fragility of the pure HAP [2]. In addition, it also confers damage tolerance to the bones, regulating the deposition kinetics of the amorphous calcium phosphate and its microstructure [3].&nbsp; Doping of metal ions in the HAP and the subsequent preparation of gelatin/HAP composites may also render upsurge in the required property enhancements [4]. Owing to its porous structure, gelatin/HAP composites has also been considered as the novel biomaterial for controlled release of the biomolecules and drugs. However, the controlled release of drug or biomolecules are severely limited by its water uptake efficiency as well as its degradation [5]. Understanding the degradation kinetics of the gelatin/HAP composites paves a way to engineer the composites for desired applications [6]. In the present work, gelatin/HAP composites with/without metal-ion doping has been prepared and subjected to thermal degradation studies using thermogravimetric analysis under nitrogen environment to understand its degradation kinetics. The results indicated that the thermal degradation of both HAP composite system follows single step degradation process and the degradation temperature increases linearly with the heating rate. To ascertain the mechanism of degradation, activation energies of the degradation at various degree of conversion are calculated using various kinetic models including Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method and these values are compared with the kinetic energy values obtained through Coats-Redfern method. The breakdown mechanism of gelatin/HAP composites follows sigmoidal type kinetics, whereas doping metal ions in HAP in the composite system results in deceleration type kinetics, according to our findings.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Index Terms</strong>: - Gelatin/HAP, Metal-ion, Thermal degradation and Kinetics.</p> Thiyagarajan Purushotham Copyright (c) 2021 Thiyagarajan Purushotham https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2419 Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Structure optimization and electronic properties of Co2TiX(X=Si,Ge) heusler alloys: A DFT study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/645 <p>A theoretical study of structural, electronic, magnetic, mechanical and vibrational properties of Co-based heusler alloys, namely Co<sub>2</sub>TiX(X=Si,Ge); have been studied by the first principle calculations with the Generalized Gradient approximation(GGA)[1] based on Density functional theory(DFT). The total spin magnetic moments per unit cell is 2µ<sub>B</sub>, obeying the Slater-Pauling rule[2]. The electronic band structure along the high symmetry points reveal that majority spin states have metallic character and minority spin states have a band gap at the Fermi level. The electronic band structure shows that these alloys have half-metallic character with narrow band gaps of 0.72 Ev and 0.53 eV for Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi and Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe in minority spin states. To study the spin- polarized band structure we calculated the total DOS are shown in fig 1. a and b.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/preetibiban/mceclip0.png"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/preetibiban/mceclip1.png"></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Fig 1. Density of states(DOS) for the Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi and Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe</p> <p>From electronic band structure we found a indirect band gap lies from valence band maxima at Γ and conduction band minima at X. Computed values of bulk modulus and young’s modulus are higher which states that these materials are hard. Pugh’s ratio value greater than 1.75 idicates the ductile nature of the Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi and Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe. Poisson’s ratio indicates these materials are less compressible. Positive value of Cauchy pressure reflects the Co<sub>2</sub>TiX(X = Si, Ge) has metallic bonding with ductile nature.The calculated value of elastic constants verify the Born-Hung stability criteria[3].</p> <p><strong>Table 1</strong></p> <p>The computed values of Elastic constants, Shear modulus(G), Young’s modulus(E), Pugh’s ratio(B/G), Poisson’s ratio(ʋ), Frantsevich ratio(G/B).</p> <p>&nbsp; Alloys&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; C<sub>11 </sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;C<sub>12</sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; C<sub>44</sub> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; G&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; E&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; B/G&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ʋ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; G/B&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 286.38&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 159.75&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 126.8&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 95.98&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 248.51&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2.11&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.294&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.47&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 247.29&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 155.41&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 110.1&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 77.55&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 204.09&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2.39&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.315&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 0.42&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>There are no imaginary phonon mode which illustrate the dynamical stability. The Bulk modulus, pressure derivative of the bulk modulus, young’s modulus, shear modulus, Pugh’s ratio,Frantsevich ratio,Cauchy pressure, average velocity, shear velocity, compressional velocity, Debye temperature in accordance with the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation[4][5].</p> <p><strong>Table 2</strong></p> <p>The computed values of Cauchy pressure, Debye temperature(Ө<sub>D</sub>), Average velocity(V<sub>m</sub>), Shear velocity(v<sub>s</sub>), Compressional velocity(v<sub>l</sub>)</p> <p>&nbsp; Alloys&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; C<sub>p </sub>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Ө<sub>D</sub>(K)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; V<sub>m</sub>(m/s)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; v<sub>s</sub>(m/s)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; v<sub>l</sub>(m/s)</p> <p>&nbsp; Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 32.95&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;543.74&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 4167.223&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3765.010&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 6980.200</p> <p>&nbsp; Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 45.31&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 443.79&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3457.560&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3127.581&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 6042.268&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The elastic constant(C<sub>11,</sub> C<sub>12, </sub>C<sub>44</sub>) results show that these alloys are mechanically stable. Our calculation results indicates that Co<sub>2</sub>TiSi and Co<sub>2</sub>TiGe are promising for spintronics application.</p> PREETI ALHAN Copyright (c) 2021 PREETI ALHAN https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/645 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation on the structural and magnetic characteristics of Cr doped SmMnO3 Perovskite structure https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1623 <p>The family of orthochromates, orthoferrites, and orthomanganites are proved as a potential material in the field of multiferroic and spintronic device applications. In which orthochromates are said to fall under the group of rare-earth (R) transition metal (M) orthorhombic perovskite-structured materials. They exhibit hybrid tendency of insulator and ferromagnetism. The orthorhombic perovskite structure made these compounds to inculcate temperature-dependent magnetization along with metal–insulator transition. The coupling between ferromagnetic and insulating property in these compounds is because of having complex spin-charge interplay. This complex interplay will create lattice deformation resulting in an exhibition of ferromagnetism with insulating behaviour [1]. The structural distortion, caused by a mismatch of ionic radii, indicates the tilting of MnO<sub>6</sub> octahedra. Similarly, the asymmetry between bonds of Mn and O contributes to the genesis of Jahn–Teller effect. These two reasons form the backbone for structural distortion, which influences the magnetic and insulating properties of these types of compounds. One of the quantitative ways of measuring the lattice distortion is by deriving the Goldschmidt tolerance factor (<em>t</em><sub>g</sub>). The minimum tolerance factor or the reduction in the size of rare-earth cation advantages for the origination of multiferroic behaviour in RMnO<sub>3</sub> compounds. For the last decade, many temperature-dependent magnetic studies were done on samarium-based perovskite manganites. The present study further correlated the observation of the anomalous temperature-dependent magnetic behaviour with the magnetic ordering below tolerance temperature. Most of the studies on samarium manganite observed typical magnetic behaviour with first-order phase transition. But it is also found that the double-exchange interaction between Mn<sup>3+</sup> and Cr<sup>3+</sup> caused the coupling of electric with magnetic properties in lanthanum manganite compounds [2]. In this work, a conventional solid-state reaction method was used to prepare SmMn<sub>1-x</sub>Cr<sub>X</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>(x=0.3 and x=0.6) microcrystals. The prepared materials, by different amount of Cr doped (x= 0, 0.3 and 0.6) perovskite SmMn<sub>1-x</sub>Cr<sub>x</sub>O<sub>3,</sub> are subject to investigate on structural, morphological and magnetic properties. The structural analysis confirmed all the prepared materials are polycrystalline in nature with orthorhombic structure. The effect of tolerance factor and John teller distortion were analysed from Rietveld refinement analysis. The surface morphology, particle size, and distribution were estimated using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic behaviour of SmMn<sub>1-x</sub>Cr<sub>X</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>(x=0.3, 0.6) microcrystals possesses antiferromagnetic nature and it was confirmed using temperature dependence and field dependence of magnetic measurements.</p> <p><strong>Fig. 1. (a</strong>) and<strong> b) </strong>Shows the diffraction pattern and crystal structure of SmMnO<sub>3</sub> matched that of pure SmMnO<sub>3</sub> microcrystals. The experimental diffraction patterns were analysed using Rietveld fitting by GSAS software. The Rietveld refinement reported the positioning of Sm, Mn and O ions corresponding to positions of A, B, and O respectively, as provided in Table .1. It is also reported that the existing structure belongs to the <em>P<sub>nma</sub></em> space group. The refinement analysis was found to be consistent with the Goldschmidt tolerance factor (<em>t</em>) [3].</p> <p>Here, the average ionic radii of samarium (<em>r</em><sub>A</sub>), Manganese (<em>r</em><sub>B</sub>), Chromium (<em>r</em><sub>B</sub>), and Oxygen ions (<em>r</em><sub>o</sub>). From the tolerance factor, the local microscopic distortion of the prepared microparticles from the ideal perovskite structure can be determined. The diffraction pattern was refined using the pseudo-Voigt function. The other parameters like scale factor, zero shifting factor, three cell parameters, one global thermal factor, and two asymmetric factors were inserted. The weighted profile factor <em>R</em><sub>wp</sub>, the goodness of fit χ<sup>2</sup><sub>,</sub> and the difference between the calculated and observed profiles were evaluated at each refinement cycle to determine the refinement quality. The final refinement obtained was in good agreement with each other and all observed peaks have been indexed. The calculated results are shown in Table. 1 that displays both the lattice parameters (a, b, c) and unit cell volume having a monotonous decrease with increasing Cr content.</p> SATHISHKUMAR Copyright (c) 2021 SATHISHKUMAR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1623 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness and Dielectric Response of PVDF-TiO2 Nanocomposites Thin Films. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1990 <p>In today’s life, the use of electronic devices has increased enormously which absorb and radiate electromagnetic waves affecting the performance of associated electronic circuits. Most of the electromagnetic radiations absorbed by the human body lead to different health issues [1,2]. Recently, electromagnetic interference has become an important issue to deal with and there is a scope to develop an efficient shielding material contributing to the electromagnetic interference- Shielding effectiveness (EMI-SE) applications. This research work is an attempt to develop ferroelectric polymer Poly-vinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-Titanium dioxide (TiO<sub>2</sub>) nanocomposites as an EMI shielding material. One of the important factors for efficient EMI-SE for the material is to have high dielectric constant. The pure PVDF with b phase has acquired importance due to the existence of stable crystalline forms with required dielectric property. PVDF and PVDF-TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposite thin films were prepared using the solution casting method. Commercially available PVDF polymers were used for thin film preparation. TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles were prepared by chemical combustion method using urea as a fuel. The size of the synthesized TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles measured using a particle size analyser is found to be ~ 42 nm. The different stoichiometric ratios of TiO<sub>2</sub> (2, 4, 6, 8,10wt%) as fillers in the PVDF matrix were dispersed to get PVDF-TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposite thin films. The synthesized PVDF-TiO<sub>2</sub> nanocomposite thin films were characterised by Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The vector network analyser (Copper Mountain Technologies, USA; Model: 804/1; Frequency range (300kHz-8GHz) and LCR meter (HIOKI Japan, model- IM3536, in the frequency range 10Hz to 8MHz) were used to study EMI-SE and dielectric response respectively. The addition of the nanoparticles to the PVDF polymer has varied the EMI shielding and dielectric properties of nanocomposite thin films. The EMI-SE (Fig 1) shows up and down valleys in S-Band with an average variation of ~28% and&nbsp; ~35% around 2GHz and 4GHz respectively and stable in C-Band agreeing with existing literature [3, 4]. Further, EMI-SE decreases with an increase in wt% of TiO<sub>2</sub> fillers in PVDF matrix. The dielectric constant of PVDF-TiO<sub>2 </sub>nanocomposite thin films decreases with increase in frequency in the range below VHF in agreement with Maxwell – Wagner type of erfacial polarization in accordance with Koop’s phenomenological theory and anomaly at 10wt% of TiO<sub>2</sub> fillers in PVDF matrix (Fig 2). The observed variations in EMI-SE and dielectric constant with frequency are discussed in terms of the dynamics of domain switching.</p> Khadke Udaykumar Copyright (c) 2021 Khadke Udaykumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1990 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Topological transmissions in terahertz valley photonic crystals https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/213 <p>In recent years, topological photonic systems have garnered a lot of attention owing to their robust behaviour in the presence of defects and disorders, which could be exploited for applications such as backscattering-free waveguides, splitters, slow light devices, etc [1-3]. Although numerous investigations have been reported using microwave [4] and optical systems [5], there is still a lack of research using terahertz (THz) photonic systems [6, 7]. THz photonic systems have huge potential in the field of high-speed communication and information transfer [6]. But, the performance of these systems is limited by challenges such as loss and signal distortion resulting from back-reflections at sharp corners, lack of easily integrable systems, etc. THz topological photonic systems could overcome these challenges and pave the way in realizing integrable devices for 6G mobile communication and several other applications. &nbsp;</p> <p>Therefore, we investigate robust THz transmissions in a valley photonic crystal (VPC). Here, we examine the role of asymmetry in the robust characteristics of THz topological edge modes in an all dielectric VPC with a nontrivial topology [7]. THz topological edge modes are excited through a zigzag domain boundary formed at the interface of two kinds of nontrivial VPCs with different band topologies. The proposed THz VPC is made up of air patterned on a Si slab (<sub>r</sub> =11.56) with height <em>‘h’</em> on the top of a substrate (<sub>r</sub> = 2.1). Figure 1(a) shows the proposed topological VPC, where the red dashed line represents the honeycomb lattice while the black solid line denotes the zigzag domain boundary. The proposed unit cell consists of two cylindrical air holes with diameters <em>d<sub>1</sub> </em>and <em>d<sub>2</sub></em> and lattice constant ‘a’ is depicted in Fig. 1(b). A parameter defined as) represents the asymmetry in the structure.</p> <p>For our analysis, we consider <em>a</em> = 250, <em>h</em> = 220&nbsp;while <em>d<sub>1</sub> </em>and <em>d<sub>2</sub></em> can vary from 20 &nbsp;to 110. The band structure has a degeneracy at K (K’) points when &nbsp;(standard honeycomb lattice with C<sub>6</sub> symmetry) which is lifted by changing the diameter of one air hole while fixing the diameter of the other hole in the VPC unit cell ). Due to the introduction of this asymmetry, the C<sub>6</sub> symmetry of the VPC transforms to a C<sub>3</sub> symmetry, ultimately lifting the degeneracy at <em>f </em>= 0.336 THz. Figure 1(c) illustrates the band structures for TE mode for the case of , &nbsp;. Here, it is noteworthy to mention that signs of C<sub>V </sub>for VPC-I and VPC-II are non-zero and opposite to each other [6]. Consequently, THz topological edge modes excitation is guaranteed by the bulk-edge correspondence principle in the VPC structure.</p> <p>To examine the role played by asymmetry in the robust behaviour of THz topological edge modes, we vary the parameter &nbsp;for a straight and an -type domain boundary. For lower asymmetry values (i.e., 0.04a, 0.12a and 0.2a in our analysis) it is observed that the edge states suffer large scattering close to the domain boundary of the VPC. The presence of a narrow bulk bandgap at lower asymmetry causes intervalley scattering within the bands of the VPC. This leads to weakly guided edge modes at the domain boundaries for lower values of . However, it is observed that the robustness of the edge modes increases with increasing asymmetry. When &nbsp;increases, the edge modes shift away from the bulk bands and towards the middle of the bulk bandgap, which causes an increase in the confinement of the edge modes within the domain boundary of the VPC (see Fig. 1(d)). The robust behaviour of the edge modes is also attributed to the increase of the bulk bandgap of the VPC with increasing, reaching close to 10% for &nbsp;= 0.28a. The large bandgap at &nbsp;assures a complete suppression of the intervalley scattering in the VPC, ultimately leading to a robust guiding of the THz topological edge modes within the domain boundary. As a result, a robust transport of THz topological edge modes is achieved even when sharp corners/bends are present in the domain boundary. The THz transmission and Electric field confinement corresponding to &nbsp;is illustrated in Figs. 1(f) to (1(g). The most robust THz transport and the highest confinement of THz topological edge modes are achieved when . Such comprehensive study can be beneficial for realizing loss-free waveguides for 6G mobile communication and several other integrated devices at THz frequencies. &nbsp;</p> Koijam Monika Devi, Sambhu Jana, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2021 Koijam Monika Devi, Sambhu Jana, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/213 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Dissociation temperatures and suppression study of the bottomonium states for the LHC energy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1240 <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0.64cm; margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en-US">We revisited the suppression study of the bottomonium states using modified form of the Cornell potential [1] as suppression is known for the long time as the signatures for the existence of the quark gluon plasma [2]. We have employed the quasiparticle Debye mass for obtaining the binding energies and the dissociation temperature for three flavor quarks. The binding energy and dissociation temperatures thus obtained have been further used to deduce the suppression of the Bottomonium states. Finally, a significant comparison has been made between the theoretical results and experimental data for the various energy scales of LHC in Pb-Pb collisions and there is good agreement between the two. </span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid0.png" name="Picture" width="268" height="246" border="0" align="bottom"><span style="color: #222222;"> <img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid1.png" name="Image1" width="248" height="247" border="0" align="bottom"></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fig 1.</span></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en-US"> The variation of the <img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid2.png" hspace="8" align="absmiddle">integrated survival probability versus N for<img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid3.png" name="Object1" hspace="8" align="absmiddle"> at various energy scale with preliminary CMS data [3]. </span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" lang="en-US" align="justify"><br><br></p> Siddhartha solanki Copyright (c) 2021 Siddhartha solanki https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1240 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Assessment on Earthquake Precursory Signals for Applications of Monitoring and Mitigation Strategies https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/761 <p>The catastrophic magnitude of life and monetary losses caused by earthquakes requires significant<br>consideration and mitigating strategies. Several studies in recent decades have reported several<br>possible earthquake precursors, including anomalies in the electric field, magnetic field, radon<br>emissions, ionospheric signals, ground water level, land surface temperature, surface<br>deformations, animal behavior, thermal infrared signals, atmospheric gravity waves, and lightning.<br>A large number of scientific articles identified abnormal signals which cannot be ignored without<br>careful consideration. It’s widely varied arriving times and amplitudes of the anomalies are really<br>a broad subject of concern, raising doubts on its widespread acceptance as earthquake signals.<br>However, subsequent earthquake precursory research should focus on such a unified theory that<br>also identifies the physical source for all of such abnormalities, and yet also streamlines their<br>characterization approach. Predicting earthquakes depends on the presence of time-varying<br>processes that are based on changing environments deep underneath the Earth's mantle before of<br>significant seismic events. Such activities can be linked in either a linear or non-linear approach.<br>Seismology research has typically focused on mechanical variables such as precursory ground<br>deformation. The review article means recognizing that there have been numerous reports from<br>many types of precursory phenomena ranging from emission of electromagnetic waves from<br>ultralow frequency (ULF) to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light, electric field and<br>magnetic field anomalies of various kinds, all the way to unusual animal behavior, that has been<br>reported previously. These precursory signals are irregular but do not seem to occur consistently<br>before each major earthquake, therefore reports on pre-earthquake signals are not widely accepted<br>by the earth sciences community as whole no one has ever been prepared to describe its genesis.<br>Furthermore, they observe certain significant concentration of electron density and magnetic<br>anomalies from more than 12 weeks to several days before the earthquakes. In general, such<br>anomaly cluster shows statistical significant compared with homogenous chance simulation,<br>indicating an LAIC during in the earthquake preparation phase. Several instances of physical-based precursors were shown, such as radon in soil, water level, air temperature changes, VHF signals, thermal long-wave radiation, GPS/TEC, and animal behaviour. The detection of<br>precursors of severe earthquakes is a difficult scientific topic. It has recently been observed that<br>severe earthquakes impact electron distribution in the nearby ionosphere, resulting in indirectly</p> <p>visible changes in GPS signal ionosphere delays. The total electron content (TEC) derived from<br>GPS data, in particular, can be used in the detection of seismic precursors for major earthquakes.</p> Saima Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2021 Saima Siddiqui https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/761 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Electromagnetic Field Analysis of a Film Imitating the Green lacewing wings https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1621 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Insects possess a variety of functions, and some functions have been studied, too date. In particular, it was revealed that microstructures on the wings of cicadas and dragonflies, have various functions, such as anti-reflectivity and water repellence. We are focusing on the microstructure of green lacewing wing. We previously found that the wings of a green lacewing have numerous microscopic protuberances, mainly composed of oil and fat, which prevent the reflection of light, revealed by a spectroscopic experiment and a transfer matrix method [1]. However, it is still unclear how light travels through the wings of a green lacewing.</p> <p>In this study, we used the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method, a computational method based on Maxwell's equations, to calculate the behavior of light. A software Open-FDTD Version 2.6.0 was used for the calculations.</p> <p>&nbsp;FDTD simulation results indicated that the surface protuberances of a green lacewing wing increased and decreased the intensity of the transmitted and reflected light, respectively, which was an antireflection behavior [2]. This is a good agreement with our previous study.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/21521224/the-maximum-value-of-e-emax-at-transmitted-and-reflected-xy-planes-respectively.png" alt="(a and b) The maximum value of E (Emax) at transmitted and reflected xy planes, respectively." width="878" height="469"></p> Yuro Katsurashima, Leona Tkahashi, Izumi Nishio, Kazunari Yoshida Copyright (c) 2021 Yuro Katsurashima https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1621 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Free electron-Ion Interaction and its effect on Output current of Permeable Exchanging Membrane Hydrogen Fuel https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/814 <p>The objective of this work is to study the quantum phenomena of green future energy Permeable exchanging membrane of Hydrogen fuel cell. This work is beneficial to the different field like physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology because it remove and give the information related to quantum phenomena like interaction of free electron with electrodes for current production. Lee at al., [1] used quantum physics to study energy eigenvalue, the wave function for one to many-body systems. For N electrons and K nuclei system, Hamiltonian operators with the help of equation (1) can be represented as</p> <p>Here, &nbsp;is the mass of the electron, &nbsp;is position of &nbsp;electron, &nbsp;is position of electron,&nbsp; &nbsp;is the mass of the nucleus, &nbsp;is the position of nucleus, and &nbsp;is the position of the nucleus &nbsp;[2]. Here, the first two is the kinetic energy of &nbsp;electron and &nbsp;nucleus, the third term is electron-electron potential energy, the fourth is term corresponds to the electron-nuclei potential energy, the fifth is nucleus-nucleus electron potential energy. SE only give an exact solution for hydrogen atom but for larger systems, it gives approximately.</p> <p>So, the best method and wisely acceptable approximation are the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. This approximation method is used to study the ionized electron with the interaction of the nucleus of hydrogen and Platinum which is one of the objective statements of this work. Since there are many theories and its solution to solve the many body problem but till knows the exact solution is missing and numbers of work is going on for searching the exact solution and energy Eigen value for many body system. In this work, we introduce many body problem because electrode is surrounded by numbers of free ionized electron whose interaction effect the IV characteristic of fuel cell. This is a hypothesis of that authors are try and study and solve.</p> <p>To solve such problem authors are using Mathematical Approximation like Hatree approximation and Hohenberg and Kohn [3]. The correlation and exchange function is defined for many-body interaction system as&nbsp;</p> <p>Now the total energy functional from the above equation can be obtained as</p> <p>As fuel come to contact with anode and cathodes the current is produced in cell is described by the Butler-Volmer equation [4],</p> <p>Here, &nbsp;is the exchange current density, &nbsp;transfer coefficients for the anodic reaction, &nbsp;transfer coefficients for the cathodic reaction, and V<sub>o</sub> is the overpotential to derive the reaction [5]. Equation (4) gives the output current from fuel cell and it goes effected by electron-electron, electron-ion and ion–ion interaction whose detail should be studies in final paper. The current-voltage relation finally from the above equations with &nbsp;is expressed as,</p> <p>Equation (5) is used to study or prediction of voltage versus current density for fuel cells operating at 80<sup>O</sup>C in an H<sub>2</sub>/O<sub>2</sub> saturated environment. Since current is assumed as effected by electron-electron, electron-ion, and ion-ion interaction therefore voltage is also effected as shown in equation (5). On combining equation (4) and (5) on solving we get power of fuel cell as,</p> <p>Equation (6) give the detail of output power of fuel cell and it also depend upon the interaction of electrons and ions. These type of interaction was not studies before either theoretically or experimentally. The study of theoretical and computational work help experimental studies of interaction of electrons and ions which surround the electrodes with fuels (hydrogen).</p> <p>This technology (Permeable Exchanging membrane Hydrogen Fuel cell) is green technology which eco-friendly to environment, soil, society and all living creatures. The fuel is easily produced and available instead of certain difficulties like storage and costly. This study is important globally because there is no such type of technology till now which are better than Permeable exchange membrane hydrogen fuel cell. The interaction of electron with ions of this work change the concept of electric current measurement and study quantum phenomena where free electron are used to produce current. If we understand the quantum phenomena of free electron and ions with electron one can extracted the current from free electrons and ions present in atmosphere which is and amazing, free energy access and lifelong green energy as this fuel cell technology. This quantum phenomena and interaction studies fulfil the future demand of energy eco-friendly.</p> <p><strong>Fig.1.</strong> I-V Characteristic of ideal Permeable Exchanging Membrane Hydrogen Fuel Cell</p> <p>The Fig.1 combine represent the power and voltage nature of fuel cell with current density. This depends up on the interaction of ion, electrons, selection elements or material used for fuel cell technology. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Saddam Dhobi Copyright (c) 2021 Saddam Dhobi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/814 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 HIGH DENSITY AND THERMAL STABILTY OF VANADIUM DOPED GLASS MATERIAL FOR OPTICAL BANDPASS FILTER https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/972 <p>A transition metal doped glass material is prepared&nbsp; by&nbsp; varying the concentration of Vanadium&nbsp; along with Lithium carbonate with a novel chemical composition by melt quench method . The density&nbsp; and refractive index of the material&nbsp; for the highest dopent 1 mol %&nbsp; is&nbsp; 3.6666 gm/cc&nbsp; and 1.5620 respectively, which resolves as highly significat material for optical application.&nbsp;&nbsp; The&nbsp;&nbsp; glass&nbsp; melting temperature&nbsp; (T<sub>g</sub>) of the investigationg glass is&nbsp; 808.09 <sup>0</sup>C and Hruby’s Criteria value&nbsp; (K<sub>H</sub>) is&nbsp; 0.2565 which infer&nbsp; the stability of&nbsp; the glass material.&nbsp; The&nbsp; Vickers microhardness&nbsp; increased as the dopent is increased for the load 50g and 100g, but for 200g the hardness value decreased.&nbsp; The coefficient of&nbsp; friction values&nbsp; decreased from 0.632 to 0.002 ,&nbsp; Specific Wear rate&nbsp; increased&nbsp; from&nbsp; 6.64 x 10 <sup>-5</sup> &nbsp;&nbsp;to 39.06 x 10 <sup>-5</sup> &nbsp;mm<sup>3</sup>/N-m&nbsp; and&nbsp; specific wear energy&nbsp; decreased from 22.44 to 0.81 MJ/g as the load on the material incrased from 10 N to 30 N. Optial absorption of the material&nbsp; for highest dopant&nbsp;&nbsp; in visible region is&nbsp;&nbsp; 548 nm&nbsp; and Infra-red region is 738 nm. The direct and indire band gap of the present investigating material for the&nbsp; highest dopant&nbsp; are&nbsp; 2.03eV and 1.88 eV respectively, which reveal semiconductor&nbsp; nature of the sample. Optical transmission represent the utility of the material as band pass filter as an&nbsp; optical application&nbsp; in visible region at415.33 nm and 417 nm with Full wave half maximum width&nbsp;&nbsp; (FWHW)&nbsp; 0.35 nm and 1.22 nm for highest dopant sample.</p> modem sreenivasulu Copyright (c) 2021 modem sreenivasulu https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/972 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dielectric and Electrical Properties across various faces of MAPbBr3 Single Crystals Synthesised by Low Temperature Method https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1776 <p>Halide perovskite single crystals show promising properties for optoelectronic devices such as lasing, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells. It is because of their tunable optical properties, long carrier lifetime, high mobility, and low cost. &nbsp;On this front, halide perovskite single crystals grown from low-cost solution process methods produce broad attention, with great potential for future commercialization in optoelectronic devices. These properties give a better view and provide the potential applications of MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> single crystals. However, these metal halide perovskites lack the stability at room temperature and humidity condition. Here, we report in-situ grown method to synthesise MAPbBr<sub>3 </sub>crystals using N- methyl formamide (NMF) as solvent and developed stable MAPbBr<sub>3 </sub>crystals at room temperature, along with high optical and thermal stabilities.[1] The wide applicability of this method lies in avoiding expensive precursor salts as well as eliminating the use of toxic solvents. Controlling phase transitions of these MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> single crystals lead to the dissimilar structural arrangement, further useful in tuneable optoelectronic applications. This structural arrangement can also affect the trap densities and thus alters the carrier mobilities across the crystals. Compare to the polycrystalline films, single crystals of MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> possess long carrier diffusion lengths, low trap density, and better stabilities.&nbsp;These properties give a better view and provide the potential applications of MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> single crystals. For this, we have considered rectangular cube MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> single crystals of three faces. The structural characterization across the three faces was confirmed by performing single crystal XRD on each surface of the MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> crystals and compared the electronic transport and dielectric properties variation across the crystals in the dark and also under illumination conditions. We studied dielectric properties of the MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> crystals across different faces using impedance spectroscopic tool with various ac voltages applied across the opposite faces of the crystals. The value of dielectric constant across each face of the crystal varies, (table-1) thus affect the electronic transport across the faces of the crystals. We found that the current across opposite faces (by varying applied bias) of the crystal follows space charge limited current (SCLC) analysis. We have calculated the trap densities and carrier mobilities across opposite faces of the crystals utilizing SCLC method (figure 1) and Mott- Gurney law. As example, we represent the structural characterization across 12mm<sup>2 </sup>area of the crystal and I-Vs across 6.04mm<sup>2</sup> area of the crystal face. The peaks obtained from single crystal XRD (010), (021), (022), (122), (030), and (031), correspond to only the cubic face of MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> as obtained powdered single crystals.[2] The calculated trap density and electronic mobilities for one face of the crystals are 2.2x10<sup>10</sup>/cm<sup>3</sup> and 26.45 cm<sup>2</sup>V<sup>-1</sup>S<sup>-1 &nbsp;</sup>respectively, which depicts improved parameters of trap density and electronic mobilities compare to previous studies reported.[3,4] The improved values of electrical parameters include trap density, carrier mobility and dielectric constant with various opposite faces of MAPbBr<sub>3 </sub>single crystals will be useful for tuneable optoelectronic applications. We also demonstrated the potential use of these synthesized MAPbBr<sub>3</sub> crystals with various faces by comparing their dielectric and electronic transport properties.</p> Ramya Kunchanapalli Copyright (c) 2021 Ramya Kunchanapalli https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1776 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Direct Evidence to Control the Magnetization in Fe3O4 Thin Films by N2 Ion Implantation https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/527 <p>Magnetite (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) is a fascinating class of material with a very diverse range of magnetic and electronic properties ranging from metallic to insulating, from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic and half-metallic systems [1]. Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> exhibits an inverse cubic spinel spin structure with a mixed-valence state of iron and hence it is formally written as Fe<sub>A</sub><sup>3+</sup> [Fe<sup>2+</sup>Fe<sup>3+</sup>]<sub>B</sub>O<sub>4</sub>. In the unit cell of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>, there are 32 O<sup>2-</sup> ions and 24 Fe ions (8 Fe<sup>2+</sup> + 16 Fe<sup>3+</sup>) occupying interstitial of O<sup>2-</sup> ions in tetrahedral (A) sites located at the center of a tetrahedron and octahedral (B) sites located at the center of an octahedron. 8 Fe<sup>2+</sup> ions and 8 Fe<sup>3+</sup> ions equally share B-sites while A-sites are solely occupied by 8 Fe<sup>3+</sup> ions. The magnetic moments of Fe ions are ferromagnetically aligned within the A (A-A) or B (B-B) sublattices and antiferromagnetically coupled with respect to each other at (A-B) sites [2]. It has also a high Curie temperature (T<sub>C</sub>) of 860K. The theoretical calculation of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> thin films suggests that they possess large spin polarization because it has only one kind of electron with an identical spin orientation at the Fermi level [3]. Due to these reasons viz. high spin polarization ~100%, high T<sub>C</sub> and high electronic conductivity at 300K [3], it has diverse technological applications in areas of magnetic recording, spintronics, batteries, catalysis, bio-medicine, and energy technology - thereby attracting a great deal of attention in research and industries [4]. The implantation of ions is a very new and unique tool that incorporates ions (either reactive gas or inert gas) in a very precise and controlled manner to the target materials [5]. These implantations produce dopants in materials and also anneal the target materials locally and create defects depending on energy, fluences, and mass of ion [6]. So, by ion implantation, the creation of defects, annealing, and doping can be systematically achieved [7]. The doping of N, Ar, and Kr by ion-implantation in Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> thin films and its effect on their electronic and magnetic properties were not done systematically on the surface of the films. Therefore, it is important to further investigate experimentally the effect of ion-implantation in Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> thin films on the electronic and magnetic properties systematically by some advanced techniques. Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> thin films on Si (100) substrate were prepared by Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) technique. In the present work, we have investigated the control of magnetization of Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> thin films by N<sub>2</sub> ion implantation. The dosage of N<sub>2</sub> ion implantation in Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> thin films varies from 0 - 3 ×10<sup>16</sup> ions/cm<sup>2</sup>. The magnetization decreased as a function of dosage concentration which changed the electronic and magnetic properties of the thin films. Advanced characterization techniques, such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) were used the first time to estimate the electronic and magnetic properties of the thin films in surface-sensitive total electron yield mode. The temperature-dependent XMCD measurement suggests that with an increase in dosage of N<sub>2 </sub>from 0 to 3×10<sup>16</sup> ions/cm<sup>2</sup>, Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> transitioned from a high magnetization phase to a low magnetization phase. The observation was further supported by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) measurements which were pointed towards the same magnetic phase transition in the films.</p> RIYA DAWN Copyright (c) 2021 RIYA DAWN https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/527 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Hirshfeld Surface Analysis, DFT Calculations and Molecular docking studies of 2-Amino-N-(2-Fluorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-Tetrahydro-1-Benzothiophene-3-Carboxamide https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1237 <p>Thiophene nucleus has been established as a potential entity in the heterocyclic compounds possessing promising pharmacological characteristics such as anti-HIV PR inhibitors and anti-breast cancer activities. Importantly, benzothiophene derivative shows significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. The title compound, C<sub>15</sub>H<sub>15</sub>FN<sub>2</sub>OS was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The molecular conformation is consolidated by intramolecular N-H···F and N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The Hirshfeld surface analysis revealed that H···H and C···H contacts contribute significantly to the intermolecular interactions. Further, their structures were optimized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations using B3LYP hybrid functionals with 6-311G (d,p) level basis set. The transitions among the molecular orbital’s were investigated using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the UV–Vis spectra showed the absorption peak at 306 nm. In addition, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was carried out to explore inter/intra molecular electron delocalization and hyperconjugative interactions responsible for the molecular structure stability. Docking studies were carried out using Autodock-4.2 with Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm (LGA) computational method to rationalize the plausible best binded candidates. The title compound was found to have minimum binding energy of -7.17 kJ/mol with the protein target (PDB Code: 3FDN).</p> Madhura TK, Dr Rajesh B M, Dr Chandra Kumar K, Dr Shubha S, Dr Chandra Copyright (c) 2021 Madhura TK, Dr Rajesh B M, Dr Chandra Kumar K, Dr Shubha S, Dr Chandra https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1237 Tue, 28 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Random Matrix Analysis of Protein Families https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/774 <p class="western" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">Proteins are essential for almost all biochemical and cellular processes. The ability of proteins to perform biochemical functions is the result of interactions and dynamics of the constituent amino acids which form a molecular network within a living cell that governs various cellular functions. Understanding the complex nature of protein sequence and determining the residues and interactions responsible for the structure and function of a protein is a central problem in molecular biophysics [1,2, 3]. There is an enormous growth in the protein sequence data, but the statistical characterization, structure, and function of many of these sequences are still unknown. Most computational methods treat proteins as sequences of characters, mainly focussing on the frequencies and conservation of amino acids, without considering the chemical and physical properties of amino acids into account. However, studies show that amino acid physical and chemical properties are responsible for protein function, its mutation, and evolution [4, 5]. </span></p> <p class="western" align="justify"><a name="_GoBack"></a> <span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">In this context, we study the statistical and spectral properties of the cross-correlations between positions based on the physiochemical properties of amino acids. This study is a large-scale statistical analysis based on random matrix theory which uses physio-chemical properties-based correlation matrices of multiple protein families downloaded from the PFAM [6] database. We find that the results from the random matrix theory on Wishart matrices are of prime importance to understand the statistical structure of the interaction and correlations between positions in the protein families. The properties of physio-chemical based correlation matrices are compared with the analytical results of Wishart matrices. A Wishart matrix is comuputed as W=DD</span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">†</span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">, where D is a random matrix (dimension N x M,) with entries following a Gaussian distribution with zero mean and unit variance. D</span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">†</span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"> is the complex conjugate of D. </span></p> <p class="western" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">For each family, protein sequences are processed and filtered to create the multiple sequence alignment (MSA). With the use of physio-chemical properties of amino acids the 2 dimensional MSA is converted into a three dimensional data matrix, where the amino acid is replaced with its physiochemical property value. The third dimension of the datamatrix represent the physiochemical properties under consideration. We first study the statistical properties of independent off-diagonal elements of the data correlation matrix and compare the results with Wishart matrices. We plot and analyse probability density function (PDFs) of the system correlations and Wishart matrices. We find that for most of the protein families, the distribution differs significantly from Wishart on the upper as well as on lower side, indicating the presence of high correlation and anti-correlations, which are the result of evolutionary coupling and natural selection. These correlations are not of random origin. The dependence of correlation between different physiochemical properties were checked as they were derived from the same data (MSA). We find the structure of correlation for a given protein family calculated using properties shows less similarity with other property indicating that each property reveals new information. </span></p> <p class="western" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">The eigenvalue distribution of protein families for all properties were compared with the analytical results for Wishart matrices. Wishart matrices are studied in great detail with the spectral eigenvalue density function which follows the Marcenko-Pastur distribution with well-defined upper and lower bounds on the eigenvalues. Protein families show significant divergence from the Marcenko-Pastur distribution with many eigenvalues outside the Wishart lower and upper bound. These eigenvalues contain significant information about the system. We also show that the eigenvalues on the lower side of the spectra are highly localized. The analysis of the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues on lower side of spectra, indicate the formation of sectors. </span></p> <p class="western" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">Next, we study the nearest neighbour eigenvalue spacing distribution. We find that the presence of short range correlations between eigenvalues for most of the protein families are in agreement with the level spacing of Gaussian orthogonal ensemble and represents a universal feature. To check for the long range correlation between the eigenvalues we calculate the number variance for protein families for all properties. The analysis shows that for proteins the number variance varies </span><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">approximately as</span><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"> log (N), where N is system size (number of positions in MSA). The variation of the number variance as log of the system size indicates the presence of long range correlations within the system.</span></p> Rakhi Kumari, Pradeep Bhadola, Nivedita Deo Copyright (c) 2021 Rakhi Kumari, Pradeep Bhadola, Nivedita Deo https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/774 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studies on growth and characterization of Non-Centrosymmetric L-Alanine Hydrogen Ortho Phthalate crystal for Optical applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1924 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;A novel non-centrosymmetric crystal was grown to enhance the optical properties by combining the prominent features of organic and inorganic compounds. The semi-organic single crystal of L-Alanine ortho hydrogen phthalate of dimension 2×20×10mm<sup>3</sup> was grown from an aqueous solution by the slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal was characterized by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. The chemical composition of the crystal was identified by the energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The Fourier transform infrared spectra were recorded to identify the functional groups present in the sample. The transparency range of the material was analysed by the UV-Vis-NIR measurements. The absorption studies identified the UV cut-off wavelength to be at 272 nm. The transmission studies indicated a rapid and intensive transition at the cut-off wavelength. Crystals showed transparency in the entire visible region with a 4.7 eV optical band gap and also showed excellent second-order nonlinear optical properties and third-order susceptibilities. Z Scan measurements revealed the saturation absorption of the grown crystal. Such parameters as nonlinear refractive index, absorption coefficient, and nonlinear optical susceptibility were determined. The thermal behaviour of the grown crystal was analysed by TG/DTA analysis, showed a major weight loss around 255<sup>0</sup>C and that corresponds to the melting point of the sample. It showed that the grown crystal was thermally stable up to 255<sup>0</sup>C. The Laser Damage Threshold value for L-Alanine hydrogen ortho phthalate was found to be 28 mJ. The optical properties of the grown crystal serve in many optical applications in mere future.</p> G.B.Anushya Copyright (c) 2021 G.B.Anushya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1924 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Synthesis, Characterization and Proton Conducting behavior of a Novel Composite films Based on Phosphosilicate / Polypyrrole (PS/PPy) https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/713 <p>Based on polypyrrole and phosphosilicate gels powders were successfully prepared a series of proton conductive composite membranes. The proton conductivity of these composites were attributed to the phosphosilicate gel, which derived from tetraethoxy silane and phosphoric acid by sol-gel process at a molar ratio of P/Si = 1.5. The proton conductivity increased with increasing both the content of phosphosilicate gel and relative humidity. Temperature dependence of conductivity showed a Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher type behavior, indicating that proton was transferred through a liquid like phase formed in micropores&nbsp; of phosphosilicate gel. The high conductivity of 0.065 S/cm with a membrane containing 60 wt'fo of the gel was obtained at 60°C at 90'fo relative humidity.</p> PRAVEEN B CHOURI BASAVARAJ CHOURI Copyright (c) 2021 PRAVEEN B CHOURI BASAVARAJ CHOURI https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/713 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A succinct review on piezoelectric properties of PVDF and its copolymer PVDF-HFP https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1535 <p>Energy harvesting is one of the most uplifting research areas to produce sustainable power<br>sources from the ambient environment. Researchers have been emphasized on the development<br>of lightweight, portable, shock resistance, wireless sensors, medical implants and flexible<br>wearable electronic devices. To convert the massively available mechanical energy into<br>electrical energy, Piezoelectric nanogenerators are required in order to meet the requirements<br>of low-powered electronic devices. Poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is one of the versatile<br>polymeric materials with intriguing characteristics, and technological applications which is<br>receiving considerable attention from researchers in many areas. Recently, PVDF and its<br>copolymers are extensively studied for the development of energy harvesting devices. This<br>succinct review article is mainly focused on the recent trends in the processing methods of<br>piezoelectric materials to improve its performance by loading PVDF-HFP with different nano<br>fillers. It is observed from the literature that the incorporation of Magnesium chloride<br>hexahydrate salt (MgCl2·6H2O) with PVDF-HFP shows a maximum value of dielectric<br>constant 19.2 for 4 wt.% MgCl2·6H2O and PVDF-HFP composites containing Magnetic nickel<br>ferrite results in enhancement of dielectric constant and the piezoelectric output voltage by 15<br>and 21 times respectively. This article gives inspirations to the researchers to blend the polymer<br>with various dopants in diversifying the application that deals with the recent progress in<br>flexible, shoe pad nanogenerator, biomedical, smart scaffolds, spin valve devices and hybrid<br>generators based on PVDF-HFP polymers.</p> ASHWINI CHAVAN V M CHAVAN Copyright (c) 2021 ASHWINI CHAVAN V M CHAVAN https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1535 Sat, 16 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Transmission Studies on Vanadium Dioxide Based Active Metasurface https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/318 <p>We have proposed a subwavelength active metastructure in the Terahertz regime based on near-field electric (predominantly) coupling between the two resonators involved, separated by a dielectric layer. The active tuning in the metastructure was introduced by incorporating vanadium dioxide (VO<sub>2</sub>) in the spacer layer, sandwiched between the two resonating rods of aluminum metal. VO<sub>2</sub> falls within the broad category of transition metal oxides exhibiting unusual electronic and magnetic phenomena when perturbed by external stimuli like electromagnetic fields, heat, or even mechanical strain [1, 2]. In the case of VO<sub>2</sub>, it undergoes an insulator to metal phase transition (PT) around a transition temperature of 340 K [3]. With the motivation to strongly confine electric fields in the spacer layer [4,5] in order to exploit the transitional electronic characteristics of VO<sub>2</sub>, we have explored the electromagnetic responses of our designed hybrid metastructures in this work.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/soumyajyoti_mallick/abstract-soumyajyoti-mallick.jpg" alt="Fig.1. shows the amplitude transmission for the two cases having excitation magnitudes of 30Vm-1 and 150 Vm-1 respectively. The schematic of the multilayer metasurface studied is shown in the inset of (A) while the top view of the same has been shown in the inset of (B)." width="1177" height="448"></p> <p><strong>Fig.1.</strong> shows the amplitude transmission for the two cases having excitation magnitudes of 30Vm<sup>-1</sup> and 150 Vm<sup>-1</sup> respectively. The schematic of the multilayer metasurface studied is shown in the inset of (A) while the top view of the same has been shown in the inset of (B).</p> <p>The periodic metasurface was designed on top of a silicon substrate of thickness 500 μm. The two resonators were placed on top of the substrate having a thickness of 0.2 μm each, while the intermediate VO<sub>2 </sub>layer was chosen of thickness 3 μm. We have performed extensive numerical simulations to investigate the transmission responses of our metastructures in free space. The calculations were executed on commercially available finite difference time domain (FDTD) numerical solver CST Microwave Studio. The metamaterial was excited by normally incident THz radiation with the polarization of the electric vector of the incident beam parallel to the length of the resonators. We have imposed electric and magnetic boundary conditions accordingly to imitate the response of a plane wave. The incident beam energy was increased step-by-step to observe the response of the active spacer medium. The transmission amplitude of the metasurface was normalized with respect to the substrate and is shown in Fig.1(A)-(B), corresponding to the excitation signal magnitudes of 30 Vm<sup>-1</sup> and 150 Vm<sup>-1</sup> respectively, along with the schematics of the structures presented in the insets. For low energy irradiance as illustrated in Fig.1(A), the transmission response showed two prominent resonance dips at 0.43 THz and 0.63 THz.This is due to the inter-resonator coupling controlled by the VO<sub>2</sub> layer in the dielectric phase. The difference in the environment of the two metallic rods in their immediate vicinity led to varied electromagnetic responses arising from the two effectively optically distinct resonators coupled through electric field lines. Thus, the splitting of the resonance dips was noted at low energy excitations alongside significantly high electric field confinement. For highly strong excitation fields at 150 Vm<sup>-1</sup>, as shown in Fig.1(B), the vanadium dioxide layer becomes conducting due to the generation of excess charge carriers followed by thermal effects, this resulted in the metallic behavior in VO<sub>2</sub> [6]. Therefore, the two resonators collapsed effectively into one, which eventually suppressed the low-frequency resonance mode and validated the active operation of the metasurface.</p> <p>In conclusion, we have presented an active VO<sub>2</sub> based metasurface that can manipulate the electromagnetic responses by controlling the electronic state of the active VO<sub>2</sub> layer, switching from insulator to conductor under the fulfillment of appropriate conditions. We showed that such a phase transition can be achieved through THz excitation and have further illustrated how to alter the resonance states of the metastructure. This work explores the inter-resonator coupling in metastructures and demonstrates a novel approach to optically switch the response by introducing active control in the structure. Such work has the potential to be considered as a stepping-stone in the pursuit of realizing metamaterial-based sensing, switching as well modulators [7] in the terahertz domain.</p> Soumyajyoti Mallick, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2021 Soumyajyoti Mallick, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/318 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Controlling Extraordinary Terahertz Transmission Characteristics in Asymmetrical Sub-wavelength Coupled Hole Arrays https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/734 <p>In recent years, a brisk expansion of research is witnessed in subwavelength metallic micro- and nano-structures, which are capable of strong energy confinement at the deep subwavelength regime [1]. Among different geometries, sub-wavelength apertures (periodic and/or random) in metallic films give a fascinating phenomenon: extraordinary (optical or terahertz) transmission (EoT), in which transmission efficiency becomes more than unity (unlike the assumptions pose by Bethe’s aperture theory) due to a cumulative effect of dynamic diffraction, interference, and excitation of surface plasmon resonance phenomena [2-5]. Over the past two decades, this phenomenon has faced several inefficacies mainly due to paucity of its magnetic properties, which results in larger exploitation of other sub-wavelength structure as compared to typical hole array geometries. In order to tune the effective responses of hole arrays, different strategies have been explored so far by altering structural dimensions, like lattice constant and metal thickness etc. [6-9]. However, near-field (intra unit cell) coupling in sub-wavelength hole arrays can add an additional degree of freedom to manipulate its electromagnetic responses, particularly in the THz domain. In this work, the effect of structural asymmetry orthogonal to applied polarization in coupled hole arrays has been explored, which excites two different kinds of resonance (extraordinary transmission) peaks viz. symmetric and anti-symmetric extraordinary terahertz resonance peaks. Such asymmetrical coupled hole array structures have potential applications in advanced THz transmissive devices like wavelength multiplexing and demultiplexing, phase and dispersion engineering, radiation control, and highly sensitive polarisers etc. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Fig.1.</strong> (a) Schematic (top view) of the proposed asymmetric hole array structure [<em>P</em><sub>x</sub> =<em> P</em><sub>y</sub> (Periodicities) = 100 μm, <em>L</em><sub>l</sub> (length of left hole) <sub>= </sub>50 μm, <em>L</em><sub>r </sub>(length of right hole) = 30 μm (variable), <em>W</em><sub>l</sub> = <em>W</em><sub>r</sub> (width of holes) = 25 μm, <em>w</em> (ridge width) = 1 μm) designed in a metallic (<em>Al</em>) layer (thickness=200 nm) on the top of <em>Si</em> (ε=11.9) (thickness = 25 µm) substrate [inset: unit cell structure]. (b) Simulated amplitude transmission spectra of proposed structure (as shown in Fig. 1(a)) with variation in asymmetry (i.e., only <em>L</em><sub>r</sub> is varied keeping other parameters fixed [inset: zoomed version of different ET peaks]. Numerically simulated surface current (<em>x</em>-<em>y</em> cross section) distribution for anti-symmetric (c) and symmetric (d) EoT peaks for <em>L</em><sub>r</sub> = 30 μm.</p> <p>Therefore, we investigated THz transmissions in asymmetric coupled hole arrays by introducing structural asymmetry orthogonal to the applied electric field (<em>x</em>) direction (in Fig. 1(a)) and wave vector was set to be normal to the surface of the array. Schematic (top view) of the proposed unit cell structure is shown in Fig. 1(a), which consists of two near field coupled subwavelength air holes of dissimilar lengths. This proposed structure was numerically simulated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method by frequency domain solver in CST microwave studio using periodic boundary conditions with tetrahedral meshing.</p> <p>In order to examine the role played by asymmetry in coupled hole arrays, we varied the parameter <em>L</em><sub>r </sub>from 30 µm to 50 µm, keeping rest of the other parameters to be constant. From amplitude transmission spectra (Fig. 1(b)), it is observed that on breaking structural symmetry, there is a split in EoT peak, resulting into two different peaks unlike in case of symmetric structure (<em>L</em><sub>r</sub> =50 µm) (shown as green curve in Fig. 1(b)). These newly generated, dual transmission peaks are generated due to hybridization of EoT peaks due to interaction between localized surface plasmons of constituent coupled holes bridged by metallic ridge. On the basis of surface current distribution (<em>x-y</em> cross-section), these peaks can be categorised as symmetric (parallel) and anti- symmetric (anti-parallel) EoT peaks (refer Fig. 1(c, d)). The underlying mechanism involved in splitting of peaks is termed as ‘Hybridized extraordinary transmission (HET)’. The foremost difference between surface-plasmon hybridization (in hole arrays) and conventional resonance hybridization (in metamaterials) is following, in former case, it is sensitive to structural asymmetry variation, whose axis of asymmetry should be orthogonal to both the incident wave and polarization direction; unlike to the latter one (where axis of asymmetry usually is parallel to applied polarization). Such concept can be highly beneficial in realizing future applications in space-division-multiplexed high-speed THz communication systems and in sensing applications.<img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/jully/spast.png" alt="(a) Schematic (top view) of the proposed asymmetric hole array structure [Px = Py (Periodicities) = 100 μm, Ll (length of left hole) = 50 μm, Lr (length of right hole) = 30 μm (variable), Wl = Wr (width of holes) = 25 μm, w (ridge width) = 1 μm) designed in a metallic (Al) layer (thickness=200 nm) on the top of Si (ε=11.9) (thickness = 25 µm) substrate [inset: unit cell structure]. (b) Simulated amplitude transmission spectra of proposed structure (as shown in Fig. 1(a)) with variation in asymmetry (i.e., only Lr is varied keeping other parameters fixed [inset: zoomed version of different ET peaks]. Numerically simulated surface current (x-y cross section) distribution for anti-symmetric (c) and symmetric (d) EoT peaks for Lr = 30 μm." width="895" height="322"></p> JULLY YADAV, Subhajit Karmakar, Ravendra K. Varshney, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2021 JULLY YADAV https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/734 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fine tuning of compact layer for Efficient Quantum Dots Solar Cells https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1003 <p>An energy is a fundamental need of every human being to live in. With increase in population, the demand of an energy also increases and accelerated the use of fossil fuels. Coal, oil and natural gas are the main sources of fossil fuels which are common energy sources all over the world. However, with this high demand of fossil fuels, it is estimated that the reserve fossil fuels will be depleted within the couple of decades. On the other hand, fossil fuels emit a high amount of carbon dioxide that results into the climatic change and the environmental pollution. In order to meet the demand of energy as well as clean sources; renewable energy sources like hydro, geothermal, solar and wind energy etc. are the green alternatives for the clean and healthy environment [1, 2]. Among them, solar energy is the safe, quiet adjustable, inexhaustible and easily exploited. In addition, sunlight can be harnessed at domestic as well as at commercial level [3, 4]. The solar energy conversion devices are known as photovoltaic devices or solar cells. Solar cells basically divided into three generations among which the concept of third generation solar cells exploits the solar energy proficiently. Third generation solar cells consist of dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and quantum dots solar cells (QDSCs). In all of these, QDSCs has attracted great attention owing to high stability, low cost, ease of fabrication and handling, eco-friendly, efficient optoelectronic properties and absorption coefficient. Moreover, QDSCs have adjustable size, band gap and optical properties of QDs alongwith high extinction coefficient which helps to reduce the dark current [5]. QDs also shows rapid charge separation owing to intrinsic dipole moments and shows extendable photo response in the visible region. QDSCs, basically, comprised of QDs sensitized photoanode and counter electrode with a redox electrolyte in between. In QDSCs, QDs work as a sensitizer, capture the energetic electrons and transfer them to TiO<sub>2</sub> material. QDs generates multiple exciton pairs as per absorbed photon which further enhances the absorbance efficiency. Herein, a compact layer of TiO<sub>2</sub> (c-TiO<sub>2</sub>) have been prepared and coated on substrate via spin coating technique. The prepared c-TiO<sub>2</sub> have employed in order to reduce series resistance and improve transmittance. The compact layer (CL) have been studied extensively in DSSCs, however, there is no as such report on the optimization of CL in QDSCs as per our knowledge. The CLs have been optimized by spinning speed as well as precursor concentration. Furthermore, CdS QDs have been prepared via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) process. The as prepared CLs and photoanodes thoroughly characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Raman, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL), X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS) and kelvin probe. The fabricated QDSCs has been studied with current density-voltage (JV) characteristics and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The photovoltaic power conversion efficiency (PCE) of QDSCs found to be significantly improved with the incorporation of CLs and found to be vary with change in thickness of CL.</p> Navjyoti, Iqbal Singh, Vibha Saxena, R. K. Bedi, Aman Mahajan Copyright (c) 2021 Navjyoti, Iqbal Singh, Vibha Saxena, R. K. Bedi, Aman Mahajan https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1003 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative analysis of X-ray Crystallographic Behavior of some Pyrazolone Derivatives https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1533 <p>X-ray structural investigations have been compared for the three Pyrazolone derivatives,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (Z)-3-Methyl-1-phenyl-4-[(p-tolyl)(p-tolylamino)methylidene]-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one (<strong>I</strong>), (Z)-3-Methyl-4-[1-(4-methylanilino)-propylidene]-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one (<strong>II</strong>) and (Z)-3-Methyl-4-((naphth-1-ylamino)methylidene)-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-5(4H)-one (<strong>III</strong>) respectively. The compounds <strong>(I), (II)</strong> and <strong>(III) </strong>were crystallizes in the monoclinic, triclinic and orthorhombic crystal system with space group P2<sub>1</sub>/n, P-1 and P2<sub>1</sub>2<sub>1</sub>2<sub>1 </sub>respectively. The pyrazole ring in all the three compounds is planar. In the crystal structure of compound <strong>(I)</strong>, <strong>(II)</strong> and <strong>(III)</strong>, the molecules are linked by an elaborate system of N-H···O hydrogen bonds. The crystal structures of all the three molecules were solved by direct method using single crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures. The X-ray crystallographic properties of these synthesized compounds of biological relevance are compared herein.</p> Naresh Sharma, Niraj H. Patelb , Vivek K.Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Naresh Sharma, Niraj H. Patelb , Vivek K.Gupta https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1533 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW OF SnS-BASED THERMOELECTRIC MATERIALS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/770 <p>Thermoelectric materials can play an important role in developing next-generation energy conversion technologies. The main principle behind thermoelectric power generation is the utilization of Seebeck effect in which the temperature difference gives rise to electrical current. The performance of thermoelectric material is given by a dimensionless figure of merit ZT = S<sup>2</sup>σT/K; where S, σ, T and K are Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, absolute temperature, and thermal conductivity respectively. On increasing the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity gets decreased, which eventually can increase the overall performance of a thermoelectric material.</p> <p>The binary Tin-sulfide (SnS) is a p-type indirect bandgap semiconductor thermoelectric (TE) material. However, the electrical conductivity of SnS is very low because of the low carrier concentration, resulting in a very low&nbsp;<em>ZT</em>&nbsp;value. Therefore, researchers have been trying to increase its electrical conductivity by different optimization methods. In addition, the synergistic optimization of the electrical and thermal transport parameters is also a key to improve the&nbsp;<em>ZT</em>&nbsp;value of SnS&nbsp;material. Because the electrical and thermal transport parameters of TE materials are interdependent to each other by the band structure and scattering mechanism.</p> <p>In this paper, a comprehensive review of thermoelectricity, its properties, and various strategies used for developing efficient thermoelectric materials by controlling the thermoelectric parameters have been discussed. This review summarizes the main research progress in recent years to increase the electrical conductivity of SnS-based materials at nano-mesoscopic scale. We also provide a simple summary of achievements made in recent studies on SnS-based materials and synergistic optimization of the electrical and thermal transport parameters. In addition, the research progress of SnS-based TE devices in recent years is also briefly discussed.</p> Jito Jose Myladoor Copyright (c) 2021 Jito Jose Myladoor https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/770 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Amplification of an Amplitude Modulated Electromagnetic Pulse through nonlinear self-compression https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1515 <p>Linear and nonlinear optics of conventional material limit the short pulse laser generation [1]. Thus, the nonlinear optics based on plasmas may be used to overcome this limitation. Plasma is an optical medium and can drive multi-terawatt laser pulses through self-compression associated with plasma nonlinearities [2]. In this work, we propose to investigate the amplification of the amplitude-modulated fundamental short laser pulse in a collisional plasma under the weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modelled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude modulation is an approach used in communications, such as transmitting information through a high frequency carrier wave. It works by modifying the strength of high frequency radio wave according to the information being sent. In this study, the laser intensity is considered greater than the electron relaxation time, further, the laser intensity is reasonably high. So, the weak-relativistic ponderomotive and collisional regime are dominant in this laser-plasma interaction study [3].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>To understand the dynamics of amplitude modulated short laser pulses behind the self-compression in a plasma, we preformed numerical modelling using time-dependent generalized nonlinear wave equation for the amplitude of the field. All the important physical phenomena such as spatial self-action phenomena [4], pulse steepening, beam diffraction, as well as plasma heating are incorporated for this analysis. We have analysed the longitudinal pulse compression in one-dimensional geometry, assuming a uniform transverse distribution of the irradiance profile. An equation for the dimensionless pulse compression parameter is derived using paraxial approximation for the nonlinear Schrödinger equation [4], and the effect of amplitude modulation on the nonlinear compression is studied. A significant pulse compression can be achieved by optimizing and selecting the parameters such as modulation index, ion temperature, and laser intensity. Numerical simulations are performed for typical parameters of the laser intensity , the pulse wavelength , the pulse duration , and the plasma density . A significant enhancement in laser intensity is observed due to amplitude modulation of the laser pulse. This is because the laser pulse is getting more compressed with significantly higher laser intensity for higher modulation index. One can estimate that the laser intensity is increased about 50 times as compared to the unmodulated laser pulse.</p> <p>Our findings indicate the possibility for the generation of intense pulses with relevance to the future development of tabletop high-power ultra-short laser pulse-based particle accelerator and associated high harmonic generation.</p> Mamta Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Mamta Singh https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1515 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Growth, Characterization and Dielectric Property Studies on Barium Succinate Single Crystals https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/239 <p>Coordination molecular structures formed by the bridging of organic ligands with metal ions are found to exhibit a wide range of infinite zero-dimensional, one-dimensional, two-dimensional or three-dimensional frameworks with different interesting structural features. This structural diversity results from coordination bonding, hydrogen bonding, aromatic stacking interactions as well as van der Waals forces. The keen interests of crystallographers in this field has resulted many interesting crystal structures with different electronic, magnetic and optical properties [1]. Extensive study on the crystallization and properties of metal dicarboxilates such as oxalates, tartrates and malonates are made by many investigators [2–3]. However, studies on systematic growth and properties of metal succinates are very few in literature. Succinic acid is an organic dicarboxylic acid and each of the four terminal carboxyl oxygens in the succinate ligand can form coordinate bonds with central metal ions.</p> <p>In the present work single crystals of barium succinate (BaC<sub>4</sub>H<sub>4</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) are grown in silica gel medium using controlled chemical reaction method. Platelike single crystals of size up to 3x2x0.2 mm<sup>3</sup> are obtained. In gel method, the gel acidified with succinic acids provides a controlled medium for the diffusion of supernatant cations into it, leading to the formation of crystals. Optimum conditions for the growth at ambient temperature were found by investigating different growth parameters. Single Crystal X ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed that the structure of the title compound is tetragonal with lattice parameters a=7.58A<sup>0</sup>, b=7.58A<sup>0</sup>, c=10.24A<sup>0</sup>. The succinate phase formation was identified from the recorded FT-IR spectra and the band assignments were interpreted. The characteristic absorption band at 1720 cm<sup>-1</sup> is absent in the spectrum which assures that all the four oxygen atoms of succinic acid coordinates to barium atoms. The DSC analysis depicted that the crystal is thermally stable up to 375<sup>0</sup>C. Dielectric measurements on barium succinate single crystals as a function of frequency for various temperatures were carried out using LCR meter. The variation of dielectric constant (ɛr) as well as the dielectric loss (tanδ) of the crystal with frequency of applied field ranging from 100 Hz to 5MHz is studied at different temperatures. The dielectric constant is found to be decreasing with frequency, attaining a constant value at higher frequencies. Also the dielectric constant decreases with temperature. The dielectric loss is also found to be decreasing with frequency and temperature. The low dielectric loss at higher frequency of the sample indicates that title crystals posses lesser number of electrically active defects.</p> BINITHA M P Copyright (c) 2021 BINITHA M P https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/239 Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Noteworthy Improvement in the Structural, Magnetic and Dielectric Properties of NiO-Ni composite materials https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1850 <p>It has been almost two years; the world is suffering from COVID-19. However, most of the countries have been recovered from this pandemic after vaccination. This pandemic has made us totally dependent on digital technology. We are constantly in need to meet out our energy requirement through natural mode without disturbing our ecosystem. The United Nations has already laid down the sustainable development goals (SDG) for achieving economical and clean energy till 2030.The electric driven vehicles have remarkably reduced the emission of carbon, smoke etc. which is a great initiative to attain sustainable development. The most preferable devices used in rechargeable batteries and low power consumption devices used in electronic devices is Li-ion batteries. NiO-Ni composite material is the one of the promising candidates for making anode material for Li-ion batteries [1]. The insertion of ferromagnetic Ni in antiferromagnetic NiO has widened its scope in the field of fabrication of electrochromic devices and Li-ion batteries [2, 3]. NiO-Ni offers greater reversibility and significantly higher cyclic performance than pure NiO[4]. This composite material has shown outstanding improvement in the magnetic properties which are highly required in the magnetic recording equipments.</p> <p>Nickel Oxide is one of the most important transition metal oxides which have antiferromagnetism having highest Neel temperature (T<sub>N</sub>~ 523K).However, the achievement of room temperature ferromagnetism in the pure NiO is still a challenging problem. It is well established fact that pure Nickel (Ni) has fcc structure and is a promising candidate which exhibit ferromagnetism in the bulk form at room temperature. This transition metal is most commonly used in the fabrication of rechargeable batteries. It’s readily oxidising nature makes it arduous to synthesize in the laboratory [5]. The formation of NiO-Ni composite overcomes their individual limitations. This composite material is highly preferred as one of the anodic material for the electrochemical materials and lithium ion batteries [5]. Zaneta Swiatkowska-Warkocka et al. modulated the magnetic parameters of NiO-Ni composite synthesized by pulsed laser irradiation technique. They have observed strong dependence of weight percentage of Ni on the magnetic traits of this composite material [6]. Miaomiao Liu et al. have employed simple reduction method to prepare NiO/Ni composites. They have found higher value of specific capacitance and better cycle stability than NiO [7]. S.K.Sharma et al. prepared and tuned the exchange bias field in Ni-NiO nanoparticles. They have observed the effect of the particle size and ratio of Ni in the variation of the exchange bias field [8]. However their electrical and dielectric properties are rarely discussed. We have prepared pure NiO by solution combustion method and annealed at 1000<sup>0</sup>C for 2 hrs. Pure Ni has been commercially purchased by Merck. The composites have been prepared by intermixing the individual powders in the appropriate proportion (NiO)<sub>1-x</sub>:(Ni)<sub>x </sub>(x=0.10,0.30,0.50,0.70,0.90).Their structural properties have been analysed by the Panalytical’s X’Pert Pro. The magnetic parameters have been recorded by the VSM (EV7 Microsense).The electrical conductivity (σ<sub>dc</sub>) of the composites has been studied with the help of Keithley 2611 system sourcemeter. The dielectric properties have been investigated by the Wayne Kerr 6500B precision impedance analyser. Fig.1 and table.1 represent the structural, magnetic, electrical and dielectric properties and parameters of Ni, NiO and NiO-Ni composites respectively. Significant improvement in the magnetic and dielectric properties is achieved after inducing Ni in the NiO, which makes it suitable for magnetic and storage devices.</p> Khem Raj Sharma, Prof. N. S. Negi Copyright (c) 2021 Khem Raj Sharma, Prof. N. S. Negi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1850 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The The Persuasion of Cs doping in structural, electronic, optical and cross luminescence properties of KCaCl3 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1998 <p>This paper presents the&nbsp;impact&nbsp;of quaternary&nbsp;expansion&nbsp;of Cs to&nbsp;ponder&nbsp;the&nbsp;stage&nbsp;move&nbsp;and cross&nbsp;radiance&nbsp;in KCaCl<sub>3</sub> compound. Band structure calculations were made on cubic parent KCaCl<sub>3</sub>.The calculations were performed by implies of Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave(FP-LAPW)&nbsp;method&nbsp;as&nbsp;actualized&nbsp;within the&nbsp;WIEN2k code in&nbsp;arrange&nbsp;to&nbsp;study&nbsp;the&nbsp;basic, electronic, optical properties of the chosen materials. The calculated&nbsp;lattice&nbsp;parameters and bulk modulus of parent compound is found in&nbsp;good agreement&nbsp;with the&nbsp;available&nbsp;test&nbsp;and other&nbsp;hypothetical&nbsp;results. The ground state properties such as&nbsp;equilibrium lattice&nbsp;parameter, bulk modulus and&nbsp;total energy&nbsp;of quaternary cubic K<sub>0.875</sub>Cs<sub>0.125</sub>CaCl<sub>3</sub>, K<sub>0.75</sub>Cs<sub>0.25</sub>CaCl<sub>3</sub>, K<sub>0.25</sub>Cs<sub>0.75</sub>CaCl<sub>3 </sub>and K<sub>0.125</sub>Cs<sub>0.875</sub>CaCl<sub>3</sub> compounds have been calculated&nbsp;by&nbsp;producing&nbsp;a super cell and by fitting the volume optimization&nbsp;information&nbsp;data in Birch-Murnaghan [4] equation of state. Utilizing&nbsp;Generalized&nbsp;Gradient&nbsp;Approximation&nbsp;(GGA), the band&nbsp;gap&nbsp;and the optical spectra has been&nbsp;projected.The structure is anisotropic and it is&nbsp;appeared&nbsp;that the&nbsp;low&nbsp;energy&nbsp;region&nbsp;within the&nbsp;optical isotropy of this compound is calculated from the refractive&nbsp;index. From this&nbsp;theoretical&nbsp;calculation, it has been predicted&nbsp;that KCaCl<sub>3</sub> doped with Cs gives better&nbsp;cross&nbsp;luminescence&nbsp;when compared to the parent&nbsp;compound, where&nbsp;the&nbsp;Cs states are&nbsp;present&nbsp;underneath&nbsp;the valence band of the compounds.</p> PRADHEEPA KUMAR Copyright (c) 2021 PRADHEEPA KUMAR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1998 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Systematic Analysis for Neck-length and Q-values on Cluster decay from Ba Isotopes https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1337 <p>The possibility of clustering in barium isotopes from the valley of stability to the exotic proton-rich region has been predicted in an earlier study [1]. This paves the direction to probe their corresponding decay properties using the relativistic mean-field (RMF) formalism. A concerted effort is given to the analysis of the Q-value and neck formation effects using the recently developed effective R3Y (with the NL3* parameter set [2]) and compared with the well-known M3Y nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction potentials. The RMF densities are folded with the R3Y and M3Y interactions to obtain the nuclear potential via the double-folding technique [3]. The binding energies obtained from the RMF, finite range droplet model (FRDM) [4] and experimental data [5] are used to estimate the decay energies. &nbsp;The total potential along with the respective Q-values are further employed as inputs in the preformed cluster model (PCM) [6] based on the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory [7] for the calculation of the decay half-lives of neutron-rich even-even <sup>124-134</sup>Ba isotopes in the ground state. The cluster emission is treated in the PCM as a quantum tunnelling process across the potential barrier, assuming that clusters are pre-formed with a probability P<sub>0</sub>&nbsp;which is calculated in the present work with the phenomenological scaling factor of Blendowske &amp; Walliser [8]. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation [6] is employed to obtain the penetration probabilities P. Our calculations reveals that the M3Y and R3Y are associated with different barrier characteristics which are significantly modified with a little variation in the neck-length parameter ΔR. However, with the appropriate choice of ΔR, the relative half-life predictions of both M3Y and R3Y agree well with the available experimental data. Besides, for tunnelling to occur in the PCM framework, it is necessary to satisfy the criterion , indicating that the potential at the first turning point must be higher than the corresponding Q-value. An accurate Q-value is therefore central to the decay process and for obtaining a reliable half-life prediction. The precise experimental half-lives for most of the nuclei under study are yet to be determined. Hence, we are optimistic that this study will provide useful information for future experiments on the cluster decay of various nuclei in this mass region. From our analysis, it is demonstrated that α-decay may not be a favourable decay mode for neutron-rich barium isotopes.</p> T. M. Joshua, Shilpa Rana, N. Jain, M. Bhuyan, K. Anwar, N. Abdullah, Raj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 T. M. Joshua, Shilpa Rana, N. Jain, M. Bhuyan, K. Anwar, N. Abdullah, Raj Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1337 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of hybrid microwave low temperature sintered KBT for LTCC applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2734 <p>Piezoelectric ceramics are essential components of the electronic industry as actuators, phase shifters, sensors etc. Lead-free potassium bismuth titanate K<sub>0.5</sub>Bi<sub>0.5</sub>TiO<sub>3</sub> (KBT) ceramic is synthesized by the solid-state double sintering method. The hybrid microwave sintering (HMS) technique is used to sinter the ceramics at a low sintering temperature of 920<sup>o</sup>C. Because of the technological challenges in manufacturing this chemical composition, the number of papers on KBT is relatively limited. The high volatility of the potassium and bismuth components at high sintering temperatures is thought to be the primary cause of poor sinterability and secondary-phase development during KBT in conventional synthesis, but in the HMS have no chance of volatility of the potassium and bismuth due to rapid firing and low sintering temperature compared to conventional sintering. An attempt is made to synthesize KBT at low sintering temperature by hybrid microwave sintering to be employed in low temperature ceramic cofiring (LTCC) technique. The effect of hybrid microwave sintering on KBT samples is investigated from different characterizations. Low sintering temperature attributes to small grains, good morphology which enhances the ferroelectric, piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the ceramics. The dielectric studies confirm the high dielectric constant, and low losses compare to conventional sintering. The XRD studies confirm the tetragonal crystal structure. From the ferroelectric hysteresis studies, the present work reports a soft ferroelectric material that can be easily polarized and depolarized at low fields. Similarly, KBT sintered at 920<sup>o</sup>C resulted in a high transition temperature of nearly 400<sup>o</sup>C compare to the barium titanate family. The large transition temperature is essential in view of device fabrication.</p> Avanish T, Vaishnavi Khade, Chinmay Parhi, Anajana Vinod, Basil Chacko, Madhuri W Copyright (c) 2021 Avanish T, Vaishnavi Khade, Chinmay Parhi, Anajana Vinod, Basil Chacko, Madhuri W https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2734 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Correlation of trace elemental content in selected anti-viral medicinal plants as source of active molecules used against COVID-19 by ED-XRF techniqu https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1531 <p>The Corona virus causes severe acute respiratory syndrome -Corona virus-2019 (SARC-COVID-19). It is a positive sense RNA with an envelope of protien and has spread globally, leading to an increased death tools across the world. Currently, there is no effective drug for treatment and prevention of this disease. In this scenario, the only way to prevent the disease is the following certain safety guidelines and to boost up the immune system of body. The trace elements which are biologically essential for cellular process, growth and development, and boost up immune system. According to the previous studies, Covid-19 patients serum diagnostics tests illustrated the decreasing or increasing of some trace elements such as Zn, Ca, Se, Fe, Cu, and K. Alteration in the levels of these trace elements inhibits the activity of RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), causing the impairment of immune system, oxidative stress that increase the risk of mutation in the viral genome, and finally acquire COVID-19 properties and that can play on indirect role in the development of COVID-19 disease. In the present work, the trace elemental analysis was carried out in the leaves of two anti-viral medicinal plants <em>Ocmium sanctum</em> and <em>Carica papaya</em> by ED-XRF technique. 13 elements namely P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations estimated in ppm level. Present research work revealed that six elements such as Zn, Se, Fe, K and Cu were found at high and notable content in both plant samples whereas low amount of Ca was found in <em>Carica papaya</em> when compared with NIST 1515. The results of the present study justify that the presence of some of these trace elements is correlated with the COVID-19 curative properties of these plants, since they are found to contain appreciable amount of the Zn, K, Se, Cu and Fe.</p> Dr. Sriram Jyothsna, Dr. G. Manjula, Dr. D. Sammaiah Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Sriram Jyothsna, Dr. G. Manjula, Dr. D. Sammaiah https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1531 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Innovative approach for the study of tuning circuits with open source tools https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/577 <p>In the new age of online teaching/learning process, present instructional approach expects students to be an active learner. This necessitates of new instructional tools that can provide opportunity for active learning. Digital learning and critical thinking are the two vital components of learning process. This can be effectively augmented by combining theoretical knowledge with the basic dynamics of teaching / learning. The use of technology in teaching /learning has become an extremely key factor, which helps in conceptual understanding. To gain a complete understanding of concepts and physical processes, learners need a means to visualise the phenomena. Simulation is one of the valuable instructional tool renders an opportunity to visualize the concepts and facilitate to build the mental model. The present work proposes a study of tuning circuit experiments performed using open source tools such as XCOS and expEYES. Open source software tool facilitate in developing higher order critical thinking and analysis skill. The tuning circuits like RL, RC and RLC circuits are driven by input voltage to generate respective waveforms.&nbsp; The Scilab software has a broad range of functions, for handling analog and digital signals. XCOS is one of the tool in Scilab provides visual simulation environment for varying the input parameters of the model. The RL, RC and RLC circuits are virtually modelled by using XCOS and real circuit by using expEYES which facilitates the study of response curves and phasor diagram with ease. In the latter case, the results obtained by using expEYES compared with the results of XCOS. In addition, study explains how such response of simple linear circuits can be extended in different applications.&nbsp; Demonstrations and visualization of response curve and phase flow of linear circuits will overlay the way to understand experimental and numerical results. This innovative approach has the potential which can be used in classroom demonstration of damped harmonic oscillator and resonant circuits in advance level physics and engineering laboratories by making use of simple circuitry.</p> Shubha S, rajesh bm, Avadhani DN, Madhura TK Copyright (c) 2021 Shubha S, rajesh bm, Avadhani DN, Madhura TK https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/577 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Theoretical and Experimental Studies of SrNbO3 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/688 <div><a name="OLE_LINK9"></a></div> <div><a name="OLE_LINK10"></a>In the past few years, SrNbO3 has emerged as a strong contender for replacing conventional TCOs rampant in the industry like Tin doped Indium Oxide (ITO) and is seen as a suitable material for development of next generation of transparent electrode materials</div> <div><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;[1–3]</span></div> <p>. It is d1 type transition metal oxide with low resistivity (~10-5 Ω-cm) and high transparency (~65 %). It has high carrier concentration (~1022 cm-3) and by tuning the NbO6 octahedra the 1-D metallic conductivity have been promising for its use in pyroelectric, photoelectric, and multiferroic applications. With the optimized parameters and growth conditions, SrNbO3 thin films have been shown to exist in cubic phase as well</p> <div><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;[2]</span></div> <p>. The peculiarity of perovskite form as well as its native orthorhombic phase have been studied theoretically as well as experimentally. We fabricated SrNbO3 epitaxial thin films on LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 substrates to study their optoelectronic properties and characterized it with techniques such as high-resolution x-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and electrical transport measurement. We first present the evidence of the existence of perovskite phase and then compare it with results obtained for orthorhombic phase of SrNbO3 deposited on KTaO3 substrates</p> <div><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;[4]</span></div> <p>. We also present the theoretical aspects of different structures by applying distinct methods to manipulate the important electronic and optical properties for finding its viability as a suitable material for various kind of optoelectronic devices</p> Shammi Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Shammi Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/688 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A An Assessment on Earthquake Precursory Signals for Applications of Monitoring and Mitigation Strategies https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/768 <p>The catastrophic magnitude of life and monetary losses caused by earthquakes requires significant consideration and mitigating strategies. Several studies in recent decades have reported several possible earthquake precursors, including anomalies in the electric field, magnetic field, radon emissions, ionospheric signals, ground water level, land surface temperature, surface deformations, animal behavior, thermal infrared signals, atmospheric gravity waves, and lightning. A large number of scientific articles identified abnormal signals which cannot be ignored without careful consideration. It’s widely varied arriving times and amplitudes of the anomalies are really a broad subject of concern, raising doubts on its widespread acceptance as earthquake signals. However, subsequent earthquake precursory research should focus on such a unified theory that also identifies the physical source for all of such abnormalities, and yet also streamlines their characterization approach. Predicting earthquakes depends on the presence of time-varying processes that are based on changing environments deep underneath the Earth's mantle before of significant seismic events. Such activities can be linked in either a linear or non-linear approach. Seismology research has typically focused on mechanical variables such as precursory ground deformation. The review article means recognizing that there have been numerous reports from many types of precursory phenomena ranging from emission of electromagnetic waves from ultralow frequency (ULF) to visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light, electric field and magnetic field anomalies of various kinds, all the way to unusual animal behavior, that has been reported previously. These precursory signals are irregular but do not seem to occur consistently before each major earthquake, therefore reports on pre-earthquake signals are not widely accepted by the earth sciences community as whole no one has ever been prepared to describe its genesis. Furthermore, they observe certain significant concentration of electron density and magnetic anomalies from more than 12 weeks to several days before the earthquakes. In general, such anomaly cluster shows statistical significant compared with homogenous chance simulation, indicating an LAIC during in the earthquake preparation phase. Several instances of physical-based precursors were shown, such as radon in soil, water level, air temperature changes, VHF signals, thermal long-wave radiation, GPS/TEC, and animal behaviour. The detection of precursors of severe earthquakes is a difficult scientific topic. It has recently been observed that severe earthquakes impact electron distribution in the nearby ionosphere, resulting in indirectly visible changes in GPS signal ionosphere delays. The total electron content (TEC) derived from GPS data, in particular, can be used in the detection of seismic precursors for major earthquakes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saima Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2021 Saima Siddiqui https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/768 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Facile Hydrothermal Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties of Vanadium Sulfide @graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanocomposite towards the detection of Chloramphenicol https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/962 <p>The usage of antibiotics nowadays has led to extensive damage to the ecosystem. In order to lessen these causes, the development of electrochemical sensor to detect such antibiotic drugs will be efficiently more significant. We have designed and fabricated an electrochemical sensor which is build up with vanadium sulfide (VS) entrapped graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) to detect chloramphenicol (CAP). The physico-chemical properties were investigated with XPS, XRD, FTIR, and RAMAN. The morphological studies were carried out with FESEM analysis. The highly accessible active sites over the nanohybrid material (VS/GCN) with more active sites will significantly trap CAP molecules over its surface. The large surface area with abundant electroactive sites will probably improve the performance of the electrode material towards CAP detection. The support of GCN over VS will be effective in offering highly selective ability, lower detection limit, excellent sensitivity, good reproducibility, and stability. Thus, the fabricated electrode material will be more fascinating in the field of sensors for detecting various drugs.</p> KEERTHANA MANOHARAN Copyright (c) 2021 KEERTHANA MANOHARAN https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/962 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 100 MeV Ag and 25 keV He ion-beam induced defects in 4H-SiC https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/256 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>4H-SiC based power devices are driving a fundamental change in power electronics because of their outstanding physical and electrical characteristics, which also meet the requirements for military systems [1]. SiC technology is expected to replace silicon in a variety of applications as it can function at greater temperatures, voltages, and frequencies [2]. While silicon has a bandgap of around 1.12eV, silicon carbide has an almost threefold higher value ~3.23eV. Although silicon is the most extensively used semiconductor in electronics, it exhibits certain limitations, particularly in high-power applications since the bandgap provided by the semiconductor is an important element in these applications. Recent attempts that were made to enhance the efficiency and range of electric vehicles while reducing the weight and cost of the complete vehicle and therefore improving the power density of control electronics, the notion of employing SiC for such vehicles came into the picture [3]. SiC is a great answer to these emerging market requirements because of its unique physical characteristics [1-3]. Lately, SiC has also gained popularity as an alternative material for scalable and integrated quantum photonics as it can host several defects, the so-called colour centres, inside its bandgap [4]. Quantum characteristics related to single-photon emission and coherent spin state control have been demonstrated for several of these colour centres.</p> <p>The SiC-based technology employs the super-junctions that are formed by creating p-type, high-aspect-ratio columns in n-doped vertical drift zones [5]. The growing demands for SiC power devices require mass production of super-junctions. Currently, the manufacturing of SiC super junctions deploys an advanced approach, whereby an extended implanted ion profile is achieved using monoenergetic MeV ions. The technique of ion implantation, required for device fabrication, introduces defects that often kill the carrier lifetime and limit the device operations. Thus, extensive research is necessary to understand the defects created during ion implantation.</p> <p>Photoluminescence (PL) Spectroscopy captures light produced from a substance bombarded with a laser beam. The PL spectrum frequently displays spectral peaks associated with defects present in the host material. This technique's great sensitivity allows it to detect extremely low quantities of deliberate and accidental contaminants that can have a significant impact on material quality and device performance. In the present work, the luminescence induced by unique energy-loss mechanisms of 100 MeV Ag swift heavy ions, and 25 keV He low energy light ions in single crystals of semi-insulating 4H-SiC is investigated and compared using photoluminescence spectroscopy. Before the experiment, the simulation of the concentration of vacancy defects with depth is carried out using Monte-Carlo based TRIM simulation code [6] to estimate various irradiation fluences (ions/cm<sup>2</sup>) and the corresponding displacements per atoms (dpa, 1 dpa means that all atoms are displaced at least once from their respective lattice sites). Experimental results (Fig. 1) show strong evidence of <em>V</em><sub>Si</sub> emitters and emissions from two commonly observed unknown defects (UD<sub>3</sub> and UD<sub>4</sub>) in 4H-SiC after both irradiations. The silicon-vacancy is a trapping centre, which is important in SiC metal-oxide-semiconductor technology [7].&nbsp; Besides, <em>V</em><sub>Si</sub> is a promising single-photon emitter exhibiting millisecond spin coherence [8]. Most of the conclusions drawn from the results on the ion irradiation of SiC opens up new problems and perspectives.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/anusmitac/fig-1.jpg" alt="" width="326" height="274"></p> <p><strong>Fig.1.</strong> Low-temperature photoluminescence (∼77 K) spectra were recorded using a 266 nm deep UV excitation before and after (a) 100 MeV Ag irradiation, and (b) 25 keV He ion irradiation in semi-insulating 4H-SiC with various indicated fluences (ions/cm<sup>2</sup>). Recording range: 850–1150 nm.</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>[1] M. Schupbach, M, The Next-generation of Sic-based Power Systems, (2007).</p> <p>[2] Stefano Lovati, &nbsp;10 Things To know About SiC, March 2021</p> <p><a href="https://www.powerelectronicsnews.com/10-things-to-know-about-sic/">https://www.powerelectronicsnews.com/10-things-to-know-about-sic/</a></p> <p>[3] M. D. Paolo Emilio, Silicon Carbide for the Success of Electric Vehicles, August 2020</p> <p><a href="https://www.powerelectronicsnews.com/silicon-carbide-for-the-success-of-electric-vehicles/">https://www.powerelectronicsnews.com/silicon-carbide-for-the-success-of-electric-vehicles/</a></p> <p>[4] Stefania Castelletto and Alberto Boretti, J. Phys. Photonics <strong>2, </strong>022001 (2020).</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1088/2515-7647/ab77a2">https://doi.org/10.1088/2515-7647/ab77a2</a></p> <p>[5]Michael Rueb, A novel ion-implantation technique improves the manufacture of SiC power devices, including super-junction MOSFETs, Compound Semiconductor, Volume <strong>25 </strong>Issue 3, April/May 2019.</p> <p>https://publishing.ninja/V4/page/9077/377/6/</p> <p>[6] J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, <em>Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B</em> <strong>268</strong>, 1818 (2010).</p> <p>&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2010.02.091%20">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2010.02.091</a></p> <p>[7] C. J. Cochrane, <em>Applied Physics Letters</em> <strong>100</strong>, 023509 (2012).</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3675857">https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3675857</a></p> <p>[8] M. E. Bathen et. al., <em>npj Quantum Information</em> <strong><em>5</em></strong>, Article number: 111 (2019).</p> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41534-019-0227-y">https://doi.org/10.1038/s41534-019-0227-y</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ANUSMITA CHAKRAVORTY, D Kabiraj Copyright (c) 2021 ANUSMITA CHAKRAVORTY, D Kabiraj https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/256 Sat, 11 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The theoretical investigation of cross luminescence property in Rb1-xCsxCaCl3 by band gap tuning https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1976 <p>The present study reveals the theoretical investigation of cubic structure of Rb<sub>1-x</sub>Cs<sub>x</sub>CaCl<sub>3</sub>(x=0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.75, 0.875,1) perovskite compounds through electronic band structure computation within the framework of density functional theory (DFT)[1-2]. The ground state functions are computed by employing full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method in WIEN2k[3-5]. Improved band gap values and the electronic as well as optical properties were calculated. The ground state properties such as&nbsp;bulk modulus, equilibrium lattice parameter and&nbsp;total energy&nbsp;of quaternary cubic RbCaCl<sub>3</sub>, Rb<sub>0.875</sub>Cs<sub>0.125</sub>CaCl<sub>3</sub>,Rb<sub>0.75</sub>Cs<sub>0.25</sub>CaCl<sub>3</sub>,Rb<sub>0.25</sub>Cs<sub>0.75</sub>CaCl<sub>3</sub>,Rb<sub>0.125</sub>Cs<sub>0.875</sub>CaCl<sub>3</sub>,CsCaCl<sub>3</sub> compounds has been&nbsp;acquired&nbsp;by&nbsp;producing&nbsp;a super cell and by the volume optimization&nbsp;information&nbsp;data in Birch-Murnaghan equation of states[6]. To understand the optical properties, and predicting the optically isotropic nature of these materials, the real and imaginary parts of dielectric function, refractive index, absorption coefficient, and energy loss spectra are plotted. It is found that the results are in good agreement&nbsp;with the&nbsp;available&nbsp;data from experiment and hypothetical&nbsp;results. The present study shows the presence of cross luminescence nature after doping the Cs to the parent compound.</p> PRADHEEPA KUMAR Copyright (c) 2021 PRADHEEPA KUMAR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1976 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Nanoparticle Layer Deposition Simulation and Void Space estimation https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/648 <p>Nanoparticle Layer Deposition (NPLD) technique consists of depositing nanoparticles layer-wise without getting agglomerated [1]. This allows for unique material properties, including small void spaces, that can further impact its applications in antireflection coatings [2], metallic nanogaps [3], among others. Having a method to quickly iterate with different sizes of nanoparticles and using the resulting void space distribution to determine its efficacy in a particular application becomes important.</p> <p>We have engineered a 2-point sticking algorithm that helps simulate the physics of "click chemistry" that is in play in the NPLD technique. Further, we use a machine learning tool, kmeans algorithm, to estimate the distribution of void sizes.</p> Dhruva Patil, Tribikram Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Dhruva Patil, Tribikram Gupta https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/648 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IN X-COS USING SCILAB (SCICOS) https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/686 <p>With the help of Scilab X-cos we have been solved the set of simultaneous differential equations and Scilab software version is 6.1.1 that’s a latest version. X-cos is a free, and open-source software for scientific calculation. It is a toolbox of Scilab and provides an environment for modeling and simulation of dynamical systems. For a physical system here we have solved six equation using X-cos and approximately one hundred pellets have been used to execute the program. The most used pallets have been shown in diagram X-cos blocks represent elementary systems that can be used as model building blocks. They can have several inputs and outputs, continuous-time states, discrete-time states, zero-crossing functions, etc. X-cos translates the block diagram model into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and applies an ODE solver in order to perform a simulation. A block diagram system representation can only be used to model ODEs and a special class of ODEs, while the solvers used in X-cos support a larger class of ODEs. The following is our different systems of differential equations to solve. When the X-cos model prepare then we set the ideal parameters for the dynamical equations. After it we set the value of time as we like then execute the program that’s tell us the behaviour of the differential equations of physical system. Here the amplitude has been restricted using the properties of X-cos. The given differential equations consist of several systems included and that system is in such as a sinusoidal function and that decays with increase in time. The equations behaviour match with the results of Scilab but in this paper we are not presenting the Scilab codes because we have solved these equations by X-cos only; so X-cos model is ready.</p> <p>We opt such type of model, it’s a challenge because for complicated simultaneous differential equations our presents methods does not give result with accuracy also these method take a lot of time to solve the problems. So X-cos becomes more effective and solve the higher order simultaneous differential equations quickly provided that the programmer have good knowledge of blocks/pellets. So due to its advantages its demand is increasing in the R &amp; D as well as in IT.</p> <p>The different types of the models like spring -mass system, multiple spring -mass system, atomic models like di-atomic, tri-atomic, chain reactions in chemistry, trajectories of physical systems, engineering mechanics &amp; hydrodynamics problems, study of planets, motion of bullets by the high impulse weapons, motion of waves by the nuclear weapons, probability based models and much more can be studied without mistake using X-cos.&nbsp;</p> <p>There are world-wide applications of this software and used in industries, academies, engineering and in research. It is also an alternative of Matlab software and in high demand due to it its cost and compactness in memory space. During last one-decade large numbers of research papers have been published using this software in all branches of sciences and engineering. The research is continuous to develop and make friendly the software. The advantages of it are much more as compared to other softwares; its zero cost is the main advantage.</p> <p>We are presenting only X-cos model here and the output will display in the full-length paper. It is only abstract but not full paper.</p> Dr. RAVINDRA Singh SINGH, Dr. Ashok Kumar Shukla, Dr. Shiv Shankar Gaur, Dr. Omwati Rana Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. RAVINDRA Singh SINGH, Dr. Ashok Kumar Shukla, Dr. Shiv Shankar Gaur, Dr. Omwati Rana https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/686 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Field enhancement in nanoparticles due to IR vortex beams https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/110 <p>In this report we present our study of interaction of light carrying OAM (Orbital Angular Momentum) with nanometric metallic discs. Plasmonic eﬀects are known to give rise to high local ﬁeld enhancement factors in gold nano-discs [1]. These high intensities near ﬁelds have found use in a wide variety of imaging and detection applications [2]. The local ﬁeld enhancement factor near the surface of the disc was calculated numerically using ﬁnite element method using the Comsol package. We report a signiﬁcant increase in the local ﬁeld enhancement factor for light beams carrying OAM compared to Gaussian beams which are attributed to localised surface plasmon resonances (LSPR). Such large enhancements in the ﬁeld can be immensely useful in the ﬁeld on near ﬁeld microscopy and electron generation.</p> Sahil Sharma, Abhishek Sinha, Vandana Sharma, Ram Gopal Copyright (c) 2021 Sahil Sharma, Abhishek Sinha, Vandana Sharma, Ram Gopal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/110 Fri, 20 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Thermodynamical Properties and Superstatistic for Screened Modified Poschl-Teller Potential https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1511 <p>The exact solution of the wave function in non-relativistic quantum mechanics can be studied using the Schrodinger equation. It has become a crucial part of the fundamental physical quantities in many physical sciences [1]. The non-relativistic spinless particles can be evaluated using the Schrödinger wave equation [2]. Different methods have been used to determine the approximate and exact solutions of the wave functions, such as asymptotic iteration method (AIM) [3], Laplace integral transform [4], Nikiforov–Uvarov method [5], improved AIM [6], factorization method [7], supersymmetry quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) [8], proper quantization rule and exact quantization rule [9]. The solution of the Schrodinger equation consists of the energy eigenvalue and eigenfunction. The wave function containing many of useful information in various fields such as atomic, nuclear, and high energy physics [10]. The limited research in this field makes an opportunity to explore and investigate more information of any molecule on the quantum scale. In this study, the Schrodinger equation under the influence of screened modified Poschl–Teller potential was solved using the SUSY QM method. In the case of one-dimensional Schrodinger equation to obtain energy level and wave function of shape invariant potentials, SUSY QM is a powerful tool. The relativistic energy spectrum is obtainable by using the idea of shape invariance and the wave functions are achieved by using lowering and raising SUSY operators [11]. The aim of this study was to obtain and analyze the energy levels, wave functions, thermodynamical properties, and superstatistics of the system. The Pöschl–Teller potential is used to explain the physics of many systems which includes the excitons, quantum wires, and quantum dots [12]. The system is also influenced by the external field B together with Aharonov-Bohm field. The the Aharonov-Bohm field was used since it can perform better ability to remove degeneracy than magnetic [13]. By using appropriate variable transformation, the screened modified Poschl-Teller potential was reduced to general modified Rosen Morse-like potential. The energy spectra and the corresponding wave function were used to obtain the thermodynamical properties and Superstatistics of the system. Then the energy spectra were numerically calculated both for with and without Screened potential term. The result shows that by varying the parameters, (in this case the parameters are quantum number, potential height in the model, the potential width, and the screened parameter), the energy level changes and shift to lower or higher energies. Partition function was calculated for both with and without Screened parameters while the superstatistics partition function was calculated for the case without screened parameter. Other thermodynamics properties such as Helmholtz free energy, entropy, internal energy, and specific heat also could be evaluated using the partition function. The thermodynamical properties have also been evaluated before for the harmonic oscillator plus an inverse square term [7], shifted Deng–Fan potential [14], modified Rosen–Morse potential [15], and ordinary Pöschl–Teller potential [12] which differs from the screened Pöschl–Teller-type potential to be used in this study. These properties are the key to analyze the characteristic features of a system or particle. The ground state and some excited stated of the wave function equation were obtained in this work.</p> A Suparmi, C Cari, Suci Faniandari Copyright (c) 2021 A Suparmi, C Cari, Suci Faniandari https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1511 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 High-temperature impedance, modulus spectroscopy and conductivity study of Nd modified barium stannate titanate electroceramics https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2299 <p>Polycrystalline (Nd<sub>2x/3</sub>Ba<sub>1-x</sub>)(Ti<sub>0.95</sub>Sn<sub>0.05</sub>)O<sub>3</sub> namely NBTS electroceramics with different concentrations of Nd doping i.e., x = 0.00-1.5&nbsp;mol % are prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method.&nbsp;Structural characterization reveals that NBTS ceramics are single phase tetragonal structure that belongs to <em>P4mm</em> space group. Highly dense microstructures are observed in FE-SEM micrographs. Impedance, modulus, and conductivity studies are done at 350–500&nbsp;<sup>°</sup>C. Typical negative temperature coefficient resistance (NTCR) behavior confirms in the Nyquist study. The detailed study of Nyquist plots suggests that grain resistance (<em>R<sub>g</sub></em>) and grain boundary resistance (<em>R<sub>gb</sub></em>) are strongly affected by the applied temperature and Nd-doping in the NBTS ceramics. Imaginary part of electrical impedance (<em>Z</em>″) and modulus (<em>M</em>″) as a function of frequency confirms relaxation in NBTS ceramics at high temperatures. The activation energy observed in imaginary impedance and modulus spectra may be attributed to oxygen vacancies (OVs). The scaling behavior of impedance and modulus spectra suggest that temperature dependence of relaxation processes exists in the sample. These studies suggest that NBTS ceramics are potential candidates for future power electronics applications at high temperatures.</p> MANISHA KUMARI, P M Sarun Copyright (c) 2021 MANISHA KUMARI, P M Sarun https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2299 Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical investigations in broadside coupled graphene terahertz metamaterials for optimized sensing https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1077 <p>Engineered subwavelength two-dimensional (planar) materials, also termed as metamaterials/ metasurfaces, derive their properties from the geometry and shape of the constituent resonators and provides large range of potential applications. The metamaterials’ responses revolve around the resonances but the radiative losses in metamaterials are the main cause of concern. In this context, graphene, a single layer of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms, has attracted immense interests due to its excellent electronic and optical properties, such as high electron mobility and dynamically tunable conductivity. It provides low propagation losses and active tuning of resonances through variation in graphene Fermi energy. Planar coupling in graphene metamaterials has been exploited by many researchers but it has its own limitations such as small surface area for effective interactions resulting in reduced near-field interaction. To enhance the light-matter interaction, broadside coupling between the graphene resonators have been exploited in this work. Broadside coupling provides large light-matter interaction area and leads to a strong redistribution of energy inside the cavity formed between the two graphene layers. In this work, we have theoretically investigated the effect of such broadside coupling in bilayer graphene metasurfaces. Broadside coupling in bilayer graphene metamaterials can provide compact, miniaturized, and low loss THz devices to actualize ultrasensitive sensors, modulators, slow light devices, nonlinear cavity, active multiband filters, and several other potential applications.</p> Sukhvinder Kaur, Subhajit Karmakar, Ravendra Kumar Varshney, Dibakar Roy chowdhury Copyright (c) 2021 Sukhvinder Kaur, Subhajit Karmakar, Ravendra Kumar Varshney, Dibakar Roy chowdhury https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1077 Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating dielectric parameters of WO3/MoO3 nanocomposites with different structural phases of WO3 and MoO3 nanostructures https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1915 <p>The large-scale industrialization with the development of new technologies has exploited fossil fuel tremendously thereby becoming a threat to the energy sources in the future. The alternate energy resources are required so that desired amount of energy can be derived from them and stored when required. The high energy storage device including dielectric materials-based capacitors can play a crucial role in the fulfillment of the ever-increasing energy demand. The dielectric materials became an integral part of today’s electronics such as digital communication, electric hybrid vehicle, and portable electronic engineering, liquid crystal displays, dielectric resonator oscillator, etc. As gate dielectrics, transistor isolation structures, memory components, inter-level dielectrics, and charge storage in fast capacitors for power isolation, dielectrics play critical roles in integrated circuits. The performance requirements for these dielectrics are increasing considerably as the feature sizes of integrated circuits continue to shrink and speed rises. Even at package level power isolation capacitors, performance improvements are becoming increasingly challenging, necessitating the use of novel materials. As the industry approaches the nm generation, the problems for dielectric materials will become much more severe. Nanotechnology has the potential to offer novel nanostructured materials to meet these needs and therefore different types of metal oxide nanostructures and their nanocomposites have been employed for the dielectric properties and variation of different parameters. The effect of different parameters such as particle size, temperatures, morphology, and oxygen vacancies on the dielectric properties of polymers, metal oxide nanostructures, graphene-based materials, and nanocomposites has been studied. But the effect of different structural phases and morphologies on the dielectric properties of tunable transition metal oxide nanostructures is not so much explored. Various phases and morphologies have different atomic arrangements and shape structures. The transport of charge carriers is largely affected by these parameters on the field frequency. Therefore these parameters have to be explored for the transition metal oxide nanostructures.</p> <p>Therefore, as-synthesized tungsten oxide (with two different orthorhombic WO<sub>3</sub>.H<sub>2</sub>O and monoclinic WO<sub>3</sub> phases), molybdenum oxide nanostructures (with three different phases such as hexagonal MoO<sub>3</sub>, orthorhombic MoO<sub>3</sub>, and mixed hexagonal-orthorhombic MoO<sub>3</sub>), and their nanocomposites with different phase combinations were employed for the dielectric and ac conductivity analysis using impedance spectroscopy technique at room temperature. Various dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, loss tangent, complex impedance, and dielectric modulus have been estimated. It has been observed that the two phases affected the nanocomposites differently. Although the dielectric property of base materials MoO<sub>3</sub> was improved in nanocomposites using both phases, monoclinic WO<sub>3</sub> showed a synergistic effect and dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant shows higher values than both individual counterparts. The complex impedance analysis showed the effect of grain as well as grain boundary by showing the two semicircles using Nyquist plot analysis. Similarly, electrical conductivity analysis shows that ac conductivity was improved in nanocomposites but a large difference was observed in monoclinic-based nanocomposites. The conductivity was increased with applied field frequency from 20 Hz to1 MHz and obeys the universal Jonscher power law. The conductivity of the nanocomposites at a higher frequency and room temperature shows the order of 10<sup>-4</sup> which can further be improved with increasing temperature. Because of the vast variety of structural phases, morphology and good chemistry of tungsten and molybdenum atom can further be explored for energy storage devices.</p> Naresh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Naresh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1915 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dielectric Properties of Soils Affected by Sewage Waste Pollution https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1333 <p>In this present era of industrialization and increasing population, environment degradation has become one of the major issues of concern. Due to lack of waste management system, all the dumped waste of cities, industries and agriculture is affecting nearby water bodies and land region [1]. This contaminated water when comes in contact soil nearby or used for irrigation purpose of that region tend to contaminate the respective soil with toxins, salts and heavy metals. Major contaminants added to soil by polluted water are heavy metal ions, plastics, some organic matters and some chemicals like phosphates, salts of sodium, potassium etc. [2]. The products of these soils such as crops and food items become toxic minerals and harmful for human health when consumed [3-4]. Therefore, there is need for system of soil studies which can give idea of contamination of soil other than conventional system of studies which are laborious, error prone and chemically affected. An electromagnetic region based soil studies provides one of the alternative methods for investigating soil properties via remote sensing [5]. These studies are based on dielectric properties of soil and covers larger spatiotemporal region. Since every material has its own dielectric signature so dielectric properties of polluted soil which includes dielectric constant and dielectric loss value of soil can provide idea for type and amount of contaminants in the soil [6]</p> <p>The present paper represents the effect of sewage pollution in altering dielectric properties of soils in the broadband region of 200MHz to 14GHz using open ended coaxial probe (85070E,Agilent Technologies) coupled with vector network analyser(VNA).Samples are collected from different polluted sites and amount of contamination was evaluated using various geophysical and chemical methods as is shown in Table1. Experimental setup of VNA coupled with Agilent probe is shown below in Fig1. The results showed that value of both dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor of soil decrease with increase in frequency and increase with increase in contamination. The compared results with fertile soil indicates that the values of dielectric factors of contaminated soils deviate largely from that of fertile soils showing in change of composition with the presence of contaminants. The pH studies show that polluted soil confirms its acidic nature. A third order regression equation is generated for dielectric properties of contaminated soil. The present results are helpful in developing an alternate method for studies of effects of sewage pollutants on soil and some sensors can also be designed based on present studies for analysing response of soil.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> prachi palta, Prabhdeep kaur, K. S. Mann Copyright (c) 2021 prachi palta, Prabhdeep kaur, K. S. Mann https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1333 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 High spin study of 104Ag nucleus https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1527 <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"> <span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">Dynamical symmetries like wobbling, chirality, magnetic and anti-magnetic rotation in nuclei with mass number ‘A’ ~ 100 have attracted a lot of attention in recent times [1-4]. In these nuclei the proton orbitals πg</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">9/2</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> and neutron orbitals ν(d</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">5/2</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">, g</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">7/2</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">, h</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">11/2</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">) are available near Fermi surface and play a significant role in the above mentioned phenomena.</span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">The odd-odd Ag isotopes, has three proton-holes below the Z=50 shell closure and few neutron-particles above N=50 shell closure, exhibit small quadrupole deformation. The partial level scheme for </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">104</span></span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">Ag shown in Fig. 1 below. The electric-quadrupole rotational bands B and C based on πg</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">−1</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">9/2 </span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">⊗νd</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">5/2</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> and πg</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">−1</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">9/2</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">⊗νg</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">7/2</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> configurations have been reported by </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">Z. G. Wang </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><em>et al</em></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">.,</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> in </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">reference</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> [1]. Spin and parity of many states of these bands were only tentatively assigned. As part of the present study, we have confirmed the spin of many states of these bands by the directional correlation (DCO) ratio methodology [5]. The high spin states of </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">104</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">Ag were populated using </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">76</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">Ge (</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">32</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">S, p3nγ) fusion evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 110 MeV by the TIFR-BARC Pelletron facility, Mumbai. The de-exciting γ-rays were detected by the Indian National Gamma Array (INGA) at TIFR [6], with 18 clover detectors. The detectors were mounted at six different angles </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><em>viz.,</em></span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> 40</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">o</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">, 65</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">o</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">, 90</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">o</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">, 115</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">o</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">, 140</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">o</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">, and 157</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">o</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">, to the beam direction. </span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">The data reduction involved building </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span lang="en-US">γ</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">-</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Liberation Serif, serif;"><span lang="en-US">γ</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> asymmetric matrices and was further, analyzed with RADWARE program "SLICE" [7]. The asymmetric matrices were used to obtain directional correlation ratio of oriented states.</span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">In the asymmetric matrices, the γ-transition recorded by detectors placed at θ</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">1</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">=±40° correspond to the x-axis and the γ-transition recorded by detectors placed at θ</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">2</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">=90</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">o</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> correspond to the y-axis. In order to obtain the gamma intensities, the gate was set on the x-axis and projected on the y-axis. In the same way, the same gate was set on the y-axis and projected on the x-axis. If the γ-gate was applied on a stretched dipole transition, then the DCO ratio for a stretched dipole (quadrupole) transition was found to be ≈ 1(≈ 2). On the other hand, if the gate was on a stretched quadrupole transition, then the DCO ratio for a stretched quadrupole (dipole) transition was found to be ≈ 1 (≈ 0.5). </span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">The present study contributes to confirming the spin assignments based on DCO measurements. The values of DCO ratios determined from this study are tabulated in Table 1. </span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">Table 1. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">γ</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">-ray’s energies, level energy, initial and final state spins, DCO ratios in </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">104</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">Ag in the present experiment.</span></span></span></span></p> <table width="602" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">E</span></span></span><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">γ</span></span></span></sub></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">E</span></span></span><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">Level</span></span></span></sub></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">J</span></span></span><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">i </span></span></span></sub><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">π</span></span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">→J</span></span></span><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">f </span></span></span></sub><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">π</span></span></span></sup></p> </td> <td style="border: 1px solid #000001; padding: 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">R</span></span></span><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">DCO</span></span></span></sub></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">368</span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">480</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">7</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">(+)</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> →6</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">+</span></span></sup></p> </td> <td style="border: 1px solid #000001; padding: 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">0.96(0.05)</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> a</span></span></sup></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">317</span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">797</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">8</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">(+)</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> →7</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">(+)</span></span></sup></p> </td> <td style="border: 1px solid #000001; padding: 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">1.03(0.06)</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> a</span></span></sup></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">631</span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">1750</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">10</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">(+)</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> →9</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">+</span></span></sup></p> </td> <td style="border: 1px solid #000001; padding: 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">0.58(0.11)</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> b</span></span></sup></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">640</span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">2820</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">12</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">(+)</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> →11</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">+</span></span></sup></p> </td> <td style="border: 1px solid #000001; padding: 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">0.53(0.10)</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> c</span></span></sup></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"><span style="font-weight: normal;">876</span></span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">3056</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000001; border-bottom: 1px solid #000001; border-left: 1px solid #000001; border-right: none; padding: 0.1cm 0cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="144"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">13</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">(+)</span></span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> →11</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">+</span></span></sup></p> </td> <td style="border: 1px solid #000001; padding: 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.1cm 0.09cm;" width="143"> <p class="western" align="center"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">0.84(0.18)</span></span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US"> c</span></span></sup></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" lang="en-US" align="center">&nbsp;</p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">a</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">DCO ratio obtained from gate on stretched dipole (M1) 346 keV transition</span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">b</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">DCO ratio obtained from gate on stretched quadrupole (E2) 907 keV transition</span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">c</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span lang="en-US">DCO ratio obtained from gate on stretched quadrupole (E2) 1061 keV transition</span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-top: 0.2cm; margin-bottom: 0.2cm; line-height: 100%;" lang="en-US" align="justify"><br><br></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> Kaushik Katre, K. Suryanarayana, A. Tejaswi, M. Kumar Raju, M. Ratna Raju, D. Vijaya Lakshmi, T. Sashi Reddy, J. Matta, A. D. Ayangeakaa, U. Garg, R. Raut, S. S.Ghugre, R. Palit, S. Muralithar, P.V. Madhusudhan Rao, R.P.Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Kaushik Katre, K. Suryanarayana, A. Tejaswi, M. Kumar Raju, M. Ratna Raju, D. Vijaya Lakshmi, T. Sashi Reddy, J. Matta, A. D. Ayangeakaa, U. Garg, R. Raut, S. S.Ghugre, R. Palit, S. Muralithar, P.V. Madhusudhan Rao, R.P.Singh https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1527 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Bioactive and Optical Applications of Chromium Ion Doped Glasses https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/977 <p>The density and refractive index&nbsp; values significantly increased as the concentration levels of chromium is increased uniformly in non-crystalline glasses&nbsp; which were&nbsp; prepared by melt quench&nbsp; technique.&nbsp; The thermal properties of present glasses are evaluated as&nbsp; glass transition temperature T<sub>g</sub> = 295.26 <sup>0</sup>C, glass crystallization temperature T<sub>c</sub> =382.3 <sup>0</sup>C, melting temperature T<sub>m</sub> = 295.26 <sup>0</sup>C, thermal stability&nbsp; ∆T = 87.05 <sup>0</sup>C and&nbsp; Hruby’s criterion value&nbsp; K<sub>H</sub> =&nbsp; 0.2141 which&nbsp; yields&nbsp; to the excellent glass stability of the&nbsp; material.. The mechanical properties of the present investigating material are also significantly varying with the increase in Chromium in&nbsp; glass composition. As the load increased from 10N to 30N the frictional coefficient values are increased from&nbsp; 0.088 to&nbsp; 0.348,&nbsp; specific&nbsp; wear rate raised from&nbsp; 44.67 x 10<sup>5</sup>&nbsp; to 15.65 x 10<sup>5</sup> mm<sup>3</sup>/ N-m&nbsp; and specific wear energy values&nbsp; from 15.69 to 15.79. The Vickers micro hardness value increased for 50g, 100g and&nbsp; the values decreased for 200g as the&nbsp; molarity of the dopant increased uniformly .&nbsp; In the present glasses&nbsp; the optical absorption has taken place in visible&nbsp; and near infra-red regions. The optical band gap decreased from 1.637 to 1.600 eV and the material can be&nbsp; classified as semiconductor&nbsp; which can be used for protecting solar cell. Transmission studies unveil that the&nbsp; material is useful as band&nbsp; pass filter in UV region at 383.75 nm&nbsp; and 548.85 nm visible region, with full wave half maximum&nbsp; width (FWHM) in ultraviolet and visible region are 25.84nm and 32.46 nm.</p> Vijaya Kumar Chavan Copyright (c) 2021 Vijaya Kumar Chavan https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/977 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Study of structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic Properties of NdFeSi compound used density functional theory (DFT) https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/346 <p>In this present research work, we have explored the electronic, magnetic, and thermal behavior of rare earth inter-metallic material NdFeSi by DFT utilizing the idea of the FPAPW+LO technique. We have investigated structural and electronic properties of NdFeSi material, we get some information about lattice constant, bulk modules, derivative&nbsp; of bulk modulus and band diagrams, total and partial density of states (TDOS and PDOS), respectively, &nbsp;and which is useful for research point of view. NdFeSi material is like as CeFeSi type tetragonal crystal structure and space group p4/nmm. The magnetic properties of the material are due to Neodymium f-orbital electrons. Temperature and pressure-dependent thermal behavior have been investigated. We have calculated the all parameters perfect match with the experimental and theoretical data.</p> Anuj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Anuj Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/346 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sintering temperature driven structural, dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 lead-free composites https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/421 <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;Lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr<sub>0.2</sub>Ti<sub>0.8</sub>)O<sub>3</sub>-0.5(Ba<sub>0.7</sub>Ca<sub>0.3</sub>)TiO<sub>3</sub> composites have been synthesized via sol-gel chemical route. We have systematically investigated the influence of sintering temperature on the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the BZT-BCT composites. These characterizations suggest that BZT-BCT composites are promising lead-free piezoelectric materials. The 0.5Ba(Zr<sub>0.2</sub>Ti<sub>0.8</sub>)O<sub>3</sub>-0.5(Ba<sub>0.7</sub>Ca<sub>0.3</sub>)TiO<sub>3</sub> composites were prepared by combining Ba(Zr<sub>0.2</sub>Ti<sub>0.8</sub>)O<sub>3</sub> (BZT) and (Ba<sub>0.7</sub>Ca<sub>0.3</sub>)TiO<sub>3 </sub>(BCT) powders sintered at temperature 900-1400<sup>0</sup>C for 5h. The phase structure was investigated by X-ray diffractrometer (PANalitical’s X’pert PRO). The microstructural properties of BZT-BCT composites were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JSM 6510LV, JEOL, JAPAN). The dielectric properties were investigated using an impedance analyzer (Wayne-kerr 6500B, UK). The ferroelectric properties were studied using a ferroelectric test system (Marine India P-E loop tracer). The current density of BZT-BCT composites has been measured using Keithely source meter at room temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient d<sub>33</sub> was measured using a quasi-static piezoelectric co-efficient testing meter. The influence of sintering temperature on phase evolution and grain size of BZT-BCT composites has been analyzed. The dielectric constant and loss and phase transition temperature of prepared samples were analyzed with varying sintering temperature. The variation of ferroelectric properties such as saturation polarization (P<sub>s</sub>), remanent polarization (P<sub>r</sub>) and coercive field (E<sub>c</sub>) of BZT-BCT composites have been addressed with varying sintering temperature.The BZT-BCT composite sintered at 1300<sup>0</sup>C exhibits enhanced ferroelectric properties with saturation polarization P<sub>s </sub>~ 11.2 μC/cm<sup>2</sup>. On the other hand, the high dielectric constant value of εʹ ~ 2874 at frequency 100 kHz and piezoelectric coefficient d<sub>33 </sub>~ 278 pC/N have been measured for the composite sintered at 1400<sup>0</sup>C.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nainjeet Negi, Sarita Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Nainjeet Negi, Sarita Sharma https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/421 Fri, 17 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dielectric Properties of Soils of India at Radio and Microwave Frequencies: A Review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2457 <p>When electromagnetic (EM) energy is incident on a dielectric material, some part of energy is reflected, some is transmitted and rest is absorbed by the material. All these phenomenon of reflection, transmission and absorption are represented in terms of dielectric properties of that materials. As most of the soils have negligible trace of magnetic material so permeability of soil is almost same as that of free space. However, permittivity which results due to interaction of electrical energy with material is different than that of free space [1]. Thus, for soils, dielectric properties arise only due to electrical part of EM energy and are represented in the form of complex permittivity. Complex permittivity has two parts, out of which real part is called dielectric constant and imaginary part is called dielectric loss factor. Dielectric constant represents the energy storage in a dielectric medium whereas dielectric loss factor represents dissipation of EM energy. Dielectric properties of soils are important in the field of geophysical exploration, agriculture and remote sensing as these directly affect the performance of electromagnetic sensors. Soil vary from region to region due to variation in texture, temperature, demography and environment so area wise dielectric properties of soil differ significantly and depend upon frequency, moisture content, bulk density, salinity. India has a wide variety of soils and numerous researchers have studied dielectric properties of many states of India. However, due to difference in technique used, frequency of interest and soil type, it is difficult to generalize dielectric behaviour of soils of India as a whole. Out of numerous available techniques, some popular techniques are coaxial probe method, free space method, cavity perturbation method, parallel plate method and waveguide method Choice of dielectric property measurement depends upon many factors like frequency of interest, nature of the material to be investigated, required accuracy and precision etc. [2]. Existing methods can be broadly divided into two categories namely Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Frequency Domain methods. In this review, we present a systematic state wise analysis of all reported dielectric data on soils of India at radio and microwave frequencies. Dielectric data of states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Haryana, Chhattisgarh are plotted as a function of moisture content as enough studies have been performed by different researchers for these states. Dielectric constant of soils of Haryana and Rajasthan was found to be higher than other states. However, reported values of dielectric loss factor were higher for soils of Chhattisgarh in comparison to other states of India. It is difficult and less reliable to compare dielectric data of a particular state/region with other if single or limited number of samples are studied for that particular state. So, enough number of representative samples and correct sampling procedure is necessary to study and compare dielectric properties any region over a particular frequency range.</p> Prachi Palta, Prem Pankaj, Prabhdeep kaur, K. S. Mann Copyright (c) 2021 Prachi Palta, Prem Pankaj, Prabhdeep kaur, K. S. Mann https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2457 Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Charmonium suppression in an anisotropic hot QCD medium using Quasi-Particle Model https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1135 <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">We have studied the properties of charmonium states through the in- medium modifications to both perturbative and nonperturbative terms using the Cornell potential. The flavour dependence of the binding energies of the heavy quarkonia states and the dissociation temperature for isotropic as well as anisotropic case have been obtained by employing the Debye mass for pure gluonic and full QCD case, which is computed by employing the quasi-particle picture. Further, we have also observed that the dissociation temperatures of anisotropic medium are higher than that of the isotropic medium. By using these dissociation temperatures as an input, we have r explored the sensitivity of prompt and sequential suppression </span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="background: #ffffff;">at LHC are formed</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">. In the present work, we have extended our calculation [1] for an isotropic medium to a medium which exhibits a local anisotropy in the momentum space. Our aim is to study the properties of heavy quarkonia in the anisotropic medium by correcting the full cornell potential employing into a recently proposed quasi-particle model for hot QCD equations of state [2,3]. In relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC, two novel phenomena - cone and ridge, not present in pp or d+Au collisions, were observed [4].</span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid3.jpg" name="Picture" width="187" height="179" border="0" align="left"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid4.jpg" name="Image1" width="181" height="181" border="0" align="left"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid5.jpg" name="Image2" width="180" height="179" border="0" align="left"></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><br><br></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><br><br></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><br><br></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><br><br></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><br><br></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><br><br></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Fig.1.</strong></span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> The variation of p</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">T</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> integrated survival probability (in the range allowed by invariant p</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">T</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> spectrum of J/ψ by the CMS experiment) versus number of participants at mid-rapidity for the EoS1. The experimental data (CMS JHEP) are shown by the squares with error bars whereas circles and diamonds represent with (</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Ubuntu, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">&lt;</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">S</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">incl</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">&gt;) without dir (&lt;S</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">dir</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">&gt;) sequential melting using the values of T</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">D</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> ’s from our and related parameters from Table 1. using IDEAL equation of state.</span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">In recent years, the effects of anisotropy on both real and imaginary part of the heavy-quark potential and subsequently on the dissociation of quarkonia states have been investigated in an anisotropic medium [5–9] extensively. If the plasma has cooled to an energy density less than Screening energy density (</span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Ubuntu, serif;">ε</span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">s</span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">), the charmonium pair would escape and quarkonium would be formed. If however, the energy density is still larger than </span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Ubuntu, serif;">ε</span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">s</span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">, the resonance will not form and we shall have a quarkonium suppression. </span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="background: #ffffff;">It is easy to see that the in the fig.1 p</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="background: #ffffff;">T</span></span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="background: #ffffff;"> dependence of the survival probability will depend on how rapidly the plasma cools. I</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">f the initial energy density is sufficiently high, the plasma will take longer to cool and only the pairs with very high p</span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">T </span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">will escape. If however the plasma cools rapidly, then even pairs with moderate p</span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sub><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">T </span></sub></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">will escape. Thus a study of the survival of J/ψ is poised to provide a wealth of information about the dissociation mechanism of charmonium states in a hot QCD medium.</span></span></p> Siddhartha solanki, Manohar Lal, Vineet Kumar Agotiya Copyright (c) 2021 Siddhartha solanki, Manohar Lal, Vineet Kumar Agotiya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1135 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Search for asymmetric fission in mass 200 region; a case study in 197Tl https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/800 <p style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 100%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span style="color: #000000;">In the recent years there have been a number </span><span style="color: #000000;">of </span><span style="color: #000000;">experimental as well as theoretical studies in the mass </span><span style="color: #000000;">200 amu </span><span style="color: #000000;">region near </span><span style="color: #000000;">Mercury-</span><span style="color: #000000;">Lead nucle</span><span style="color: #000000;">i</span><span style="color: #000000;"> to uncover the role of various factors in deciding the dynamics of heavy ion induced fusion-fission reactions. Another important observation in this mass region is the asymmetric fission of neutron deficient nuclei. Andreyev et al. have reported asymmetric fission fragment mass distribution in the </span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Ubuntu;">β </span></span><span style="color: #000000;">delayed fission of </span><span style="color: #000000;"><sup>180</sup></span><span style="color: #000000;">H</span><span style="color: #000000;">g nucleus about a decade ago</span><span style="color: #000000;">. The observed asymmetric mass distribution has been satisfactorily explained by the evolution of multidimensional potential energy surface </span><span style="color: #000000;">as a function of</span><span style="color: #000000;"> time. However the role of shell structure of the nascent fragments could not be well explained by the existing theoretical models. Further more the studies in this direction have revealed that the asymmetric fission in this mass region is not only governed by the N/Z and excitation energy of the fissioning nucleus but also on the dynamics of the entrance channel before forming the CN. It have also been observed that the presence of </span><span style="color: #000000;">non-compound nuclear reactions</span><span style="color: #000000;"> cannot be ruled out at below barrier energies which also contribute to the wider mass distribution. The low excitation energy at which such phenomenon normally occurs is very difficult to achieve using heavy ion induced reactions. </span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Ubuntu;">β</span></span><span style="color: #000000;"> delayed and elctro-magnetic induced fission are the only ways to reach such low excitation energies experimentally. The difficulty in such reactions in the Mercury region and low statistics of the data obtained makes it difficult to get any conclusive statement regarding the occurrence of asymmetric mass fission. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Arial, sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">We have considered the case of <sup>197</sup>Tl, which is a potential candidate for looking of asymmetric fission</span></span></span></p> Golda KS, Sugathan Copyright (c) 2021 Golda KS, Sugathan https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/800 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of shapes degrees of freedom on the fusion cross-sections of $^{16}$O+$^{154}${Sm} and $^{18}$O+$^{148}${Nd} https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1543 <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nuclear fusion is a process in which there is a possibility of formation of a compound nucleus either by overcoming the Coulomb barrier or by quantum tunnelling process </span></span></span><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">[1]</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Using the coupled channel (CC) approach, the enhancement of the fusion cross-section at below barrier energies via the inclusion of the low-lying state have been studied by Dasgupta et al</span></span><span style="color: #00b0f0;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">. </span></span></span><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">[1]</span></span></span> <span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">with remarkable success. </span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">In this context, we have investigated the effect of shapes degrees of freedom namely; vibrational effect in the nuclear surface, the rotational factor on the fusion cross-section for </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">16</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">O + </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">154</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Sm </span></span></span><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">[2]</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> and </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">18</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">O+</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">148</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nd </span></span></span><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">[3]</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> nuclear reactions at sub-barrier energies with the CCFULL code. In coupled channel approach, the coupling effects arising due to the relative motion of interacting nuclei and the intrinsic degrees of freedom results in the modification of tunnelling probability. The Wood-Saxon nuclear potential is adopted to study the ion-ion interactions </span></span></span><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">[4] </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">and added to the Coulomb potential as well as the centrifugal potential. The total interaction is used within the coupled channel (CC) approach </span></span></span><span style="color: #0000ff;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">[5] </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">for the calculation of the fusion cross-section. The calculations are carried out by adjusting the free parameters for the above barrier fusion cross-sections. The 1-D barrier penetration model (1-D BPM) is observed to underestimate the experimental data for the </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">16</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">O + </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">154</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Sm system, mainly at below barrier energies. The coupled channel calculation including target and projectile excitation (CC-T, CC-P) with 1 phonon of vibrational state and 2</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">+</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> state of target reproduced the fusion cross-section at the above barrier energies. The 3</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">-</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> state of </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">16</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">O have high excitation energy so within the involvement of 1 phonon of 3</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">-</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> state with 2</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">+</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> state of the target (CC-PT) gives the best fit with the experimental data at below barrier region while it overestimates at above barrier region. For the </span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">18</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">O+</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">148</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nd system, the CC equation including the target/projectile excitation (CC-T, CC-P) with 1 phonon of vibrational state and 2</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><sup><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">+</span></span></sup></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"> state of target reproduces data only at above barrier energies. Also, the inclusion of coupling of projectile/target excitation (CC-PT) underestimates the experimental fusion cross-section. From this study, we opine that the low-lying states with neutron transfer channels and the neck-formation may improve the fusion cross-section mainly at the deep sub-barrier region. Therefore, the thorough study of these collective states gives a clear insight into nuclear fusion reaction with the inclusion of shapes degrees of freedom.</span></span></span></p> N. Jain, Shilpa Rana, Joshua T. M., M. Bhuyan, Raj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 N. Jain, Shilpa Rana, Joshua T. M., M. Bhuyan, Raj Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1543 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Advance Spectroscopic Study of Cr-Substituted Vanadium Dioxide Thin Films https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/553 <p>The metal to insulator transition (MIT) in the strongly correlated oxide materials such as vanadium dioxide (VO<sub>2</sub>) is one of the most fascinating phenomena due to its potential applications in sensors, actuators, thermochromic devices, thermometers&nbsp;and many other multifunctional electronic devices [1]. The MIT temperature of VO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;is around 340 K, close to room temperature (RT) and a first-order MIT from insulating monoclinic (RT) M1<em>&nbsp;</em>phase (space group -- P2<sub>1</sub><em>/c</em>) to metallic rutile (high-temperature) R<em>&nbsp;</em>phase (space group -- P4<sub>2</sub><em>/mnm</em>) makes VO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;a very suitable and promising material to develop the ultrafast switching and sensing in advance technology devices [2]. The V atoms in the rutile R phase are uniformly spaced along the rutile <em>c</em>-axis while in the insulating monoclinic phase, a zig-zag pattern formation occurs due to the simultaneous pairing and as well as tilting among V atoms [3].The VO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;and CrO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;are well-known examples of the anti-ferromagnetic insulator and ferromagnetic metal, respectively [2]. However, experimentally and theoretically, it has been found that for Cr substitution (10-20%) in the rutile phase, VO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;has initiated to behave as a ferromagnetic insulator. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which is not only atom-specific but also being sensitive to the valence state reveals the presence of Cr<sup>3+</sup>-V<sup>5</sup><sup>+</sup><sup>&nbsp;</sup>pairs&nbsp;and is responsible for an unusual ferromagnetic insulating state [4].</p> <p>The magnetic properties of VO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;have been established tracked research subject, and successfully controlling the magnetic property of VO<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;has fascinated substantial attention for the first generation of spintronics-related applications such as read head sensors for hard disk drives and magnetic random-access memory. So, the next generation spintronic materials are the future of such devices. In this work, we focused on V<sub>1</sub><sub>−</sub><em><sub>x</sub></em>Cr<em><sub>x</sub></em>O<sub>2</sub>&nbsp;(0 ≤ <em>x </em>≤ 0<em>.</em>3) (VCO) thin films and studied the effect of Cr-substitution on its structural, electronic and magnetic properties. The VCO films were deposited on R-sapphire substrates using a pulse laser deposition method. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and soft X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) studies of VCO thin films were performed to reveal and understand the origin of magnetization and their enhancement with Cr-substitution. The XAS spectra suggest that the V and Cr ions are in V<sup>4+</sup>&nbsp;and V<sup>5+</sup>, &nbsp;and Cr<sup>3+</sup>&nbsp;states respectively. The XMCD spectra indicate that the V and Cr ions are ferromagnetic in nature at room temperature. These results also indicate that the VCO films are in the ferromagnetic insulating state and charge-ordered at the V and Cr sites.&nbsp;These results are consistent with the first principle density functional theory calculations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MUFEEDUZZAMAN Copyright (c) 2021 MUFEEDUZZAMAN https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/553 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dr Studies of electro-Optic and Thermal Behaviour of Azo Dye Doped Vertically Aligned Liquid Crystal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/780 <p>The performance of liquid crystal (LC) display devices significantly depends on the usage of an optimized concentration of dopant. Thus, in the present study, vertically aligned liquid crystals (VALCs) display cells were prepared using dispersion of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano particles into host nematic liquid crystal (NLC) without any surface treatment. Further, the sample mixture was doped with fixed concentration of 0.5% of azo dye. Both the sample cells were analyzed and compared for morphological, electro-optical (E-O) and thermal behaviour. Results show the improvement in voltage-transmittance characteristics with lowering of threshold and operating voltage, however the contrast ratio (CR) for dye doped sample cell was found to be degraded [1-2]. This degradation may be possibly due to much lower transition temperature at this concentration of dye, which further might because of higher OFF state and lesser ON state transmittance due to disturbance in intrinsic LC order. As, the thermal study showed the doping of 0.5% of azo dye reduced the transition temperature to 41<sup>0</sup>C for dye doped VALC from 68<sup>0</sup>C of VALC sample [3]. Hence, these results indicate that a control amount of dichroic dye is a crucial measure for an adequate performance of VALC display.</p> Chinky Chinky Copyright (c) 2021 Chinky Chinky https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/780 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 DFT study of ScP and AlP in B1, B2 and B3 phases at ambient pressure https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/817 <p>The structural, electronic, elastic, and dynamic characteristics of Scandium Phosphide and <br>Aluminium Phosphide compounds are studied theoretically. The study has been performed <br>for rocksalt (B1), CsCl (B2) and Zinc blende (B3). We use the density functional theory, which <br>is based on the plane wave basis and the pseudopotential approach, as implemented in the <br>Quantum Espresso Software package [1]. The PBE - GGA functional is used to express the <br>exchange correlation interaction [2]. ScP exhibits semimetallic behavior in the B1 phase, with <br>complete mixing between the valence and conduction bands observed in the B2 phase. while <br>AlP exhibits metallic behavior in the B1 and B2 phases. As a result, ScP has a metallic <br>behavior. The B3 phase of ScP displays a semiconductor characteristic with a broad and <br>straight band gap at X of (1.617). In AlP, the B3 phase exhibits semiconductor characteristics <br>with an indirect band gap at Г-X of (1.60). Both compounds ScP and AlP on B1, B2, and B3 <br>structures report computed ground state parameters such as lattice constant (a), energy band <br>gap (Eg), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B'), as well as structural stability, <br>formation energies, and band structure. The zinc blende phase is the most stable of the three <br>phases, according to the findings. Our computed results are in good agreement with earlier <br>investigations. We have calculated the phonon structure to confirm the stability of these <br>phases. Having obtained self-consistent solutions of Kohn– Sham equations, the lattice <br>dynamical properties were calculated within the framework of the self-consistent density <br>functional perturbation theory [3]. At ambient pressure, there are no imaginary frequencies for <br>ScP and AlP on both phases B1 and B3, indicating that ScP and AlP are dynamically stable.<br>The two atoms in the primitive cell of ScP and AlP on B1 and B3 phases give rise to six phonon <br>branches, two acoustic and four optical branches. In B2 phase it is dynamically unstable at <br>ambient pressure. Phonon softening usually corresponds to the instability of a particular <br>atomic movement. So, we can’t consider this phase in elastic properties. We have calculated <br>three independent elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) of AlP and ScP compounds in their B1, <br>B2 and B3 phases. Our calculated values of elastic constants in the B1 and B3 phases on <br>both compounds follow the stability conditions,<br>i.e., B = [(C11 + 2C12)/3] &gt; 0 and G’ = [(C11 – C12)/2] &gt; 0 and C44 &gt; 0, while these conditions <br>are not satisfied in the B2 phase on both compounds [4].</p> Rohilla Dholpuria, Anita Rani, Ranjan Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Rohilla Dholpuria, Anita Rani, Ranjan Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/817 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 duha Laser Annealing of Gold Thin Films as a Platform for Plasmonic Sensing Applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1525 <p>The future of the plasmonic devices is heavily challenged by the nanoconstruction schemes of metals which often require rather fast, low-cost, and high-throughput fabrication techniques. Laser annealing is considered to be an unrivaled tool for surface manipulation of thin metallic films, especially with functional plasmonic devices of pre-determined morphology. Herein, a commercial CO<sub>2</sub> laser has been used for surface reconstruction of thin Au films, with the thickness of 15 nm (±3 nm) sputtered on quartz substrates, as plasmonic sensing platforms. The effect of two main laser parameters on the Au film morphology have been explored namely; power density and scan speed. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy characterization measurements were utilized to monitor the surface morphology and the plasmonic induced optical absorption changes with different laser parameters. Laser-processed Au nanofilms were then be used as a plasmonic sensing substrate to detect the size change of Ag NPs, fabricated by laser ablation in liquid with different laser energies, imbedded in a solution-processed thin dielectric material (CeO<sub>2</sub> NPs) with the thickness of about 60 nm (±5 nm).</p> <p>Surface plasmonic resonance absorption is not only depending on the size and shape of the metal nanostructures but also the dielectric function of the surrounding medium. A slight variation in the refractive index of the surrounding medium will attenuate the free electric charges in the metal nanostructures and therefore, reduces its restoring electric field. Such reduction will have a direct impact on the plasmonic resonance frequency leading it to peak shifts towards longer wavelengths. Our plasmonic sensing device shows a remarkable detection to size variation of Ag NPs with a clear shift in the plasmonic resonance absorption of Au. Lumerical-FDTD simulations will be used to explore the possible plasmonic fields coupling of Au-Ag nanostructures. This sensor structure is versatile and can be utilized to sense and monitor a large variety of materials and chemicals.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Abbas A. Thajeel, Mohammed A. Ibrahem , Duha S. Copyright (c) 2021 Abbas A. Thajeel, Mohammed A. Ibrahem , Duha S. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1525 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Controlled synthesis of reduced graphene oxide sheets on large scale using thermal exfoliation https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1823 <p>Oxidized graphene-based materials have been widely studied due to its excellent properties like, mechanical, electrical, high chemical stability, high thermal conductivity, and large specific area. Particularly, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) has grabbed much attention for wide range of applications in the field of batteries, supercapacitors, sensors, drug delivery, catalysis,&nbsp; opto-electronic devices and so on.[1] Graphene oxide is nothing but a layers of carbon sheets heavily decorated with oxygen function groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and epoxy groups. Variety of methods has been developed by the researchers for the synthesis of graphene oxide which includes, brodie’s method, Staudeumeir method and hummers and its modified method.[2–4] Despite of many attempts large scale production of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide with equivalent conductivity is great challenge to achieve. Similarly for reducing oxygen functional groups from the material, many strategies have been employed such as chemical, solvothermal, photo-reduction, electrochemical, and thermal. Amongst all, thermal reduction is one of the simple, easy and less time consuming for the large-scale production of reduced graphene oxide.</p> <p>Here, we report on synthesis and characterisation of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide. Graphene oxide was prepared by using modified hummer’s method as it is recommended for large scale production with less impurities and more defects in the carbon basal plane.[5] The prepared graphene oxide was reduced via thermal reduction at 300 º C for 1 minute. The resultant product was characterised to study structural, chemical and optical properties. The structural analysis was done using X-ray diffraction in Bragg Brentano geometry. Single hexagonal phase of the material was confirmed. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the surface morphologies of the prepared powder. Fig 1 (A) displays cross view of graphene oxide sheet and (B) top view of thermally exfoliated reduced graphene oxide. The cross-view image of graphene oxide sheet (fig 1 (A)) clearly shows stacking of graphene layers while thermally exfoliated reduced graphene oxide displays comparative distance between the stacked layers. The chemical composition of the samples was estimated by using energy dispersive x-ray analysis in order to determine the proportion of carbon and oxygen in the synthesized materials. To study the defects and degree of disorder induced during the synthesis was analysed using Raman spectroscopy. The presence of D and G band in samples revealed successful synthesis of graphene oxide via modified hummer’s method. Similarly, the decrease in the intensity of D band of thermally exfoliated GO shows comparative reduction of oxygen functional groups. Further to study the degree of disorder in the materials, ID/IG were calculated.[6] The optical properties were examined by using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy in the diffused reflectance spectroscopy mode. The band gap estimated from the UV-Vis. Spectroscopy was found to be 3.9 eV and 3.2 eV for GO and rGO. As much as 1 g of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide powders is derivable by such thermal exfoliation technique in a single batch with controlled crystallographic phase purity and high degree of reproducibility. These findings are a demonstration of scalable synthesis of graphene derivatives for its functional applications.</p> Poornima Sengunthar; Shivangi Patel, Nisha Thankachen, Rutvi Pandya; Utpal S. Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 Poornima Sengunthar; Shivangi Patel, Nisha Thankachen, Rutvi Pandya; Utpal S. Joshi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1823 Tue, 05 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Dissociation temperatures and suppression study of the bottomonium states for the LHC energy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1241 <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0.64cm; margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en-US">We revisited the suppression study of the bottomonium states using modified form of the Cornell potential [1] as suppression is known for the long time as the signatures for the existence of the quark gluon plasma [2]. We have employed the quasiparticle Debye mass for obtaining the binding energies and the dissociation temperature for three flavor quarks. The binding energy and dissociation temperatures thus obtained have been further used to deduce the suppression of the Bottomonium states. Finally, a significant comparison has been made between the theoretical results and experimental data for the various energy scales of LHC in Pb-Pb collisions and there is good agreement between the two. </span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid0.png" name="Picture" width="268" height="246" border="0" align="bottom"><span style="color: #222222;"> <img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid1.png" name="Image1" width="248" height="247" border="0" align="bottom"></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Fig 1.</span></span></span><span style="font-size: medium;"><span lang="en-US"> The variation of the <img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid2.png" hspace="8" align="absmiddle">integrated survival probability versus N for<img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/siddhartha1/blobid3.png" name="Object1" hspace="8" align="absmiddle"> at various energy scale with preliminary CMS data [3]. </span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0.64cm; margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;"><br><br></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0.64cm; margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><strong>References</strong></span></span></span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0.64cm; margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: medium;">[1] V. K. Agotiya, V. Chandra, M.Y. Jamal and I.Nilima, Phys. rev. D 94, 094006 (2016).</span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0.64cm; margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: medium;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [2] T. Matsui and H. Satz, Phys. Lett. B 178, 416 (1986) </span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0.64cm; margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <p class="western" style="margin-left: 0.64cm; margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 105%;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: medium;">[3] CMS Collaboration Twiki, CMS-PAS-HIN-10- 006,2015. </span></p> <p class="western" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 105%;" lang="en-US" align="justify"><br><br></p> Siddhartha solanki, Manohar Lal, Vineet Kumar Agotiya Copyright (c) 2021 Siddhartha solanki, Manohar Lal, Vineet Kumar Agotiya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1241 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Raman spectroscopic studies on Graphene Oxide - Europium nano composites https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1279 <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">Graphene based nano composites are receiving much importance in recent years due to the two dimensional topology, high carrier mobility, luminescent nature and ultra wide band gap transition [1-4]. In the Present study, graphene oxide is prepared by modified Hammers method [5]. Resultant residue of dark yellow colour is filtered using Watt man No.1 filter paper and it is further cleaned by washing several times with 5% HCl solution and de-ionized water. Unexfoliated oxide is eliminated from the sample by ultra-sonication procedure for 30 minutes followed by micro-centrifugation under 4000rpm for another 30 minutes. Vacuum annealing is done at sample at 60</span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">O</span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">C for 12 hours to get black graphene oxide powder and is labelled as Sample 4. Europium (III) nitrate is added to 3g each of graphene oxide powder in 0.1g, 0.2g and 0.3g concentration respectively labelled as Sample 1, Sample 2 and Sample 3. Uniform mixing is done in composite samples by sonication and microwave irradiation for reduction of rare earth ions and well assembles in the surface layer of graphene oxide [6]. Morphological properties are analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Model JEOL/EO version 1.0 JSM: 6390.Surface topology of Graphene oxide (GO) is like thin folded sheet while that of Europium doped Graphene oxide (Eu-GO) is like that of spreading small nano materials on folded surface and are shown in Fig.1. It may be due to the presence of Europium on the surface layers of GO. Average particle size distribution of SEM using Image J software analysis is done and found to be 79.09nm. Chemical composition and stotiometric ratio of different elements in the composites are quantitatively shown by energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDX) analysis and are shown in Fig.2. Weight and atomic percentages for individual chemical constituents in composite are shown in Table 1. Raman spectra for Sample 1, 3 and 4 are shown in Fig.3. In it peaks such as D band and G bands are observed respectively at 1340cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">-1</span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"> for Reduced GO and 1586cm</span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">-1</span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"> corresponding to GO. The peak near 1036 cm-1 is due to the presence of Europium in composites. There is no further shifting of peaks are observed in composites with respect to pure GO is an evidence of stable sp</span><sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">2</span></sup><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"> hybridisation and rigid oxygenated functional groups. The intensity ratio (D/G) can be calculated as 0.98 for pure GO as already reported by S. Thangavel et al. [6]. </span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/anu/mceclip1.png"></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="center"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><strong>Fig.1.</strong></span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Scanning electron micrograph of A. Sample 3 B. Sample 4</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/anu/mceclip2.png">&nbsp;</span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 108%;" align="center"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Fig. 2. EDX spectral distribution for</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> A. Sample 3 B. Sample 4</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">Table 1.</span></span> <span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">Weight and Atomic Composition of elemental composition in Sample 3</span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify">&nbsp;</p> <table width="616" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr valign="bottom"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="141" height="9"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">Element</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="148"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">Line Type</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">Wt%</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">Atomic %</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="bottom"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="141" height="10"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">C</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="148"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">K series</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">14.91</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">66.85</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="bottom"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="141" height="10"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">O</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="148"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">K series</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">9.63</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">32.41</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="bottom"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="141" height="10"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">Eu</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="148"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">K series</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">0.53</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">0.74</span></span></p> </td> </tr> <tr valign="bottom"> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="141" height="9"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">Total:</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="148"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;">&nbsp;</span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">25.07</span></span></p> </td> <td style="border-top: 1px solid #000000; border-bottom: 1px solid #000000; border-left: none; border-right: none; padding: 0cm;" width="135"> <p align="center"><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: Calibri, serif;">100</span></span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="center">&nbsp;</p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/anu/mceclip3.png"></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="center"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">Fig. 3. Raman spectra for</span></span></span><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"> A. Sample (1 &amp; 3) B. Sample 4</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm; line-height: 108%;" align="justify"><span style="color: #222222;"><span style="font-family: Arial, serif;">In composites, D/G ratio of sample 1 is 0.96 and that of sample 3 it is further reduced to 0.79. The intensity ratio of D and G bands decreases due to the reduction of scattering effects in composite samples by filling the defect centres with rare earth ions. </span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 108%;" align="center">&nbsp;</p> ANU M A, Rinta Prakash, Nikhila Ann Abraham, Dhanya V Copyright (c) 2021 ANU M A, Rinta Prakash, Nikhila Ann Abraham, Dhanya V https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1279 Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Highly Phosphorescent Iridium Metal Complexes for Energy Efficient OLED Applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2636 <p>The tremendous rise in global energy consumption over the last decade has prompted the scientific community to work toward reducing energy consumption and developing energy-efficient and environment-friendly devices. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are solid-state devices with the aesthetic potential for future low energy, high efficiency, eco-friendly electronic devices. Recent decades have witnessed a remarkable breakthrough in the field of OLEDs, in both research as well as in industries due to their high performance and innumerable ecological benefits [1]. Presently, OLED technology has been applied widely in both display and the lighting sectors owing to their promising features such as low cost, easy fabrication, greater colour tenability, etc [2]. Higher mechanical flexibility of these devices made them a favourable candidate for future flexible electronic devices. OLED is a charge injection type electroluminescent device in which holes and electrons are injected into the active layer from electrodes on the opposite sides. These injected holes and electrons then travel through the thin film, recombining to generate radiative excited states or excitons. Depending on the spin state, this electrically generated exciton could either be a singlet or a triplet. The internal quantum efficiency of OLEDs based on fluorescent materials is limited only to 25% due to their inability to give singlet emission only. One can overcome this singlet-triplet limitation by doping OLEDs with heavy transition metal (Ir, Rh, Ru, Os, Eu, etc.) complexes [3]. The most efficient OLEDs are those prepared with these metal complexes, with internal quantum efficiencies of more than 75% and external quantum efficiencies of almost 25% [4].<br>In the present study, iridium metal complex using 2-phenylpyridine as cyclometalated ligand and acetylacetone as a bidentate ancillary ligand has been successfully synthesized (fig.1) and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elementary analysis (CHNS) which confirms the formation of the metal complex. Photophysical properties are studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. UV-Visible spectroscopy suggests that there are two types of absorptions in iridium metal complexes, one in the UV region due to π – π* transition of cyclometalated ligands and another in the visible region due to metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions [5,6]. The photoluminescence spectroscopy clearly indicates that the synthesized molecule emits in the green region with its emission maxima at 520 nm. Time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy is employed for the calculation of the excited-state lifetime of the synthesized molecule and is found to be 52 ns. The electrochemical behaviour of the complex was studied using cyclic voltammetry analysis. HOMO-LUMO levels are calculated to be 5.21 eV and 2.92 eV. High thermal stability up to 285 oC (ΔT 5%) has been conferred from the thermogravimetric analysis. A preliminary OLED device (fig.2(a)) with polyvinyl carbazole (PVK) as host and the synthesized complex as triplet emitter has been fabricated. The device emits in the green region of the EM spectrum (fig.2(b)) with a turn-on voltage of around 10 volts.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/ankitrao94/mceclip0.png" width="294" height="277">&nbsp; <img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/ankitrao94/mceclip1.png" width="486" height="210"></p> <p>Fig.1.Ir(ppy)2(acac)&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Fig.2. (a) Device structure (b) Green emission from the device</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/ankitrao94/1.png" alt="" width="1022" height="246"></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ankit Kumar Rao Copyright (c) 2021 Ankit Kumar Rao https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2636 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of graphene, Silicon nanowire and silicon nanowire /graphene Heterojunction as a high responsive conductive Photodetector https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2122 <p><span class="fontstyle0">The active Silicon (Si) based photonics have not get much attention due<br>to intrinsic properties of Si. So in the nanodomain the silicon nanowires (SiNWs)<br>based photonics enhance the valuable outcomes because of the advantages low<br>cost, high stability and non-toxicity, high carrier mobility, optical properties, as<br>well as applications in solar cell.<br>Graphene is attractive for realizing optoelectronic devices, including<br>photodetectors because of the unique advantages. It can easily co-work with other<br>semiconductors which the photo-carrier generated by light absorption in the<br>semiconductor might be transported to the graphene layer efficiently by the buildin field by forming Schottky junction . It changes the graphene conduction greatly<br>and provides the possibility of realizing a graphene - based conductive-mode<br>photodetector [1]. </span><span class="fontstyle0">Graphene (G) is attracting significant attention because of its<br>unique physical and electronic properties. The production of graphene through the<br>reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a low-cost method. The reduction of GO can<br>further lead to electrically conductive reduced GO. These graphene-based<br>nanomaterials are attractive for high performance in optoelectronics due to their<br>unique properties, such as high specific surface areas, high electron mobilities, and<br>exceptionally low electronic noise[2,3]. </span><span class="fontstyle0">Graphene has been regarded as a<br>promising material for optoelectronics due to its unique properties and thus<br>provides a potential option for realizing active photonic integrated devices on<br>silicon so far. Here we report the heterojunction of graphene on silicon nanowire<br>The graphene-sheet pattern is obtained by spin coating as it can work in<br>maximizing the responsivity at room temperature (27 °C) . </span><span class="fontstyle0">The general</span><br><span class="fontstyle0">introduction to graphene and their syntheses, is provided. </span><span class="fontstyle0">G</span><span class="fontstyle0">raphene was grown on<br>silicon nanowires and these silicon nanowires are grown on Si Substrate . In this<br>article, we present </span><span class="fontstyle0">graphene / p-type silicon nanowires (p-SiNWs) heterojunction<br>that can work as a valuable </span><span class="fontstyle0">photonic devices.<br>The FESEM analysis of SiNWs based fabricated samples and graphene coated<br>samples are clearly shows the presence of graphene on SiNWs. The XRD of<br>graphene has also been taken for the confirmation of the synthesized graphene. The<br>raman-shift clearly depicts that the band gap of approximately in the range of<br>1.25-1.35 eV which can be useful for the further photovoltaic application. The<br>morphology, structure, and electron field emission (FE) of these graphene films<br>were investigated. The graphene films on the silicon nanowires were continuous.<br>The Raman spectra of the graphene films on the SiNW arrays showed bands with a<br>singular Lorentzian shape .Heterostructures of one-dimensional nanowires<br>supported graphene sheets are promising for future PV based devices .We<br>successfully synthesized a unique chemical approach for the cost-effective and<br>large-scale growth of free-standing Si nanowires. The result of Si nanowire-based<br>heterostructures indicate that the graphene on Si nanowires has a significant<br>influence on their light absorption and scattering properties. Here microstructural<br>analysis of SiNWs and Graphene heterojunction have been characterized by<br>FESEM (HITACHI SU8010) and XRD ( Rigaku Miniflex 600). Ar-ion laser<br>(COHERENT INNOVA 90, λ = 514.5 nm) was used to excite Raman scattering<br>from SiNW and graphene heterojunction. We found our new heterostructures have<br>a combined effect of </span><span class="fontstyle0">These results demonstrate that graphene / SiNWs<br>heterojunction promising for the development of high responsive photodetectors.</span> </p> VIKAS KASHYAP Copyright (c) 2021 VIKAS KASHYAP https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2122 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Exchange Bias in IrMn/NiFe Bilayer Thin Films using Magnetoresistance Technique https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1116 <p>A bottom pinned Si/SiO<sub>2</sub>/Ta(20)/IrMn(15)/NiFe(10)/Ta(5) film has been fabricated using an ion beam sputtering system at room temperature. Post-deposition magnetic annealing was performed in a vacuum of 2´10<sup>-6</sup> mbar at 250˚C for one hour in an in-plane magnetic field of 1.8 kG. The X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity measurements have been performed for the structural and thickness analysis, respectively. The magnetoresistance measurement technique is employed to demonstrate the thermal evaluation of the exchange bias effect, training effect, and magnetization reversal asymmetry. Magnetoresistance measurement revealed a large exchange bias, pronounced magnetization reversal asymmetry, and enhancement in the training effects at 20 K. The experimental result exhibits the occurrence of temperature-dependent change from uniaxial to biaxial exchange anisotropy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sanjay Kumar Kedia Copyright (c) 2021 Sanjay Kumar Kedia https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1116 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by using Plectranthus Amboinious extract for Semiconductor Application https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1703 <p>In this research, “Plectranthus Amboinicus” extract was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their semiconductor application was studied. The main purpose of this research is to give a background on green nanotechnology prospective evolution, pertinent concerns appeared related to the green synthesis of metal and metal oxide from plant extracts, nanoparticle formation mechanism, and the importance of flavonoids, vitamin B2, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and phenolic compounds in the nanoparticle production[1]. There have been many research articles focusing on the use of many kinds of plant extracts as reducing agents for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles [3]. On the other hand, the friendly method to obtain silver nanoparticles is by green synthesis. This method utilizes organic compounds from aqueous plant extracts, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agents. Based on this, the extract of the plant was prepared and the syntheses of silver nanoparticles under different concentrations were investigated [2]. Sol-gel materials have a wide range of applications such as environmental protection, solar cells, energy storage, ceramics, sensors, magnetic devices, etc. The main advantage of the sol-gel technology is the possibility to control the mechanism and kinetics of the proceeding chemical reactions, in other words, controlling each step of the sol-gel processes [4]. The best conditions for the synthesis of nanoparticles were 0.5 and 1conc of AgNO3. In the synthesis process, it is generally referred to as a low-temperature method using inorganic precursors, that can produce ceramics and glasses with better purity and homogeneity than through high-temperature conventional processes the leaf extract and silver nitrate solution was mixed and sol-gel treated at 80˚C, pH 7 of the extract were characterized with the help of XRD, FTIR, UV-VIS, FESEM, PL[3]. The XRD studies reveal that the prepared sample is exhibited a cubic structure and the average crystallite size was found.It has been analysed regarding Ag nanoparticles and the lattice parameters are determined. The sharp band at 2927.94 and 3056.23 is due to the C–H stretch and Alkanes groups are present in 1 and 0.5 samples. The FITR spectrum indicated the strong presence of Ag nanoparticles. UV-Visible absorption studies showed that the increase of particle size was accompanied and the cut off wavelength from 226 and 252nm. The energy bandgap for silver nanoparticles was calculated using the tauc equation. The microstructural and morphological studies were carried out by using the FESEM technique. The morphology of the synthesized nanoparticle is nanoflakes. The photoluminescence light from the sample was measured at a different wavelength and the emission was recorded for silver nanoparticles in the range of 200-800nm with the excitation wavelength. From the results, it is confirmed that the Ag nanoparticles emit UV light of violet and indigo fluorescence light. When they are excited with UV light has the lower cut-off wavelength at 401nm and 399nm. The use advantages of this plant can be used by nanotechnology processing industries. In this case, prepared nanoparticles are the large value of the bandgap the indicates the materials is a good insulator and can provide large transmission can be used in semiconductor applications for the large-scale synthesis of nanoparticles. &nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Table 1.</strong></p> <table width="661"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="78"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conc</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> </td> <td width="177"> <p><strong>POSITION (2</strong><strong>)</strong></p> </td> <td width="208"> <p><strong>FULL WITH HALF MAXIMUM (β)</strong></p> </td> <td width="198"> <p><strong>GRAIN SIZE(D)= 0.9λ / βcosθ</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="78"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>0.5N</strong></p> </td> <td width="177"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>31.674</strong></p> </td> <td width="208"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>2.829</strong></p> </td> <td width="198"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>43.67087</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="78"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>1.0N</strong></p> </td> <td width="177"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 32.175</strong></p> </td> <td width="208"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>2.799</strong></p> </td> <td width="198"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>38.68907</strong></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Sandhiya M, Dr.S.P.Vijayachamundeeswari, Dr.S.P.Vijayachamundeeswari Copyright (c) 2021 Sandhiya M, Dr.S.P.Vijayachamundeeswari, Dr.S.P.Vijayachamundeeswari https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1703 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Thermoelectric Properties of Pr3Se4 compound: DFT Study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1238 <p>Thermoelectric (TE) materials are used in thermoelectric devices to generate electricity from heat and vice-versa[1,2]. The efficiency of thermoelectric energy transformation is estimated in terms of a dimensionless parameter named as the figure of merit (ZT), which is expressed as ZT=, where k is thermal conductivity which is equal to the sum of the lattice part of thermal conductivity (), the electronic part thermal conductivity (i.e., , T is the temperature, S is Seebeck coefficient and s is electrical conductivity. One such class of TE materials is Rare-earth (RE) chalcogenides having the Th<sub>3</sub>P<sub>4</sub> crystal structure because they have&nbsp; fairly good figure of merit values in the high-temperature range with potential applications in radioisotope thermoelectric generators [3–7]. Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4</sub> has the Th<sub>3</sub>P<sub>4</sub> structure, with the BCC structure space group &nbsp;(#220) [8]. We have performed calculations using density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in Quantum espresso [9]. The Generalized Gradient Approximation of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) was utilized for interpreting the exchange-correlational functional[10]. The optimized lattice constant for Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4</sub> is 8.95 Å which is in good agreement with experimental value 8.885 Å [11]. As shown in Figure 1, the Fermi level E<sub>f</sub> crosses the conduction band (CB) in Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4</sub>, therefore, is metal which is superconducting at low temperatures. Boltz Trap code [12] has been used to compute transport properties (electronic figure of merit ZT<sub>e</sub>, power factor PF, electronic part of thermal conductivity k<sub>e,</sub> electrical conductivity s and Seebeck coefficient S) as a function of temperature. In order to determine the optimum doping concentration, We have calculated the values of Power factor for different doping concentrations ranging from &nbsp;carrier/cm<sup>3</sup> to 5.5&nbsp;carrier/cm<sup>3 </sup>for Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4</sub> as Figure 2. It can be clearly noticed from the Figure 2 that Power factor has the peak at doping concentration equal to 2.66x10<sup>21</sup> holes/cm<sup>3 </sup>for Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4 </sub>at 700 K. Therefore, thermoelectric properties such as Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, electronic thermal conductivity and figure of merit have been evaluated at optimum carrier concentration. The quantities such as S, PF and k<sub>e</sub>/t have improved for optimized carrier concentration in Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4</sub>. The figure of merit ZTe &nbsp;are evaluated as presented in Figure 3. Electronic figure of merit ZT<sub>e</sub> increases with temperature and has largest value (0.43) at highest temperature1300 K for optimized carrier concentration in Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4. </sub>&nbsp;ZTe shows a significant improvement compared to undoped Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4 </sub>value (0.27). We conclude that Pr3Se4 could be a promising material for thermoelectric applications. These calculations will be helpful to experimentalist for investigating rare-earth chalcogenides as thermoelectric material for high temperatures applications.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/ghadah/pr3se4.gif" alt="" width="1415" height="989"></p> <p>Figure 1: PDOS and TDOS of Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4</sub>.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/ghadah/pfpr3se4.gif" alt=""></p> <p>Figure 2: Power factor (PF) of Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4 </sub>versus&nbsp; carrier concentrations for different temperature.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/ghadah/graph13.gif" alt="" width="1415" height="989"></p> <p>Figure 3: Electronic figure of merit (ZTe) as function of temperature for undoped and optimized Pr<sub>3</sub>Se<sub>4</sub> compound.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ghadah Alghamdi, Ranjan Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Ghadah Alghamdi, Ranjan Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1238 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Mini Review: Enhancement of Photodynamic therapy for Cancer Treatment https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/266 <p>Cancer touches more lives than our knowledge. In the past time, many researchers have focused on conventional treatments to cut off the effects of cancer rate[1]. The nature of tumors becomes extremely heterogeneous through cancer development, generating mixed inhabitants of cells characterized by diverse molecular features and varied responsivity to treatments. One of the enduring areas of both scientists and oncologists is to establish a structure for the comprehensive cure of cancer with a smaller amount of toxic contrary effect and better-quality of life for patients[2]. Photodynamic therapy is one of the well documented, modern, non-invasive, novel therapeutic techniques that deals with photosensitizers which is excited at an appropriate wavelength can produce reactive oxygen species which could destroy the nearby cancer cells thus restricting the growth of tumor tissues[3]. The photosensitizers, light wavelength, light intensity, site, depth of tumor tissue located from the surface and tissue oxygenation(i.e.,ROS- Reactive Oxygen Species)generation determines photodynamic therapy efficacies for a particular patient(Fig.1. describes the Jablonski diagram explaining the photophysical and photochemical mechanism of Photodynamic Therapy). The three main processes through which PDT causes tumor annihilation are as follows:-. (1) direct destruction of tumor cells, (2) causing damage to the tumor vasculature, construction of thrombus, succeeding tumor infarction, (3) stimulation of an immune response in contrast to the cancer cells[4]–[7].</p> <p>In this current era, treatments are frequently evolving with fresh breakthroughs and discoveries but determining which grouping of therapies would go right is grave. The notion of enhancing photodynamic therapy through new combining channels was to overcome the hindrances which will play a novelty in treating malignant tumor cells. Numerous difficulties were faced while using the photosensitizers and light like:</p> <ul> <li>High Toxicity,</li> <li>Non-target specific,</li> <li>Less stability time,</li> <li>Low quantum yield,</li> <li>No integrative ability,</li> <li>Non-solubility in water,</li> <li>Particular light-wavelength,</li> <li>Less penetrating power,</li> <li>Low excitation states,</li> <li>Non-forgiving.</li> </ul> <p>We aim to mix few photosensitizers and then will conjugate them with upconversion nanoparticles as the latter prevents the premature release of the former. When light a prime operator is shined of the appropriate wavelength, the nano-photosensitizers generate tissue oxygenation(i.e., ROS- Reactive Oxygen Species) due to high quantum yield eliciting cancer cell death. Our main objectives:</p> <ul> <li>Photodynamic therapy will be linked with other noble therapeutics.</li> <li>Use of natural agents.</li> <li>Low toxic photosensitizers.</li> <li>High quantum yield.</li> <li>Cost-effective.</li> </ul> <p>Additionally, for the past short time period the glory and refinement of nano-medicines allowed to integrate the agents responsible for imaging, helps in delivery of modules of light. The accelerative usage of nano-medicines in photodynamic therapy in the current art state is carried out effectively in in-vitro and in-vivo research and also to show the outlook on the potentials and challenges of photodynamic therapy concerning successful conversion into enormous clinical applications[8](Table 1. describes the comprehensive data of completed clinical trials in PDT). PDT is synthesizing targeted delivery of photosensitizers at the site using small molecule drugs or antibodies or aptamers conjugated to the photosensitizers. Targeted therapeutics have also been superior to other conventional therapeutics since it has the ability to reduce the bystander effect and target specifically the tumor cells.</p> MONOSHA PRIYADARSHINI Copyright (c) 2021 MONOSHA PRIYADARSHINI https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/266 Sat, 11 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Terahertz Characterization of undoped and doped ZnO nanowires https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/304 <p>In recent times, many novel applications for usage in the terahertz (THz) frequency range are being suggested and developed. Similarly, many novel materials are also being studied for prospective applications in these areas [1]. In this context, nanostructured forms are of great interest because they can provide broad spectrum of photonic characteristics [2]. However, these characteristics are not very straightforward to predict. One of the interesting nanomaterials that evolved recently is zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, which is a one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. However, the performance of nanomaterials-based devices are severely affected by their structure. While sintered nanoparticle films may provide a more efficient electron transport channel, nanowires may give a more direct connection between the source of photogeneration and the conducting substrate [3]. ZnO nanowires having a hexagonal wurtzite structure can be employed as a wide-band-gap semiconductor to construct dye-sensitized solar cells which exhibit a wide energy bandgap of 3.45 eV and a large exciton binding energy (60 meV) at room temperature. However, there are ample scopes to understand the characteristics of the ZnO nanowires in order to employ it for the development of various applications in the terahertz domain. &nbsp;</p> <p>Therefore, in this work, we focus on the characterization of undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires, 5% Ni-doped ZnO nanowires, and 5% Cu-doped ZnO nanowires at the THz frequency domain [6]. Here, the nanowire samples are grown by chemical bath deposition. The peak intensity, strain, crystal size, position, and width, as well as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) data of the nanowires are identified through XRD characterization. Further, the refractive index, absorption coefficient, Optical density, and conductivity properties of undoped and doped ZnO nanowires are determined by the THz- time domain spectroscopy (TDS) measurements and extracted by employing the Drude-Lorentz model [4]. The schematic of the THz-TDS measurements of ZnO nanoparticle-based thin films are shown in figure 1A. Fig.1 B) represents the measured terahertz time-domain pulses after passing through the different ZnO samples (undoped &amp; doped). These transmitted THz pulses were detected in the time domain using the typical pump-probe principle.</p> <p>Several optical parameters are extracted from these measured THz pulses. The real part of the refractive index of undoped ZnO nanorods, Ni-doped ZnO nanorods, and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods are fairly constant in the range 0.2-0.8 THz. The refractive index of Cu-doped ZnO is greater than the Ni-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO nanowires. In the whole frequency range, the real part of the refractive index of Cu-doped ZnO is higher than that of Ni-doped ZnO and undoped ZnO nanowires. Also, we obtain lower absorption and less conductivity for all the samples. The real and the imaginary part of conductivity is significant for the full spectral range up to 0.8 THz. We observe that the 830 nm thick Cu-doped ZnO sample is much more conductive than the Ni-doped ZnO (900 nm) and undoped ZnO (940nm) nanowires. Based on our present data, the optical conductivity of the samples is found to be thickness dependent, at least throughout the range of this study. This is most likely due to small perturbations in the deposition techniques as well as a variable ratio of bulk contributions to interface contributions like surface state electrons [3]. We believe the current study will help to understand THz behaviour of ZnO nanorods with different doping elements.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/arunjana_20/presentation1.jpg" alt=" Fig.1. A) Schematic representation of THz-TDS on nanowire samples B) The THz pulses are measured after transmission from the samples." width="815" height="292"></p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Fig.1.</strong> &nbsp;A) Schematic representation of THz-TDS on nanowire samples B)&nbsp; The THz pulses are measured after transmission from the samples.</p> Arun Jana, Tapas Das, Koijam Monika Devi, Asim Guchhait, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury Copyright (c) 2021 Arun Jana, Tapas Das, Koijam Monika Devi, Asim Guchhait, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/304 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Magnetic Properties of Undoped and Bi doped LaMnO3 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2293 <p>Perovskite materials have wide range of applications in the area of spintronics and thermoelectricity. Among manganites LaMnO<sub>3</sub> is a well studied simple perovskite system due to its interesting magnetic and transport properties.Most of the investigation&nbsp; is concentrated on the properties of A site hole- doped(A=Ca,Sr,Ba etc) LaMnO<sub>3</sub>.Previous studies report that undoped LaMnO<sub>3 </sub>as an antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator having Mn<sup>3+</sup> oxidation state.It arises from the superexchange AFM interactions between Mn<sup>3+</sup> ions.Here ,we have synthesized&nbsp; LaMnO<sub>3 </sub>and La<sub>1-x</sub>Bi<sub>x</sub>MnO<sub>3</sub>(x=0.1,0.2)&nbsp; from La<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>,Bi<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and MnO<sub>2</sub> through three step heating process by conventional solid state route. It crystallizes in orthorhombic phase with space group pnma,structural and magnetic properties were also investigated with increasing Bi content.The saturating hysteresis loops confirm ferromagnetic (FM) nature with transition temperature T<sub>C</sub>=241.66K &nbsp;and have high magnetization with small coercive field for LaMnO<sub>3</sub>. From Curie Weiss plot at 500Oe gives C-W temperature(θ) as 233.68K ,the positive value of θ is another justification for the FM material.The ferromagnetic order may be due to the evolution of oxygen stoichiometry,during synthesize the material can be oxidized, leading to the presence of both Mn<sup>3+</sup> and Mn<sup>4+</sup> results &nbsp;double exchange ferromagnetic interactions between Mn<sup>3+</sup> and Mn<sup>4+</sup> ions[1]. There is a peak in the zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization at a temperature (Tp) 43.20K.,the presence of cusp in ZFC is an indication of glassy nature.Epitaxial LaMnO<sub>3</sub> films [2] exhibit a similar peak in previous report and identified as glassy nature.The magnetization versus temperature measurement is carried out at different field confirms the ferromagnetic ordering.The variation of oxygen content plays a major role in the magnetic properties of manganites.Generally hole doping at the cationic La site with Sr,Ba,Ca generates unusual magnetic properties like colossal magneto resistance (CMR)&nbsp; and ferromagnetic property in LaMnO<sub>3</sub>. La site doped with Bi results in noticeable magnetic properties,it has similar ionic radius and valency as that of La.It belongs to the orthorhombic crystal symmetry with pnma space group, similar to undoped LaMnO<sub>3</sub>.The transition temperature (T<sub>C</sub>) changes with Bi substitution,T<sub>C</sub> =157.16K for x=0.1 and T<sub>C</sub>=104.06K for x=0.2.At low temperatures it shows ferromagnetic nature and above T<sub>C</sub> transforms into paramagnetic phase. The linear fit of the 1/χ vs T gives positive CW temperatures for doped system.From previous reports Bi substitution act like divalent ions similar to Ba or Sr [3].LaMnO<sub>3</sub> with x=0.1 concentration of Bi shows minute splitting in ZFC –FC curve at low temperature at 500Oe field.There is a visible bifurcation in the ZFC-FC curve for x=0.2 doped LaMnO<sub>3 </sub>and observed a cusp in the ZFC magnetization at low temperature. The bifurcation and the cusp are the primary features of glassy like behaviour and also it shows a spin glass [4] like behavior in Bi doped LaMnO<sub>3</sub>.The synthesized undoped &nbsp;and Bi doped LaMnO<sub>3</sub> exhibit &nbsp;ferromagnetic nature instead of antiferromagnetic behavior,which is confirmed from various magnetic measurements &nbsp;and there exist exotic magnetic property like glassy nature.</p> CHINNU V DEVAN, Biswapriya Deb, Manoj Raama Varma Copyright (c) 2021 CHINNU V DEVAN, Biswapriya Deb, Manoj Raama Varma https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2293 Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of pear-shape nuclei on fusion barrier and synthesis of new elements https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1114 <p>In heavy-ion induced reactions, the deformations and orientation degrees of freedom are considered as important tools to understand nuclear fusion dynamics. For the synthesis of new isotope, the projectile nucleus has to penetrate through the Coulomb barrier, posed due to long-range repulsive Coulomb and short-range attractive nuclear potentials, which get altered at different orientations of the deformed colliding partners. In the present work, the importance of octupole deformation (up to β<sub>3</sub>) and related optimum orientations [1] has been explored in terms of fusion barrier characteristics (barrier height V<sub>B</sub>, barrier position R<sub>B</sub> and barrier curvature hw<sub>B</sub>) and fusion cross-sections. For the above analysis, different pairs of target-projectile combinations (spherical-octupole, quadrupole-octupole and octupole-octupole) have been taken into account. Here, the doubly magic (spherical) nuclei, i.e. <sup>16</sup>O and <sup>48</sup>Ca, the quadrupole deformed nuclei <sup>48</sup>Ar (β<sub>2</sub> = -0.205), and <sup>62</sup>Fe (β<sub>2</sub> = 0.152) are used respectively as projectile of first two combinations. The soft-pear shape <sup>144</sup>Ba (β<sub>2</sub> = 0.163, β<sub>3</sub> = -0.124) with small value of β<sub>3</sub> and rigid-pear shape <sup>280</sup>Ra (β<sub>2</sub> = 0.069, β<sub>3</sub> = -0.163) are taken as target in all considered reactions. The results obtained are discussed in reference to the spherical and quadrupole configurations of considered choices of octupole deformed nuclei. Many authors have given various models to obtain the barrier characteristics. In this respect, some of the Skyrme forces of different parameter sets [2 – 4], i.e. SIII, SLy4, SkT1, eMSL07, GSkI, GSkII and SSk, employed in deriving the interaction potential has been found to address the nucleus-nucleus interaction problems [5]. In the present work, the barrier modifications observed with the inclusion of deformations up to β<sub>3</sub> and related orientation degrees of freedom, in reference to that of spherical and β<sub>2</sub> deformation, illustrate the impact of pear-shape octupole deformed nuclei in the formation of an excited Compound Nucleus (<em>CN</em>). Furthermore, the fusion cross-sections have been calculated using the Wong formula [6] over a wide range of centre of mass energies, E<sub>c.m.</sub> (MeV), which spread across the Coulomb barrier. The incorporation of octupole deformation and related orientations within the Skyrme Energy Density Formalism may help to explore the possible combinations for the synthesis of new isotopes.</p> SHIVANI JAIN, RAJ KUMAR, MANOJ KUMAR SHARMA Copyright (c) 2021 SHIVANI JAIN, RAJ KUMAR, MANOJ KUMAR SHARMA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1114 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE AND SELF SYNTHESIZED CARBON NANOMATERIALS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/587 <p>The element carbon has been used as a source of energy for the past few hundred years, and now in this era of technology, carbon has played a significant and very prominent role in almost all fields of science and technology.&nbsp;&nbsp; We now live in a world where nanoscale engineering has important applications in a wide range of fields, from everyday life to space technology. Nanoscience and nanotechnology, which deal with the regulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale, are quickly gaining traction as the most effective technology due to their wide range of possible applications. Among materials at the nanoscale, carbon and its allotropes are found to exhibit interesting properties.</p> <p>For the past few decades, carbon and its various allotropic forms have been a burgeoning and extensively researched area. The revolution that began in 1985 with the discovery of fullerenes continues today with the newly discovered wonder material graphene and has never failed to pique the scientific community's interest. &nbsp;The interesting characteristic of carbon is its ability to form many allotropes due to its valency. In recent decades, various allotropes and forms of carbon have been invented, including fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene. So as an honor to this marvelous element, we humans should know about its various forms of existence. In this present work, we shed light on structural studies of commercially available and self-synthesized carbon nanoparticles. A brief introduction is given to the types, structures, and shapes of the allotropes of carbon for a better understanding. The crystallographic structure of the carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) is investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak profile analysis. The microstructure is characterized based on crystallite size, interplanar spacing, density, strain, and dislocation density. Raman spectroscopy is particularly well studied to characterize the molecular morphology of CNMs. Polymer-based nanocomposites are gaining attention in various fields of science and technology due to their tunable properties. Finally, polymer nanocomposites of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with different CNMs were prepared by the standard solution cast method. The present work is aimed at the studies of structural properties of different carbon-based nanomaterials. Also, to study the performance of these carbon-based nanomaterials in polymer matrix composites. The summaries of major objectives are as follows: The materials investigated are commercially available and self-synthesized carbon-based nanomaterials. We have presented crystalline allotropes of carbon like graphite and graphene, two hydrocarbons like camphor soot and carbon black also focused on the production of activated carbon from waste materials; industrial (sawdust) and agricultural (coconut shell) as the potential precursors of carbon-based nanomaterials. To characterize the carbon-based nanomaterials by XRD and Raman analysis. Preparation of standalone poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based {i) graphite ii) graphene &amp; iii) camphor soot} nano-composite using standard solution casting technique. Carbon nanomaterials have found applications in a variety of fields of science and technology, including energy storage and conversion, sensors, drug delivery, field emission detectors and nanoscale electronic components, due to their exceptional physical-chemical properties. Conjugated carbon nanomaterials overlay the areas of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. CNTs have a significant influence in a variety of fields. The chemistry and control of carbon nanotube properties, as well as the assembly of nanotube products, are still active research areas. CNTs are currently used in structural composite materials, flat-panel displays (FPD), gas and energy storage, antifouling paint, micro-and nanoelectronics radar-absorbing coating technological textile, ultra-capacitors, atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, batteries with increased lifespan, and biosensors, among other applications [1].</p> ASHISH ROY, Dr W Madhuri, Basil Chacko Copyright (c) 2021 ASHISH ROY, Dr W Madhuri, Basil Chacko https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/587 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Design of an Electrostatic Ion Trap and Time-of-Flight Tube using SIMION Software https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2026 <p>Simulation and modelling are essential components in engineering design, prototyping and construction. They not only aid in predicting possible challenges in a given design but can also predict potential challenges during the construction of a working model. An Electrostatic ion trap uses an electric field to trap the incoming ions from an ion source, confine them for a certain period of time and then release them either as a continuous or pulsed ion beam. Ions once released from the trap, are made to fly through a Time of Flight (ToF) tube for segregation base on their energies and mass. Here, different classes of ions get separated and form clusters of ion beams. The time taken to travel the length of the tube is equated to the mass of the ion which gives the energy and mass of the ions. The advantage of using an Ion trap and ToF tube gives increased accuracy and resolution for a particle’s mass &amp; energy. In this proposed paper, we will be presenting simulations of such prototypes using the SIMION simulation software, where we have designed an (a) Electrostatic ion trap and (b) Time of Flight tube. The electrostatic ion trap comprising of rectangular and square configurations was created using three electrodes, two end electrodes and a central confinement electrode which are independent of each other. Ion sources like helium, neon, argon, hydrogen was used in the simulations reported in this paper. Experimental data of confinement time of ions with respect to the various potential of the electrodes will also be reported. The simulation of a Time-of-flight tube where the bunched ions from the Ion trap are passed through it will be discussed in detail for the forementioned ions. A 1m and 2m ToF tube is designed for simulating the flight time. The ion beams which are introduced to the ToF are affected by the retarding potential which modifies their K.E. This is reflected as variations in their velocity/time taken to reach the end of the tube. These readings are then back-calculated to find their K.E which leads to the mass determination of these ion beams.</p> <p>The results obtained from these measurements are used to discuss the mass and energy resolution of the given system. This finds application in many industries like ion separation and purification methods, mass spectroscopy, etc.</p> Mr, Dr, Mr, Ms Copyright (c) 2021 Mr, Dr, Mr, Ms https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2026 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Analysis of Ionospheric Turbulence by using Wavelet Analysis for Earthquake Precursor https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/737 <p>An earthquake is a trembling and shaking movement of the earth's crust produced by the rupture and sliding of a fault. A sudden elastic energy is released from rocks that are subjected to a large strain as a result of slippage and rupture along the fault line. Many publications related to earthquakes precursors have been released in the last twenty years in order to predict the earthquakes. Wavelet-based techniques have been implemented across several aspects in space research but many applications associated with them. The wavelet analysis is well adapted to analyzing turbulence as well as the signal attenuation properties in ionosphere data. The turbulent characteristic of the ionosphere has been investigated in the dynamic of ionosphere in-homogeneities and genesis. The structure of the ionosphere indicates the degree of ionization, the free electron density becoming a major component of a formation of ionization. Ionosphere, magnetosphere, navigation, global communication, and underground imagination are all possible. Observations on seismic gaps, seismic quiescence, and seismic activity migration during the seismic cycle are all part of the research on seismic abnormalities. This paper will give you lots a basic understanding of natural catastrophe of Such a Seismic events. In this article, we will discuss what an earthquake is, its consequences, and the most common earthquake prone regions. Anyone may obtain a general overview of our endeavor by reading this document. Pre-earthquake electromagnetic field disruptions, known as pre-seismic events, can occur hours or even days before the main shock. The microsatellite can detect waves as well as several critical plasma characteristics (ion composition, electron density and temperature, energetic particles) in the ionosphere across seismic areas with great temporal resolution. The recent research will provide an investigation of the low frequency variations of the electric fields for the selected strong earthquakes. The study of the features of the spectra of these fluctuations, as well as the search for nonlinear effects, will receive special emphasis. This analysis is feasible throughout the time span during which the waveform had been sent. The method of energy transfer from the earthquake to the ionosphere is unknown, but we may discuss the behavior of the ionosphere plasma and look for instabilities that could be causing electromagnetic field fluctuations. The mechanisms that might cause ionosphere perturbation during earthquake preparation are linked to charge redistribution at the Earth's surface, release of radioactive gas (radon), or propagation of acoustic-gravity waves. The ionosphere plasma is unstable and easily disturbed, and these disturbances can proceed to the nonlinear stage, resulting in the formation of turbulence.</p> Monika Thakur Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Thakur https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/737 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Multi-Functional Double doped Ferroelectric SrBi2Nb2O9 system with Red emission, Low magnetic response and high wear resistance https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/813 <p>The ferroelectric perovskite SBN material with low concentration of double doping at the Bi-site of SBN was studied to understand its influence and usefulness in integrated optoelectronics [1], soft magnetic memory devices [2] and in wear-resistant tribomaterials [3]. At present there is a growing demand for the multifunctional ferroelectric ceramic materials in anticipation of device applications such as optical sensors and transducers, Nonvolatile memory storage, micro electro mechanical (MEMs) systems and actuators [4] and communication systems such as dielectric resonator antennas (DRA) [5]. The main intention behind the double doping of SBN with a set of rare earth elements Pr/Dy; Pr/Gd; Pr/Sm and Pr/Y is to identify the ferroelectric SBN as a multifunctional ceramic material. The prime challenges of the above studies are (1) Double doping BLSF material with sustained single phase. (2) Increased understanding of material properties for the multifunctional attributes. The double doped ferroelectric materials are prepared from solid state reaction method. The Structural (XRD and FTIR), microstructural (SEM), Purity analysis (EDS), Optical (DRS and PL), Magnetic (VSM) and Mechanical (Wear Coefficient and friction coefficient) studies were carried out to understand the utility of the materials for the next generation multifunctional materials. XRD study confirmed that the materials have a single-phase orthorhombic structure [6]. SEM analysis revealed the presence of an inhomogeneous distribution of needle shaped grains in the materials. The purity of the material and lattice order were received from EDS and FTIR spectroscopy. The wide absorption was noticed at 320-350 nm range, from DRS study, shown in fig. 1. The estimated band gap values for SBN and double doped SBN materials were in the range of 2.70 eV - 2.99 eV, which makes these materials suitable for photocatalytic activity for decomposition of water into H<sub>2</sub> or O<sub>2</sub> [7]. Excitation of double doped SBN material with an excitation wavelength of 320 nm has produced a novel red emission at 609 nm, that is useful for white LEDs [8], shown in fig. 2. The mechanical studies divulged that SBPDN and SBPSN ceramic materials possess mild wear (&lt;10<sup>−6</sup> mm<sup>3</sup>/Nm) and low coefficient of friction values, listed in table 1, making them suitable for wear-resistant tribomaterials and self-lubricating materials [9-10]. The VSM studies on the rare earth double doped SBN ceramics confirmed the induction and existence of magnetic order with a hysteresis loop in SBPDN and SBPGN, acceptable for soft magnetic memory devices [2]. The characterization of double doped SBN materials attempted for the first time established the multifunctional nature, creating an avenue for new material systems to exceed current standards that are useful in preparing miniaturized devices that impact the society.</p> Nagamani Sangula Copyright (c) 2021 Nagamani Sangula https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/813 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ion Ion acoustic waves in magnetized dense plasma with quantum effect of degenerate electrons https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/301 <p>The ion-acoustic waves are examined in magnetized dense plasma with quantum effects of degenerate electrons in<br>this model. After reviewing the basic introduction of quantum plasma, we describe the nonlinear phenomenon of ion<br>acoustic wave. The reductive perturbation technique is employed for low frequency nonlinear electrostatic modes in<br>magnetized quantum plasma. In this paper, we have derived the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation of ion-acoustic<br>solitons in a magnetized quantum plasma with degenerate electrons having arbitrary electron temperature by QHD<br>model. It is found that the width of the solitons is depend on dimensionless quantum parameter H but amplitude is<br>independent on H and this study helpful in magnetized solid-density plasma.</p> Neelam rani, Manikant yadav, Manikant yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Neelam rani, Manikant yadav, Manikant yadav https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/301 Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis of Sn doped ZnO/CuI based p-n heterojunction photoanode for Photoelectrochemical water splitting https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2394 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>In the forthcoming era, our next generation would witness a shift from non-renewable resource dependent society towards a society that relies on renewable resources due to ecological footprint, rising prices of fossil fuels, unsecured energy and anticipated depletion of age old fossil reserves. The principal goal of 21<sup>st</sup> century is to secure the eco-friendly ambience and sustainable fuels as the ecological balance is hampered with each passing day. Harvesting energy from the sun is contemplated to be one of the notable choices to meet the ever increasing energy demands of the current progressive society due to its abundance, cost-effectiveness and eco-amiable nature. Due to worldwide abatement of energy resources, it is a current need for the researchers to make use of sustainable resources including clean energy H<sub>2</sub>. Photoelectrochemical splitting of water into H<sub>2</sub> and O<sub>2</sub> turned out to be a constructive strategy to overcome the prevailing energy crunch. Over the decades, numerous semiconductors based on metal-oxides have been widely investigated as photoanodes for photoelectrochemical applications. ZnO has been considered as a significant material due to its excellent optoelectronic properties but the main drawback of this semiconductor is its limited absorbance in the visible range of the solar spectrum. In order to activate its properties in the visible region different strategies were opted such as doping or coupling low band gap semiconductors with large band gap semiconductors. In this work, ZnO is doped with different concentrations of Sn and coupled with CuI to construct a p-n heterostructure. Compared to bare ZnO, 5%Sn:ZnO/CuI manifested better absorbance in visible region, enhanced photocurrent density (0.56 mA/cm<sup>2</sup>), more negative flat band potential, high charge carrier density and least semi-circular arc radius in Nyquist plot.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> sanchari banerjee, R Thangavel Copyright (c) 2021 sanchari banerjee, R Thangavel https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2394 Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation on Structural Properties of BiFeO3–SmFeO3 Ceramic-Composites https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1983 <p>Multiferroic materials possess extensive potential applications which can be explored in high-sensitivity ac magnetic field sensors and electrically tunable microwave devices such as filters, oscillators and phase shifters.<br>This work is mainly focused of Perovskite types of ceramic-composites of BiFeO3–SmFeO3 (BFO-SFO) has been synthesized using solid state reaction route. The polycrystalline samples of rare-earth ferrite-modified bismuth ferrite (i.e., (BiFeO3)1-x + (SmFeO3)x with x = 0.0 ,0.1 , 0.2 , 0.3) were synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. The ceramic-composite powders were characterized by powder X-Ray diffraction (PXRD) to confirm the existence of mixed crystallographic phases. The induced strain upon loading SmFeO3 (SFO) in BiFeO3 (BFO) matrix has been computed with the aid of Williamson–Hall (W–H) plot. Surface morphologies of ceramic-composite powders have been studied using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images. The overall results obtained have been discussed in detail.</p> Chinmaya Kumar Raut, Samita Patnaik, Dillip Pattanayak Copyright (c) 2021 Chinmaya Kumar Raut, Samita Patnaik, Dillip Pattanayak https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1983 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of astrophysical S-factor for 12C + 16O and 16O + 16O reactions within the relativistic mean-field approach https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1270 <p>The nuclear fusion reactions are significant in the description of various astrophysical phenomena such as energy generation and nucleosynthesis at all phases of stellar evolution [1]. The main nucleosynthesis products of stellar helium burning are <sup>12</sup>C and <sup>16</sup>O. Thus the fusion reactions <sup>12</sup>C + <sup>12</sup>C, <sup>12</sup>C + <sup>16</sup>O, and <sup>16</sup>O + <sup>16</sup>O are of utmost importance in exploring the nucleosynthesis, timescale, and energy production during the later stages of stellar evolution [1]. The stellar energies at which these reactions occur lie below the present range of experimentally accessible energy regions. The suppression of fusion cross-section at below-barrier energies of astrophysical relevance due to Coulomb repulsion prevents the direct measurements at laboratories [1]. Thus reliable theoretical predictions for these reactions are essential to extrapolate the reaction cross-section at energies of astrophysical interest. In a previous study [2], we have investigated the fusion cross-section along with the astrophysical S-factor for <sup>12</sup>C + <sup>12</sup>C reaction within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) approach. In the present analysis, we extend our study to probe the fusion dynamics of <sup>12</sup>C + <sup>16</sup>O and <sup>16</sup>O + <sup>16</sup>O astrophysical reactions. The nuclear density distributions for <sup>12</sup>C and <sup>16</sup>O nuclei are obtained from the relativistic mean-field formalism for the non-linear NL3<sup>*</sup> parameter set [3]. These RMF densities, along with the widely adopted M3Y and relativistic R3Y [3] nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction potentials, are used to obtain the nuclear potential within the double folding approach [3]. The ℓ-summed Wong model is used to obtain the fusion cross-section with ℓmax values extracted from the sharp cut-off model [3]. The fusion cross-section is represented in terms of astrophysical S-factor, and the results are also compared with the available experimental data [4-5]. The microscopic R3Y NN potential is observed to give a reasonable fit to the experimental cross-section. Thus, it would be interesting to explore the dynamics of nuclear fusion reactions taking place in different astrophysical environments within this microscopic approach.</p> Shilpa Rana, N. Jain, T. M. Joshua, M. Bhuyan, Raj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Shilpa Rana, N. Jain, T. M. Joshua, M. Bhuyan, Raj Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1270 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Electrical, optical and structural stability over ten years for Sb based III-V semiconducting bulk grown by VDS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1461 <p>III-V semiconductors have an advantage of not being degraded with time at room temperature, among non-silica semiconductors. This stability study is useful at the places where frequent device replacement is not possible.The vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique is employed for the growth of bulk crystals, without the seed, without contact to the ampoule wall, without coating and without external pressure [3]. VDS has been successful in growing high quality (III-V semiconducting binary and ternary bulk crystals of [3].&nbsp; grown by VDS are quality comparable to that obtained at microgravity growth conditions and therefore an excellent candidate to be fabricated in junction devices.</p> <p>&nbsp;The Antimony based III-V VDS substrates have been studied before and after an interval of ten years for any possible degradation in quality that may affect their applicability. In this paper variation in electrical, optical and structural degradation properties of antimony based bulk VDS substrates are discussed. VDS Grown were characterized pre and post experimental period under same conditions. FTIR, XRD, Raman and resistivity measurements methods were used to measure optical, structural and electrical consistency over the time.</p> <p>The fall in transmission obtained by FTIR agrees with &nbsp;difference from as grown condition [6]. X-ray diffraction pattern corresponding to [111] orientation for &nbsp;agrees with the pre-interval data with &nbsp;. Raman spectra also confirm the crystalline structure exhibiti</p> <p>III-V semiconductors have an advantage of not being degraded with time at room temperature, among non-silica semiconductors. This stability study is useful at the places where frequent device replacement is not possible.The vertical directional solidification (VDS) technique is employed for the growth of bulk crystals, without the seed, without contact to the ampoule wall, without coating and without external pressure [3]. VDS has been successful in growing high quality (III-V semiconducting binary and ternary bulk crystals of [3].&nbsp; grown by VDS are quality comparable to that obtained at microgravity growth conditions and therefore an excellent candidate to be fabricated in junction devices.</p> <p>&nbsp;The Antimony based III-V VDS substrates have been studied before and after an interval of ten years for any possible degradation in quality that may affect their applicability. In this paper variation in electrical, optical and structural degradation properties of antimony based bulk VDS substrates are discussed. VDS Grown were characterized pre and post experimental period under same conditions. FTIR, XRD, Raman and resistivity measurements methods were used to measure optical, structural and electrical consistency over the time.</p> <p>The fall in transmission obtained by FTIR agrees with &nbsp;difference from as grown condition [6]. X-ray diffraction pattern corresponding to [111] orientation for &nbsp;agrees with the pre-interval data with &nbsp;. Raman spectra also confirm the crystalline structure exhibiting the prominent sharp TO peaks almost overlapping to pre interval data. No major variation in resistivity has been observed in all three III-V selected compounds. However, In case of &nbsp; degradation in&nbsp;was evident by comparison of Pre and post experimental period EDAX analysis.</p> <p>These bulk crystals revealed a high degree of stability unlike II-VI compounds, within experimental limits for more than ten years, including intact crystalline structure, no formation of oxides, compositional stability and no significant variation in band gap and resistivity and hence still appropriate to be applied in semiconductor junction fabrications.</p> <p>ng the prominent sharp TO peaks almost overlapping to pre interval data. No major variation in resistivity has been observed in all three III-V selected compounds. However, In case of &nbsp; degradation in&nbsp;was evident by comparison of Pre and post experimental period EDAX analysis.</p> <p>These bulk crystals revealed a high degree of stability unlike II-VI compounds, within experimental limits for more than ten years, including intact crystalline structure, no formation of oxides, compositional stability and no significant variation in band gap and resistivity and hence still appropriate to be applied in semiconductor junction fabrications.</p> Anshul Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Anshul Gupta https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1461 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 TiO2 nanotube like structures on FTO substrate by dip coating method https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2268 <p>TiO<sub>2</sub> nanostructures have engrossed much attraction because of their exclusive properties such as low cost, non-toxicity, good stability and excellent optical and electrical properties. Many group has reported different synthesis techniques for different TiO<sub>2</sub> nanostructures [1]. The building blocks of TiO<sub>2</sub> nanomaterials such as nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods have been reported for many applications in photocatalytic activities, water splitting, pigments, dye synthesized solar cells and even in third generation perovskite solar cells [2–4]. Here, we report TiO<sub>2</sub> nanotube like structure prepared on FTO substrate. Earlier, researchers have fabricated TiO<sub>2</sub> on glass substrate. However, the adhesion with glass is not well reported. FTO has been reportedly shows good adhesion with TiO<sub>2</sub>. Synthesis process plays crucial role in controlling structure and physical properties of materials. Among many physical and chemical routes, in this report we have synthesized sample using a simple and low temperature dip coating technique. It is well-known technique for growing nanorods and –tubes. The key advantage of this process is, it can be adapted for large volume and thickness of the films can be controlled with withdrawal time. The structure of the sample is characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The X-ray diffraction of prepared sample shows dominating anatase phase in mixed anatase-rutile structure with P4<sub>2</sub>/mnm space group. The average crystallite size calculated from Debye – Scherrer method is 58 nm. Atomic force microscopy is carried out for surface morphology of the sample and it shows the nanotubes like structures. The calculated average roughness is around 17 nm. For the optical study, sample is characterized with UV-Visible spectroscopy. The transmittance of the sample is ~70% at 900 nm incidence and optical energy band gap is calculated using tauc-plot. The calculated value of TiO<sub>2</sub> is found to be ~2.8. TiO<sub>2</sub> shows wide band gap which has potential applications in photocatalytic activity, photo electrochemical applications [5]. However, the key issue is wide band gap of TiO<sub>2</sub> is highly sensitive to UV light, which is &lt;5% of overall Energy spectrum. Tuning the band gap with ionic substitution and making composites accommodating it in nanostructures can open new energy application possibilities such as super capacitors and RRAM devices [6,7].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bhargav Pathak, Nisha Thankachen, Kuman Gagliya, Prof. Utpal Joshi, Proessor Copyright (c) 2021 Bhargav Pathak, Nisha Thankachen, Kuman Gagliya, Prof. Utpal Joshi, Proessor https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2268 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation of Gaint Magnetocapacitive Effect in CdCr2S4: Study of Possible Local Lattice Distortion https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/505 <p>Investigation of new materials showing strong mutual coupling between magnetic and dielectric properties is crucial for the development of modern technology. Such kind of effect may be realized in materials with spiral ground states [1], in certain composites as well as in lamellar materials that provide magneto-elastic coupling at interfaces [2]. Within the domain of these kinds of materials, the cubic thio-spinel CdCr<sub>2</sub>S<sub>4</sub> is a unique one due to its large ferromagnetic (FM) moment (<em>T</em><sub>C</sub> = 84.4 K) coexist with a pronounced fluctuation regime with relaxor ferroelectric behavior and the existence of polar nanodomains above <em>T</em><sub>C</sub>. Surprisingly, CdCr<sub>2</sub>S<sub>4</sub> shows Fd3m space group symmetry in its paramagnetic phase, which strictly forbids the existence of a ferroelectric order parameter. This evokes the idea that local distortions may play a crucial role in controlling the mesoscopic or microscopic variations of the electronic state in this system. Lack of microscopic information limits the underlying physics and therefore prerequisite for the understanding of interesting phenomena of the present system. In this connection, nuclear hyperfine techniques are an effective tool to study the local lattice structure to analyze the electric and magnetic correlations within the present multiferroic system [3]. With this aim, the perturbed angular correlation (PAC) technique has been used in several studies. The PAC determines the temperature-dependent electric field gradients (EFG), if any, which are produced at the lattice site within the system under consideration.</p> <p>In the present article the temperature, electric and magnetic-field dependent magnetization, and dielectric constant on this novel CdCr<sub>2</sub>S<sub>4</sub> system has been presented. In addition to magnetoelectric coupling, amazingly, triggering of metal-insulator transition by the electric field near ferromagnetic transition has also been found in the system making it so special. An elaborate explanation of all these behavior requires local environmental study and therefore we propose to study the present strongly correlated CdCr<sub>2</sub>S<sub>4</sub> spinel system using the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) technique via the electric field gradients (EFGs) and magnetic hyperfine field (MHF). The EFG provides structural information, location of the probe, stability, and bond information whereas the MHF translates properties correlated with the electronic spin configuration. The most commonly used PAC probe is <sup>111</sup>In because of its favorable nuclear properties and therefore will be used for the present investigation. The radioactive <sup>111</sup>In decays into <sup>111</sup>Cd with a half-life of 2.8 days passing through a cascade of two gamma rays for which PAC measurements are made. As a result of the nearby defect producing an electric-field gradient, the quadrupole moment of the PAC level experiences torques which are measured in the time domain (Figure 1).</p> Subhrangsu Taran Copyright (c) 2021 Subhrangsu Taran https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/505 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PIXE analysis of blood serum of pre and post therapy cervix cancer patients https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2796 <p>Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE), first introduced by Johansson et al. at the Lund Institute of Technology in 1970 [1], is a very versatile nuclear analytical technique that is respected for its practical accuracy and detection range of parts per million in the field of trace elemental analysis [2,3]. In this work, PIXE technique was used to evaluate the levels of trace elements in blood serum of pre and post therapy uterine cervix cancer patients and identify the best predictors amongst these for disease occurrence and progression. The study subjects were categorized into four groups: First group comprised of 30 healthy female volunteers, second group comprised of 49 newly diagnosed, histologically proven, uterine cervix cancer patients, third group comprised of 24 cervical cancer patients who received only radiation therapy and the fourth group comprised of 15 cervical cancer patients who received concurrent radiation and chemotherapy. The PIXE measurements were carried out using a &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;2.5 MeV collimated proton beam from the 3 MV Tandem Pelletron accelerator at the Ion Beam Laboratory of Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India. The x-ray spectra corresponding to the different study subjects are shown in fig.1(a) and fig.1(b). The obtained spectra were analysed by GUPIXWIN software [4]. The precision and accuracy of the results were checked by analysing IAEA Certified Reference Material - animal blood (Sample No A-13) and NIST Certified Reference Material – bovine liver (Sample No. 1577b) in same experimental conditions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Significant variations were observed in the levels of most of the trace elements within the studied groups. The variations in these elemental concentrations observed in the serum of the studied subjects and the possible mechanisms by which they influence the carcinogenic process are discussed in this paper. Moreover, the return of certain element levels to normal range in cervix cancer patients responding to treatment suggests that estimation of these elements in the serum of cervix cancer patients undergoing therapy could help as a prognostic indicator of disease activity. An interesting observation was that the return to normal values was more prominent in patients who received concurrent radiation and chemotherapy than in patients who received radiation therapy alone.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/sarita0309/mceclip0.png"></p> <p><strong>Index Terms</strong>: - PIXE, cervix cancer, serum, trace elements, radiation therapy, chemotherapy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> P Sarita, Naga Raju Copyright (c) 2021 P Sarita, Naga Raju https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2796 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 sarah.M Positron annihilation lifetime with time response function effects https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/947 <p>The lifetime spectrum of positrons is the result of combining the decay and resolution functions. Several aspects influence the generation of positron lifetime spectra. The resolution was the key factor that influenced it. In this paper, we develop a computer program to investigate the impact of resolution on single, two, and three lifetime component spectra for three Gaussians. We similarly study the effect of components weight of Gaussian function. This software constructs In order to create the final result, a random coincidence (background (B.G)) is applied to the decay function for three components and the time resolution function for three Gaussians. Different values of FWHM (full width of half maximum) for three-Gaussain components (FWHM1, FWHM2 and FWHM3) are convoluted with constant values of lifetime component for three components τ<sub>1</sub>, τ<sub>2</sub>, and τ<sub>3</sub>. All of these components have been obtained at the same intensity to show the effect of the resolution function on these components, as well as the random coincidence (B.G.) fixed at 0.001% of the peak. We concluded that the spectrum of three-Gaussian components broaden the prompt curve more than the spectrum of two-Gaussian components, where (in spectrum of three-Gaussian components) the resolution of more than 600ps lead to difficult analysis, also we conclude that as the number of Gaussian components and the weight of large Gaussian component increases, it becomes more difficult to analyze the positron lifetime spectrum due to an increase in the resolution. Notice that the single component lifetime spectrum effect disappears at 400ps, and the second component lifetime spectrum effect disappears at 500ps, and the third component lifetime spectrum effect vanishes when resolution reaches 600ps, and so on.</p> sarah mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 sarah mohammed https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/947 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Thermal Conduction in II-VI Semiconductors https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1084 <p>Thermal conductivity is fundamental transport property that is commonly used to characterize a broad range of material. Knowledge of thermal conductivity of semiconductors forms an important part in the design of power-dissipating devices, such as diodes, transistors and optoelectronic devices. Most of II-VI materials are direct band gap semiconductors[1, 2] with high optical abruption and emission coefficients. These semiconductors covers the infrared to ultraviolet range could be the basis for a variety of efficient light emitting devices spanning the entire range of visible spectrum. A useful description of theoretical and practical aspects of the thermal conductivity in semiconductors is given by many authors[3, 4, 5, 6].</p> <p>In our investigation by using the many body double time temperature dependent &nbsp;phonon Green's function theory the contribution to the relaxation times via phonon and electron linewidths for various scattering processes have been estimated to reported the thermal transport in semiconductors. The lattice thermal conductivity of four compounds from II-VI semiconductors group has been analyzed with the help of modified Callaway model and a fairly good agreement between theory and experimental has been observed.</p> Ankita Chauhan Copyright (c) 2021 Ankita Chauhan https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1084 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding Stability Of FeTiVNi and CoFeVNi High Entropy Alloys using DFT https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1961 <p>High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are a subject of growing interest in the field of material science and engineering presently, and research on these materials has grown exponentially in recent years. This is due to the fact that HEAs may be composed in a variety of ways depending on the components utilised, the number of distinct elements in a system, and quantity of compatible elements that are available. Unlike ordinary alloys, which include just one or rarely two base elements, HEAs contain numerous primary elements, allowing for a much greater variety of HEA compositions than conventional alloys. Because of the high mixing entropy and relatively moderate mixing enthalpy, HEAs prefer to form simple phases without complicated intermetallic phases, and the disordered phases of HEAs generally display face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), or hexagonal closed packed (HCP) crystal structures [1]. Fundamental issues that challenge proposed theories, models, and methodologies for conventional alloys also emerge with the introduction of HEAs.<img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/payal0012/1.jpg" alt="" width="657" height="380"></p> <p><strong>Fig.1.</strong> Side views of the unrelaxed SQS models of BCC and FCC crystal structures A. FeTiVNi (bcc) B. FeTiVNi (fcc) C. CoFeViNi (bcc) D. CoFeVNi (fcc)</p> <p>We have considered the structure of FeTiVNi and CoFeVNi generated using the Alloy-Theoretic Automated Toolkit (ATAT) [2] by monte carlo special quasi-random structure (mcsqs) code [3] as shown in fig. 1. Total energy calculations were performed for minimizing the structure using Density Functional Theory (DFT) implemented in Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) with Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA). The structural properties of their relaxed structures are shown in table 1. In addition, empirical parameters such as difference in atomic size (δ) and Valence Electron Concentration (VEC) [4] were also calculated to predict the single stable structure of the alloys. The calculated formation energy suggests that a body-centered cubic (bcc) structure is more stable for FeTiVNi alloys, whereas, a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure is more stable for CoFeVNi alloys. This also confirms the empirically predicted phase of the alloys.</p> <p>Table 1. Values of parameters: distance between atoms (δ), Valence electron Concentration (VEC), predicted favourable crystal structure, equilibrium lattice constant, a<sub>0</sub>, total energy (E<sub>tot</sub>), formation energy (E<sub>f</sub>)</p> <table width="600"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="150"> <p><strong>HEA</strong></p> </td> <td colspan="2" width="225"> <p><strong>FeTiVNi</strong></p> </td> <td colspan="2" width="225"> <p><strong>CoFeVNi</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="150"> <p><strong>δ </strong></p> </td> <td colspan="2" width="225"> <p>3.26 %</p> </td> <td colspan="2" width="225"> <p>6.86</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="150"> <p><strong>VEC</strong></p> </td> <td colspan="2" width="225"> <p>2.80 %</p> </td> <td colspan="2" width="225"> <p>8.09</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="150"> <p><strong>Favourable structure</strong></p> </td> <td colspan="2" width="225"> <p>BCC</p> </td> <td colspan="2" width="225"> <p>FCC</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="150"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> </td> <td width="113"> <p><strong>BCC</strong></p> </td> <td width="113"> <p><strong>FCC</strong></p> </td> <td width="113"> <p><strong>BCC</strong></p> </td> <td width="113"> <p><strong>FCC</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="150"> <p><strong>⍺ </strong></p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>2.93</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>3.70</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>2.80</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>3.55</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="150"> <p><strong>E<sub>tot</sub></strong></p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>-7.82</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>-7.77</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>-7.48</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>-7.52</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="150"> <p><strong>E<sub>f</sub></strong></p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>-2.53</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>-2.49</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>-2.58</p> </td> <td width="113"> <p>-2.87</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>To understand the electronic structure of the HEAs, Density of States (DoS) and partial Density of States (pDoS) and band structure were calculated. The elemental DoS is plotted in fig. 2. The DoS contribution of each atom in the Total DoS shows finite contribution of each component at fermi level. From the band structure plots, it is revealed that all the phases considered are metallic with overlapping of bands near fermi level.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/payal0012/2.jpg" alt="" width="500" height="382"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/payal0012/3.jpg" alt="" width="500" height="383"></p> <p><strong>Fig.2 A.</strong> Elemental Density of States (DoS) for stable crystal structure FeTiVNi (bcc) <strong>B. </strong>Elemental Density of States (DoS) for stable crystal structure CoFeVNi (fcc).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Payal, Isha Mudahar, Hitesh Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Payal, Isha Mudahar, Hitesh Sharma https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1961 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Artificial Intelligence (AI) And Internet Of Things (IoT) In Healthcare: Opportunities And Challenges https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2319 <p>The potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) enabled Internet of Things(IoT) health care is<br>expanded upon to theorize how IoT and AI can improve the accessibility of preventative<br>public health services and transition our current secondary and tertiary health care to be a<br>more proactive, continuous, and coordinated system. Also IoT and AI helps in getting<br>obligation and fulfilment by engaging patients to contribute greater imperativeness<br>collaborating with their specialists.<br>The IoT has various applications in healthcare sector, from remote checking to telemedicine.<br>It can monitor patients and keep them sound. It also helps to improve overall experience of<br>of health care for doctors as well as patients. Apart from this IoT has many advantages of<br>streamlining and enhancing health care delivery to efficiently predict health issues and<br>diagnose, treat, and monitor patients both in and out of the hospital. The IoT relies on<br>physical objects interconnected between each other’s, creating a network of devices<br>producing information and services. In this context, sensors and actuators are being<br>continuously embedded in daily objects.<br>This study proposes a comprehensive yet brief review of the challenges and opportunities in<br>healthcare sector by using AI and IoT. It also provides an overview of AI and IoT, its<br>applicability, some insights about current trends, outlook on future developments and<br>challenges of healthcare systems etc.</p> Vaibhav Thakare, Gauri Khire, Manisha Kumbhar Copyright (c) 2021 Vaibhav Thakare, Gauri Khire, Manisha Kumbhar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2319 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 SYSTEMATIC REVIEW PAPER ON INFLUENCE OF INGENIOUS HR PRACTICES ON EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT DURING PANDEMIC IN BANKING SECTOR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/463 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The COVID-19 epidemic has a profound impact on the global economy and human health. However, in contrast to the global financial crisis of 2007-2009, which required the use of taxpayers' money to rescue banks in many countries, banks are being asked to help reduce the impact of COVID-19 and participate in economic recovery during this time. At the time of the epidemic, the organization was the development of many active participatory activities, such as online family interaction and practice, visual learning, and online construction, team building, training and industry training workshops, weekly, or online, coordination sessions, dinner. lunch, video conference, and short sessions, online games, games, challenges and competitions, or online courses, thanks, and times, tests, communication, and game times, new skills and training, online support, insight, and is the sole discretion of the session of workshops devoted to anxiety and stress, hire a guide to practice, meditation, and social interaction in the virtual office, digital class, modules, e</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">‐</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">learning, and many other creative courses. (Sarthak Mishra) (1) .The inclusion of the in-house activity, it is very suitable for both the employees and the organizations. In light of this, the study investigates with an emphasis on the Indian banking sector, the responsible measures were approved by banks to reduce the negative effects of the epidemic on its employees and the community. The findings of our article are based on review of documents and reviews of major banking websites.</span></p> <p><strong>Research Objectives-&nbsp;</strong></p> <ul> <li aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">To explore the HR practices imposed for employee engagement during pandemic in Banking Sector.&nbsp;</span></li> </ul> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">To identify the link between HR practices and work ideas in the corporate banking industry among issues affecting employee involvement</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Highlighting the impact of employee actions on employee integrity, expectations of the Banking Sector</span></li> </ol> <p><strong>Challenges of the study</strong></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Human Resource Practices should be-</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> (Wunderlich) (2)</span></p> <ol> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Stay focused on your core values—it encourages the involvement of employees in the most difficult times.&nbsp;</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Clearly, you keep your employees motivated during the difficult times.&nbsp;</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Ask the staff members to freely share information and frustrations, and ideas for success.</span></li> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">To communicate with the staff in advance, leaders need to communicate openly and honestly, so that the employees work more effectively.</span></li> </ol> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Further Implications of the Study</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">All organizations need to take innovative and innovative ways to engage the worker in this challenging time of the COVID epidemic - 19 to keep employees engaged, motivated, committed, happy and blessed to be in such a difficult time. Work from home, it is very important at that time; can only be achieved by doing it online. Organizations need an integrated approach to online content in order to stay competitive in this challenging time. Visible relationships, should be very important to the company's board of directors to increase the engagement of its employees. The agents that work to achieve their goals work very well. The guide will also learn how to improve the organization's work ethic. Organizations need to be able to identify various factors that will encourage and promote employee involvement in the organization.</span></p> Anjali Goyal Copyright (c) 2021 Udit Mamodiya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/463 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Green HRM practices on Employees Job satisfaction https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2463 <p>Green human resource management is one of the contemporary issues in the present business scenario. Human resource management in the organisations should venture to design and develop specific policies and rules for the benefit of the employees and organisation. Huge exploitation of resources by organisations makes to gain the importance of green HRM in the businesses. In the present-day tech driven business environment organisations have to persistently adopt and react to new ecological challenges. Adopting and implementing green hrm practices in organisations are the biggest challenges for human resource professionals. There are barriers like employee resistance, lack of awareness among employees, employees job satisfaction and lack of top management support which hinders the implementation of green hrm practices. Many organizations are reluctant to adopt the green hrm practices as its implementation requires affluent sources and lack of awareness regarding the significant role of green practices in its voluntary implementation.</p> <p>Here, the challenge we are trying to overcome is to bring out how to satisfy employees besides engaging them towards green practices and policies and also it is a tough task to HR personnel. Only satisfied employees are highly involved in the ecofriendly practices. Integration of Green Practices with human resource management alone facilitates effective implementation of Green hrm in organizations. The main purpose of the study is to know the impact of green hrm practices on employees’ job satisfaction. Green hrm practices and policies will create and develop green human capital. Satisfied employees feel responsible towards environment and bestow greater commitment to green initiatives and accomplish their tasks in such an efficient way enhancing environmental performance. A happy employee will commit towards environment and utilize the resources in a perfect manner and try to reduce the negative impact on mother earth. Green hr practices such as green recruitment and selection, green training and development, green rewards, green performance management, and green employee involvement make employees satisfied towards the green practices and also promote social responsibility. This is a conceptual paper; this paper aims to explain the concept of green hrm, green hrm practices and its impact on employees’ job satisfaction. Green hrm practices positively impacts the employees job satisfaction and there is no significant difference between green hrm practices and job satisfaction.[3], [4].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; INDEPENDENT VARIABLE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; DEPENDENT VARAIBLE&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Employees Job</p> <p>Satisfaction</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Green HRM Practices</p> <p>1. Green Recruitment and Selection</p> <p>2. Green Training Development</p> <p>3. Green Performance Management</p> <p>4. Green Rewards and Pay</p> <p>5. Green Employee Involvement&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>Though there exist numerous studies on the concept of green hrm, there are scant researches on green hrm and job satisfaction. In view of such a gap, the study proposes a conceptual frame work of green hrm specifically, the study links green human resource management to job satisfaction. In addition, the study used relevant literature highlighting 5 indicators of green hrm such as green recruitment and selection, green training and development, green performance management, green rewards system and green employee involvement and ventures for future research are discussed in this paper. This paper has some utility and engenders an interest within the potential researchers and even to the people, who want to explore the concept of green hrm. The bigger vision of this work is to bring out the awareness on green hrm and how it affects on employee’s satisfaction. The main objective of this paper is 1). To study the impact of Green hrm practices on employee’s job satisfaction. 2). To study the relationship between green hrm and employees job satisfaction.3). To study the job satisfaction level of employees. Green HRM targets to minimize the exploitation of environment while accessing and using the natural resources. Implementation of green HRM practices benefits both employees and organisation besides enhancing the efficiency of resources, reputation of firm and increase economic and eco performance. It provides pollution free society, eliminates air pollutants thus increasing the quality of the air we breathe and promotes good health. It also reduces negative impact on the nature. Eco friendly practices save the planet. Further it benefits and stimulates the economy by creating employment opportunities. It plays a vital role in reducing the extreme temperatures and unnatural climatic changes that emits carbon components thus reducing Global Warming. Green hrm initiatives helps to maintain organizational sustainability and to provide benefits to the organisation and society by preserving the natural resources, reducing carbon footprints, less usage of paper. Integration of Green practices with HR enables the organizations in achieving its environmental goals besides enhanced sustenance and competitiveness.</p> <p><strong>Fig.1.</strong> Conceptual framework for the Impact of Green HRM practices on Employee Job Satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Vanisri K, Dr. A. Seema Copyright (c) 2021 Vanisri K, Dr. A. Seema https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2463 Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Sustainable Business Model in B2C Online Retailing: An Indian Consumer Perspective https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1140 <p>The major objective of this study is to analytically examine the impact of reliablility, innovation, usefulness, concentrated product category, and customer support service on commitment which in turn influences Electronic Word of mouth (e-WOM) and sustainable consumption [1]. Sustainable consumption leads to sustainable competitive advantage [2]. The study has adopted Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach, where research instrument was developed in the form of structured questionnaire (using both EFA and CFA) regarding the abovementioned variables. A survey has been conducted to test the hypotheses with the sample of 491 respondents has been drawn randomly from the population of e-shoppers. The study revealed that sustainable online shopping dimensions have a major positive impact on the customer commitment which in turn has a strong influence on customer reviews and sustainable consumption.</p> <p>This study categorizes sustainable business model as the basic blueprint through which and organization develops and delivers value to the marketplace through competitive positioning [3-4]. The study [5] has proposed four dimensions of business model which are classified into nine sub-dimensions. However, Bocken et al. [6] and Osterwalder and Pigneur [7] has combined these dimensions into four major constructs such as value proposition, value creation, value delivery and value capture. Value propositions relate to creation of value and service operations developed by organization, its target customers and existing customer relationships; value development and delivery deals with the creation of market offerings in to products, services, resource procurement and channel arrangement using innovative technology; value capture means profits and revenues generated and the cost structure of the business [8]. These discussions reveal that these business models have given emphasis on the economic value creation than sustainability. Researchers have recently developed with business models by including sustainability dimensions [9-10] .The sustainable business models not only capture the economic dimension but also balancing the economic, social, and environmental value creating dimensions [11). All the three domains attempt together to develop a sustainable consumption behaviour among the consumers which results into developing unique sustainable competitive advantage to the business.</p> <p>Measurement of Constructs:</p> <p>Figure 1.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="5">&nbsp;</td> <td width="187">&nbsp;</td> <td width="6">&nbsp;</td> <td width="66">&nbsp;</td> <td width="11">&nbsp;</td> <td width="349">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td rowspan="4">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td colspan="3">&nbsp;</td> <td rowspan="3">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td>&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Whereas some were modified to fit the e-retail customer. In addition, new items have been developed into constructs which don’t have any well-established scale in the literature. The nine constructs depicted in Figure 1 have been measured by items adopted from the various research works. A total of 43 items were used to measure nine constructs with reliability consisting of 5 items, innovation consisting of 5 items, usefulness contains 4, concentrated product category contains 4, customer services contains 5, commitment contains 5, customer reviews consists of 5, sustainable consumption contains 5 and sustainable competitive advantage contains 5 scale items.</p> <p>The study has revealed the interesting findings for the managers. Firstly, managers need to incorporate various dimensions of sustainability identified by the study in their corporate culture fostering the performance in all the sectors mainly economic, social, and environmental. These measures in the long run will develop sustainable sensibility among the consumers which will accelerate sustainable consumption. It will give competitive advantage to the e-retailers. The findings of the study will help managers in identifying the core product categories that have potential to generate sustainable revenues for the company. Based on study findings, managers should adopt concentration strategy by focusing on specific categories rather than diversifying into various product segments. Managers need to familiarise the value delivery process towards customers with innovation, reliability and commitment. These variables should be adopted as corporate mission of an online retail store. The model developed in the study can be employed by managers to build sustainable competitive advantage. The findings also validate for the new product development by adopting sustainable business model to achieve strong competitive advantage.</p> Shilpa chadichal Copyright (c) 2021 Shilpa chadichal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1140 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Improving the carbon footprint of managing food and packaging waste in the Food Industries https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1175 <p><strong>Improving the carbon footprint of managing food and packaging waste in the Food Industries</strong></p> <p>1) DR. VARADARAJ ARAVAMUDHAN&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 2) DR ANANTH SENGODAN&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; 3) DR.M. PRASANNA MOHAN RAJ&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 4) DR S.G. BALAJI&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; avraj28@gmail.com&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <a href="mailto:ananth72@gmail.com">ananth72@gmail.com</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; prasannasaai@gmail.com&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>sgbalaji1975@gmail.com<strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The aim of this study is to analyse systems for food industry waste management, in order to identify longer lasting and circular processes. In a particular case study, a Food Industry waste management system was assessed and improved.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The DMAIC (Define - Measure – Analysis – Improved – Control) Model has been used to collect information and data from Lean Six Sigma. Data on waste were collected per waste category without identifying every single product and the variety of goods meant it was not possible to assess the Carbon Footprint of each product. Thus, we evaluated the aggregated waste production of the Food Industry. A carbon footprint was evaluated to assess the environmental performance of the waste management system and to compare the impacts of the various CO<sub>2</sub> waste disposal systems for every category.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>In a consumer society, the food industry significantly contributes to waste production. Food industries play a central role in the challenges of efficiency in resources and waste prevention. The circular economy and the retail sector have started to follow this course as a major alternative to the conventional business model.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> A new waste management system was introduced in the retail food industry, showing improved performance. The importance of recycling is emphasised in our comparison of various waste treatments, particularly in the circular economy. We then focused on organic substances, compared compostability and anaerobic digestion to the waste category. Lower greenhouse gas emissions have been demonstrated by anaerobic digestion. Similar improvement programmes can be handled directly by other food industries without repeating the analysis. Our study can inform future biogas research and other organic waste by-products. The integration of Lean Six Sigma and other environmental tools could also be evaluated in the circular economy.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>Lean Six sigma, Circular Economy, Recycling, Food Industry, Greenhouse Gas Emission, anaerobic digestion.</p> <p>Figure 1. Methodology</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Figure 2. Waste in percentage and Weight</p> <p>Figure 3. Waste in Percentage and Weight</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong></p> <p>In a food industry we analysed the retail sector to improve waste management and recycling. We confirmed the importance of optimised waste management systems in evaluating the implementation of a sustainable strategy from an economic and environmental point of view. The carbon footprint and cost-benefit analysis, from the economic and environmental perspective, were demonstrated in optimising the process using the DMAIC model. In contrast to earlier studies, which focused on specific environmental problems like packaging or food waste, we analysed the overall impact of the food industry waste management system. We also compared several waste processes by DMAIC method to detect the carbon emissions most sustainable (recycling, waste disposal and incineration). Finally, we focused on organic matter by comparing the treatment of compost and anaerobic digestive plants. Therefore, we have developed the best waste management strategy.</p> <p>Using the Lean Six Sigma method, we have carried out a strict and standardised analysis of food industry waste management system. We have been able to detect the system's weaknesses by examining and presenting in detail the quantitative data collected using the DMAIC model. With a quality tool like a Lean Six Sigma DMAIC model, the environmental impact of a food industry with an environmental instrument such as carbon footprint can be reduced substantially. In particular with regard to preventative actions, we could also consider the development of a new waste management strategy, but also for the integration of Lean Six Sigma into environmental management. The strengthening of the LSS-environment instruments relationship can be an effective policy to support the circular economies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>References : </strong></p> <ol> <li>Abad, V., Avila, R., Vicent, T., Font, X., 2019. Promoting circular economy in the surroundingsss of an Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste anaerobic digestion treatment plant: biogas production impact and economic factors. Bioresource Technology 283, 10–17. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech</a>. 2019.03.064.</li> <li>Albizzati, P.F., Tonini, D., Chammard, C.B., Astrup, T.F., 2019. Valorisation of surplus food in the French retail sector: Environmental and economic impacts. Waste Manage. 90, 141–151. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.04.034">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2019.04.034</a>.</li> <li>Alkanok, G., Demirel, B., Onay, T.T., 2014. Determination of biogas generation potential as a renewable energy source from supermarket wastes. Waste Manage. 34, 134–140. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.09.015">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2013.09.015</a>.</li> <li>Alwast, H., Birnstengel, B., 2008. Resource savings and CO2 reduction potentials in waste management in Europe and the possible contribution to the CO2 reduction target in 2020. Prognos AG, Bruxelles.</li> <li>Amasuomo, E., Baird, J., 2016. The characteristics of retail wastes in the city of Yenagoa, Nigeria. J. Manage. Sustain. 6 (4), 39–59. <a href="https://doi.org/10.5539/jms">https://doi.org/10.5539/jms</a>. v6n4p59.</li> <li>Ctn-Ace, A.N.P.A., 2002. Handbook of National Emission. National Thematic Institute for Atmosphere, Climate and Air Emissions.</li> <li>Andersson, C., Stage, J., 2018. Direct and indirect effects of waste management policies on household waste behaviour: The case of Sweden. Waste Manage. 76, 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.03.038.</li> </ol> DR Copyright (c) 2021 DR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1175 Fri, 24 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Empirical Study of Factors Contributing to International Patients Satisfaction with Special Reference to Medical Tourism in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2646 <p><strong><em>ABSTRACT</em></strong></p> <p>It is known as Medical Tourism when a person who’s principal and specific aim in travelling is to seek medical treatment abroad. India is one of the well-known and most needed clinical the travel industry goals from remote nations. Progressive availability of free time and more discretionary resources for social activities such as travel, entertainment, health care and personal well-being encourages healthier lifestyles. In particular, the medical tourism sector is determined by overburdened medical care services and general insurance coverage systems.</p> <p><strong><em>Research Objective</em></strong></p> <p>This work aims at determining the factors contributing to satisfaction of foreign patients after receiving medical treatment in India.</p> <p><strong><em>Research Methodology</em></strong></p> <p>For this analysis, convenience sampling is employed under the non-probability sampling methodology. For research purposes the sample size was taken from 391 individuals. The respondents were those from other countries of the world who wanted to seek medical care in India. The source of the data were primary and secondary both. In this analysis, primary data were gathered using survey process, and patients abroad replied to standardized questionnaires.</p> <p><strong><em>Data Analysis</em></strong></p> <p>Data analysis concludes that there is strong significance of choice of destination selection by foreign patients based on quality and cost of treatment and also one-stop multi medical treatment facility and less waiting time.</p> <p><strong><em>Social Implication</em></strong></p> <p>This study provides the useful implication to tourism industry, society and government by more deep insight by studying more variables of satisfaction level. Medical and tourism industry can focus more on increasing service dimension and raise satisfaction level of foreign patients.</p> <p><strong><em>Originality / Value</em></strong></p> <p>Hardly few research on medical tourism have been conducted in India but in western part of India, i.e. there is a void on this subject in Western India that will bring more expertise and information to the small pool available that will provide new avenues for academia, the business world and society as a whole.</p> <p><strong><em>Keyword: </em></strong><em>Medical Tourism, International Patients, Patients Satisfaction, Tourism Industry, Medical Care.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Dr. Suraj Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Suraj Shah https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2646 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 HRM PRACTICES -A REVIEW ON MEDIUM SCALE ENTERPRICES WITH REFERENCE TO EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1322 <p>This study focused on the effect that human resource management (HRM) practices have on <br>employee performance. This article shows the review of literature in the field of human <br>resource management on employee performance. In every organization HRM plays a major <br>role. As they act as a bridge between employees and employer, they have a critical role in <br>balancing employee employer needs. This article helps us to know in details abouts the <br>researcher who undergo some fair idea about the effect of human resource management <br>practices and the employee performance in India. To retain the employees and to achieve profit <br>in organization well developed and well-constructed human resource practices should be <br>followed in the organization. This article deals with the literature review on the effect of human <br>resource management practices on the performance of employees.</p> RESHMI JK BABU, Dr. Ravi Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 RESHMI JK BABU, Dr. Ravi Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1322 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON IMPACT OF COVID – 19 ON INVESTOR BEHAVIOUR OF INDIVIDUALS TOWARDS GOLD ETF INVESTMENTS IN INDIA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/689 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>The hyperbolic discounting dimensions of investment decisions in gold exchange traded funds do not appear in the existing literature and no study has been conducted with a focus on gold exchange traded funds to understand the impact of time inconsistency on the investment decision in a gold exchange traded investment.&nbsp; This study is exploring the impact of behavioral factors on investment decisions in gold ETFs during the pandemic situation. Hence, this study has relevance in terms of analyzing and determining the hyperbolic investor behavior for investment in gold ETFs. The study assists in the following:&nbsp; Understanding the impact of hyperbolic discounting on investment decisions in the gold ETFs, Understanding the impact of behavioral factors on investment decisions in gold ETFs - the study can throw light on the rational as well as irrational behavior patterns of investors that impact investment decisions. Understanding the impact of behavioral biases on the investor preference for the gold ETFs, Understanding the behavioral aspect of the gold investment needs, Understanding the changing pattern of demand for investment in gold ETFs funds during the pandemic for deciphering the hyperbolic investment behavior of gold investors during this pandemic situation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>References:</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>[1] <strong>Zawadzki, K.&nbsp;The Impact of Covid-19 on the Performance of Exchange Traded Funds on Developed and Emerging Markets. 2021.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;[2] </strong><strong>Gurbaxani, Arpita and Gupte, Rajani,&nbsp;<em>Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal</em>, 15(1), 2021, 70-92. doi:</strong><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.14453/aabfj.v15i1.6"><strong>10.14453/aabfj.v15i1.6</strong></a></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;[3]</strong><strong> Selvan S.C.B, Samuel &amp; Raj G, Ram, 2021/04/16, 2021, </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Doi: 10.13140/RG.2.2.36502.06725. </strong></p> ANITHA KUMARI. B ANITHA KUMARI. B Copyright (c) 2021 ANITHA KUMARI. B ANITHA KUMARI. B https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/689 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Geopolitical threat to United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/728 <p>United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 [1] provides the larger umbrella within which sustainability work is conducted throughout the world. The failure of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 2015 [2] and its unfairness to the most underdeveloped parts of the world [3] shows the deeper geopolitical agendas behind these seemingly noble endeavours. As SDGs 2030 complete 6 years of its implementation and as it is remaining short of the targets [4], it shows that the motivations have not still got right. The modern origins of poverty with some nations acquiring wealth in gargantuan amounts through colonialization leaving other nations in destitution in the industrial age [5] and the race for supremacy still continues [6]. This research found its motivation from the biggest problem of the 21<sup>st</sup> century, i.e., inequality [7] and having known the fact that there are “<em>artificial droughts</em>” [8] as well. “Description is not only a choice” [9] but also a moral responsibility [10], in that vein this research blended both the positivist and the normative epistemes and ontologies to answer the question of how geopolitical agendas were acting as a roadblock in the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030? And what national and global management models can be helpful in reducing the race for global supremacy, which stifles achievement of sustainability agendas?</p> <p>This research used a mixed-method approach and as discussed earlier the epistemological and ontological positions adopted were also blended i.e., both normative and positivist lenses were used to understand the phenomenon. This was done by analysing the documents released including resolutions, press statements, presidential releases etc. during the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Presidency by various countries in each month from the period from January 2021 to August 2021. It is to be noted that within these eight months, four months the presidency was held by the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), United Kingdom, United States, China, and France (out of the big five, only Russia did not hold the Presidency during the period), which is half the total period. The other half period was held by the non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), Tunisia, Vietnam, Estonia, and India (a very strong and rising soft power [11] in the 21<sup>st</sup> century and leader of the Non-Aligned movement [12]). This gives an equal comparison point to compare not only world affairs related to peace and security but also what is the commitment of the various countries to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 and the larger sustainability agenda of people, planet, peace, prosperity, and partnership [1]. In the agenda 2030, all the 17 goals are deeply intertwined and hence if peace and security is breached or not maintained, it points to hidden agenda at work in the geopolitical arena [13-14].&nbsp;</p> <p>The analysis points that the permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) especially United States, China, and Russia, still are in their own bubbles and a false race for supremacy amongst themselves and they tend to downplay India, an emerging soft power on issues of sustainability. But, with the most recent update [15] of “limits to growth” study [16] pointing towards perils of humanity with a variety of ecological imbalances, humanity needs to take a backward step. A “New Earth Sastra” for global governance is required based on the principles of ‘<em>harmonic globalization</em>’ and ‘<em>spirituality</em>’ [17] and the oriental tradition [18] is ready to reiterate to the world and teach them the lost models of sociality in the socio-political realms [19]. The management principle itself at all levels from global to individual needs to move from “accumulation” towards “co-habitation” [20].</p> Rajiv Ranjan Copyright (c) 2021 Rajiv Ranjan https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/728 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The role of gender in the development of technological adaptation abilities among instructors in higher education https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2716 <p>Quality teaching-learning process in the Higher Education is practically unthinkable without the use of technology in the 21st century. It has a great impact in developing the necessary skills and abilities as well as knowledge for the students at higher educational level. Until now computer technology has been changing aspects like administration and record keeping in higher education, however due to current scenario of Covid – 19 Pandemic, computer technology has become a major part of teaching – learning process.</p> <p>&nbsp;The women and men have very different attitude towards their technological abilities. This research explores issue of gender differences in adapting technological changes in teaching-learning process. The main objectives would be to understand the role of gender in self - perceived talents and real abilities in adaption of technology in higher education and explore the factors influenced by gender role. The research studied link between self – perceived talents and real abilities and role of gender. To attain the objectives of the study, a descriptive research was carried out in which Higher education Professors participated for different branches of knowledge from the University.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The results suggest that men and women do not differ much in their online abilities skills, however interestingly it does consider difference of gender in adaption of technology. It was observed that both the genders had positive outlook towards adapting technological changes in teaching learning process with the belief that it is a tool which enhances the process.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> MOHINI RASAL Copyright (c) 2021 MOHINI RASAL https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2716 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Adoption of TAM Model on Toll Tax Collection System in India: An Empirical Analysis of FASTag users https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2241 <p>This study aims to investigate the Actual Usage (AU) of the FASTag toll tax Payment<br>system by the users rolled out by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) for electronic<br>toll collection on national highways in India.<br>Methodology: The conceptual framework for this study is based on the Behavioral Intention<br>(BI) and Innovation Resistance (IR) on the theory of a Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use<br>of Technology (UTAUT 2) and Innovation Resistance Theory (IRT) A total of 460 Sample<br>Respondents across India were surveyed during the period of (From 1 January 2021 to 31<br>March 2021) using a pre-tested questionnaire. The empirical validation of the framework and<br>analysis was done using partial least squares (PLS) Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)<br>technique<br>Practical implications: This research by promoting an understanding of the factors affecting<br>the usage behaviour of FASTag on the electronic toll collection system. The major applications<br>of this aspect are automatic challan generation on the national highways which includes<br>over-speeding, seat belt, Wrong- way driving. Parking in the “No Parking” Zone, driving without<br>a Valid Permit and Overtaking from the Wrong Side.<br>Originality: This study assumes importance as it empirically examines the influence of BI and<br>IR on the AU of the FASTag payment system. This study empirically validates the moderating<br>influence of stickiness to cash payment on the AU of FASTag payment systems.</p> Hitesh Patel, Keyur Nayak, Vinod Patel Copyright (c) 2021 Hitesh Patel, Keyur Nayak, Vinod Patel https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2241 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Competitor analysis of hydrogen sensing systems https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/331 <p>There is significant demand and focus in today's world on the potential use of hydrogen in the market. It could potentially be a suitable alternative for fossil fuels. Hydrogen is used extensively for a variety of purposes in major industries such as refineries for hydro- desulphurization and hydrocracking operations. In ammonia production it reacts with nitrogen to produce ammonia, in metallic ore reduction, hydrogen is commercially used to procure tungsten from its ore, and various other applications. Hydrogen is also used as a searching gas, as a coolant, as a reducing agent, and as an energy carrier in industries [1-3]. Hydrogen as gas has numerous unique properties which make it stand apart from all the other traditional fossil fuels that are being used.</p> <p>Hydrogen being a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas which is flammable, can’t be identified or recognized by the human senses and needs to be detected by other means so that one could quantify its concentration if present. The need to estimate and determine the concentration of hydrogen present is essential so that it can help prevent any potential explosions with the mixing of hydrogen in the air as hydrogen is flammable and there could be potential hazards and explosions [1-3]. Measuring the concentration of hydrogen and its detection has a long history which began over 100 years ago, where it started with the measurement of hydrogen at filling stations for airships and since then there has been an increasing demand and a continuous need for a faster, better accuracy, and a much more reliable and selective device to detect the hydrogen gas in various verticals and areas of the industries for the continuous monitoring of the concentration levels of hydrogen gas. Thus, in this emerging hydrogen economy, the detection of hydrogen leaks and the measurement of the concentration of hydrogen in the atmosphere are necessary during production, storage, and transformation. Therefore, sensors will be used for safety monitoring of hydrogen gas in production plants, storage tanks, pipelines, and so on.</p> <p>This article gives an insight on all the hydrogen sensors that are available in the market, a comparison between all the different hydrogen sensors with different attributes such as stability, sensitivity, response time, etc., and the different manufacturers who produce this sensor [1-3].</p> Ujwal Shreenag Meda, Ashni Melissa Mary Prabhu Copyright (c) 2021 Ujwal Shreenag Meda, Ashni Melissa Mary Prabhu https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/331 Mon, 13 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON KHADI- A SWADESHI FABRIC AMONG THE NEW ERA. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1959 <p>Khadi is a thread which connects both ancient and new era.The khadi movement targeted at promoting Indian products and rejecting foreign goods in later era. KHADDAR was the previously known name for Khadi stuffs. It significantly cares about the rural artisans to earn their source of revenue; therefore supporting the rural economy. Khadi immerges as a fashion material, leading Indian designers like Sabyasachi and the young designer’s fashion shows like Lakmé fashion weeks indulges with khadi, is forcing fashion world to take serious note of it globally. Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act, 1956 (61of 1956) established the Khadi &amp; Village Industries Commission (KVIC), is as the constitutional organization supports for promotion and development of Khadi and Village Industries (KVI) which leads to the overall growth in employment opportunities in the rural areas and nourish the rural economy.</p> <p>Therefore this paper attempt has been made to discover the awareness about khadi among college youth. A small survey was conducted in the college where the students wear khadi cloths and the reviews they gave regarding the style, quality, on price they purchase, and even as a status symbol and the khadi shop sponsored by KVIC in the BANASTHALI UNIVERISTY ITSELF is being analyzed in this study. A primary data is collected and on random sampling bases the analysis has been done. From the responses that are received it was observed that khadi can no more be neglected, it is soon becoming a fashion symbol.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>JEL Code: L26, L98, O14, O35</p> SHRUTI SHARMA SHRUTI Copyright (c) 2021 SHRUTI SHARMA SHRUTI https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1959 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Women empowerment in Sustainable development https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/179 <p>Abstract</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Sustainable development relies upon an impartial appropriation of assets for now and for what's to come. It can't be accomplished without sex fairness. Women's strengthening is a vital factor for accomplishing sustainable financial development, social development and ecological maintainability. Women play an imperative part in ecological administration and development. Their full interest is thusly fundamental to accomplish sustainable development". There is a double reasoning for advancing sexual orientation correspondence. Initially, that correspondence among women and men - equivalent rights, openings and obligations – involves common liberties and social equity. And besides, that more noteworthy uniformity among women and men is additionally a precondition for (and compelling marker of) sustainable individuals focused development. The insights, interests, requirements and needs of all kinds of people should be thought about as an issue of social equity as well as on the grounds that they are important to enhance development measures.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Key words: Sustainable development, women empowerment, environment, social development.</p> DR MEENAKSHI SHARMA MEENAKSHI, Mr Arun Rana Arun Copyright (c) 2021 DR MEENAKSHI SHARMA MEENAKSHI, Mr Arun Rana Arun https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/179 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Mental Health Factors among Health Professionals Exposed to Covid 19 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2182 <p><strong>Background</strong>: A novel coronavirus was identified at the end of 2019 in Wuhan, a city in the Hubei Province of China. It rapidly spread, the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a public health emergency in late January 2020 and characterize it as a pandemic in March 2020. It was stated that there was high COVID-19 spread risk to various other countries across world. Health workers (HW) at a higher risk of infection. The unexpected crisis is making great amount of stress, anxiety, and depression throughout the world.</p> <p>&nbsp;<strong>Aim</strong>: The aim of this study was to assess the mental health factors among healthcare workers by quantifying the severity of anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders during the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic</p> <p>Materials and methods: The study is a cross-sectional, hospital-based survey conducted a total of 180 professionals accomplished the survey. The questionnaire was included of study variables: (a) Gender; (b) age-group range which was categorized into- Between 20 to 39, 40-59 years and above 50 years(c) category of professionals. The category of professionals were Nurses, Technicians and front office staff worked in hospitals. The amount of symptoms of Insomnia, depression, anxiety and distress was evaluated the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the 7-item Insomnia Severity Index, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, and the 22-item Impact of Event Scale–Revised, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was executed to recognize factors associated with mental health outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test for determining significance.</p> <p>Results: Mean ± SD values for age were found to be 35.54 ± 6.09; 33.84 ± 7.87; 32.16 ± 5.89 and 55.76 ± 8.98 for nurses, technical staff, and front office staff while the percentages of male study participants was found to be 37.2%, 15%, 57%, and 65% and female study participants was 62.8%, 85%, 43%, and 35% for the physicians, nursing staff, technicians, and non-healthcare professionals.</p> <p>A substantial portion of participants conveyed symptoms of depression 42.4%, anxiety 54.6%, insomnia 32.0%, and distress 69.2%. Nurses, women, technical staff, have more severe amount of total of mental health symptoms than other health care workers.&nbsp; Patient Health Questionnaire scores among technicians vs nurses: 4.0 [1.0-7.0] vs 5.0 [2.0-8.0]; P = .007; median Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale scores among men vs women: 2.0 [0-6.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-7.0]; P &lt; .001; median [IQR] Insomnia Severity Index scores among front office vs technicians: 6.0 [2.0-11.0] vs 4.0 [1.0-8.0]; P &lt; .001; median [IQR] Impact of Event Scale.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Conclusion: The technicians are directly engaged in the diagnosis and investigations of COVID-19 patients.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, COVID-19; Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ 9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)</p> Sheeba Bhaskar, Leena N fukey Copyright (c) 2021 Sheeba Bhaskar, Leena N fukey https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2182 Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Intellectual Capital efficiency and its impact on sustainable development of Agri Business sector in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2220 <p>Intellectual Capital has a tendency to be a critical aid and a key contributor to the financial success, it is a cost advent in an enterprise and supports in achieving sustainable development. The company value is created not only from its monetary resources, but also from its Intellectual properties. Intellectual Capital in a commercial enterprise consists of the wealth of the thoughts and the cap potential for innovation which particularly determines the destiny of the company. Intellectual capital creates a completely unique aid for every business. Whether aware or not, the presence of the resource bestows to companies’ success and lets industries to become inimitable. Studying Intellectual Capital in Indian Agriculture industry context seems to be interesting and suitable, since global agroindustry is profoundly dependent on Intellectual Capital (IC). This Industry is only little explored in IC study. The agricultural region is a tremendous part of the Indian economic system in phrases of its GDP contribution. It is a foundation of employment for all most all of the nation's people. This sector has incredible development opportunities at the moment, with India already being one of the main agricultural manufacturers internationally.</p> <p>As businesses strive to meet customer demands, societal needs, and future requirements, the agriculture industry's long-term growth has become a critical concern. Sustainability is extremely central, particularly during times of financial chaos, and it will become much more so in the future. Corporate sustainable growth can be linked to a company's monetary, ecological, and societal initiatives aimed at ensuring the company's long-term viability. Intellectual capital can demonstrate a commitment to long-term performance sustainability.</p> <p>Very few studies have been done exploring the impact of Intellectual Capital on Agri Business Globally. No study has been done exploring the influence of IC on Agri Business in India. Therefore, in the present study an attempt is made to know the impact of intellectual capital efficiency on achievement of Sustainable growth of Indian Agri Business Sector. We are analysing top performing Indian Agriculture Companies (based on Market valuation) listed in NSE, BSE. Data were obtained from the Company’s Annual Reports. Tools and Techniques used for the Data Analysis are Confirmatory Factor analysis, Structural Equation modelling and Financial Ratios.</p> <p>Some of the previous research studies found that Value-Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAIC), which is a measure of Intellectual Capital does not have a positive impact on sustainability and market value. VAIC was only able to explain productivity and profitability of companies. But modern classifications highlight more Intellectual Capital components, such as Relational capital and Innovation Capital (Muhammad Nadeem,2019). Previous Studies did not exhibit a positive relationship between structural capital and Corporate Sustainable Growth (CSG).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The <strong>hypothesis</strong> of the study are as follows:</p> <p>H<sub>0</sub>:&nbsp; Modified Value-Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (M-VAIC) has a Significant impact on Corporate Sustainable Growth of Agriculture Companies in India.</p> <p>H<sub>1</sub>:&nbsp; Modified Value-Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (M-VAIC) has no Significant impact on Corporate Sustainable Growth of Agriculture Companies in India.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Present study tries to overcome the challenges stated above, by including two other components - Relational Capital and Innovation Capital in the VAIC model. In Previous studies VAIC is unable to impact Market valuation and CSG of companies. Hence in this study an attempt is made to analyse whether the M-VAIC exhibit a significant positive impact on CSG and Market Value of companies. Since structural capital and CSG has insignificant correlation in previous studies, to overcome this challenge proxy variable has been introduced for measuring structural Capital, because structural capital efficiency in VAIC model neglects the company’s innovative capital. And also compare the results from both the models, MVAIC and EVA to have valuable conclusions.</p> <p>The <strong>Objectives </strong>of the study are as follows:</p> <p>The main aim of the study is to examine the impact of Intellectual Capital Components on Corporate Sustainable Development of Agri Business Companies through Modified Value-Added Intellectual Capital model(M-VAIC).</p> Vaishnavi Balaji, Rajesh Mamilla Copyright (c) 2021 Vaishnavi Balaji, Rajesh Mamilla https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2220 Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Supply Chain Management for Manufacturing Industries of Electronic Sector in Pune District https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2317 <p>Supply chain management played a critical role in the Electronic industrial chain<br>optimization. This chapter comprise introductory path towards the small-scale industries. It<br>content Background of Study, Small Business in India, Industrial Policy a license to growth,<br>Overall Scenario of SSI and MIDC in Maharashtra, Industrial Scenario of Pune Division..<br>Growth Pattern of Industries in Pune MIDC during 2006-16. Challenges and Opportunities<br>and Schemes for SSI, its financial evaluation, Government Policy, District Industrial Centre<br>(DIC), Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI), State Financial Corporations<br>(SFCs), The Credit Guarantee Fund Scheme, Eligible Lending Institutions, Eligible Credit<br>Facility, Guarantee Cover Tenure, Fee, Website of Guarantee, Scheme Awareness Programs,<br>Credit Linked Capital Subsidy Scheme for Technology Upgradation, Market Development<br>Assistance Scheme, Technology and Quality Upgradation Support, Mini Tools Room and<br>Training Centre Scheme, Financial Assistance to SSIs, Short Term Loans, Nonfinancial<br>schemes, Financial Institution for SSI, and finally roll of UNIDO towards SSI.<br>The Small Scale Industrial (SSI) sector is the lifeblood of Indian economy in terms of its<br>input to national industrial production with exports, employment and the creation of an<br>entrepreneurial base. However, its growth rate is being slowed down because of heavy<br>competition from the large-scale sector. The fast development of the small-scale industries<br>has a great encouragement and contribution in our national economic policies. The expansion<br>of the small sector also enhances the production of non-durable consumer goods of mass<br>consumption. Small-scale industries have significance in the overall economic growth of our<br>country, because a small unit can be established with relatively less capital and offer more<br>employment opportunities to those who are skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled.</p> Hemant More, Milind A Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2021 Hemant More, Milind A Kulkarni https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2317 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Achieving an inclusive work culture: Factors contributing to establish inclusivity in growing SMEs of India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/980 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Work culture has been a contributing factor that drives the human resources of an organization towards satisfied or dissatisfied performance. Inclusive workplaces have evolved across decades at multinational enterprises (MNEs) with curbed scope for Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs). It has been a rapid strive for Indian SMEs and Startups to manage the manpower flow, which has improved in quality and quantum in the past decade. A major challenge has been to retain quality employees against the MNEs offering bulky roles and packages for experienced and multi-skilled labour. A vivacious advantage for the SMEs is of work environment, institutional culture and involvement of employees in decision making, leading to a sense of inclusivity for employees. Hence, it is important for the sector to identify the cause and factors aiding this phenomenon and strengthen the same. As per the Ministry of Mirco, Small Medium Enterprises, about 47,92,272 are registered as on 15<sup>th</sup> September, 2021. This gives an idea on the quantum of jobs created by the sector and the scale of employees working here across manufacturing and service industries. This study is sought to establish factors that influence work cultures in SMEs with particular reference to inclusivity of employees in a growing environment. It also attempts to identify whether the demographic background influences the work culture at SMEs in the Indian context. This approach paves the path to understand the formation of the ‘inclusive’ dimension at SMEs in the present Indian scenario.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A conceptual approach is followed to understand the work culture of SMEs in India and concept of inclusivity for employees and difference in its orientation in Multinationals and SMEs. The possibilities of extending and making ‘inclusive’ work culture an integral part of the SME ecosystem is explored through previous and existing contributions and providing a pathway to identify and strengthen the factors have been identified.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The findings are aimed to state the factors that contribute towards instilling inclusive work culture at SMEs casing the characteristics of the promoters, work experience, work environment, career choices and preferences of the present workforce, along with allied components which have a significant impact. Furthermore, the advantage of an inclusive work culture shall be discussed from the view of sustained growth and development perspective of the Indian SMEs.</p> Bhanu Prakash R Copyright (c) 2021 Bhanu Prakash R https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/980 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Workplace Bullying on Organizational Commitment https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2461 <p>Over time, the main reason for employee dissatisfaction, absenteeism, reduction in employee performance is due to the bullying factor at the workplace. Unfortunately, unlike school bullies, workplace bullies are typically difficult to handle since the offenders operate within the workplace's rules and procedures. Bullying at work is best seen as a manifestation of power in the workplace, and the ramifications of bullying can last a lifetime for employees. It causes harm to the organization, to the target as well as to the witness. Many studies in India, has focused only on understanding the concept of workplace bullying and the effects it may cause. Though there is a law for sexual harassment in workplace there is no specific law for bullying and non-sexual harassment in India. Despite widespread awareness campaigns on social media and the activity of many Human Rights organizations, India recorded 55 percent of workplace bullying in 2020. Many organizations are still unable to address workplace bullying, which has a bad impact on employees and has a significant impact on the work environment. It also creates social stress, which affects both the employees and the organization. One of the main challenges is that bullying doesn’t get reported is that bullies are often from high-functioning employee who bring top dollars to the company. Another challenge is employee fear of harmful job and career consequences (Max Woolf, 2021). Workplace bullying is more related to systemic flaws in the organisation and less to employee performance, whereas person-related bullying is more related to the victims' personal characteristics, so, regardless of their commitment, the victim's preferred option is to leave the organisation in such circumstances (Faheem Rasool, 2013). Bullying has been proven to be linked to a number of detrimental organisational and individual effects. Bullying is seen to be significantly linked to affective commitment since it impacts victims' emotions. When there is bullying in the workplace, socialisation and reciprocation are unlikely to occur, and normative commitment is likely to suffer as a result. Regardless of the form of commitment, stress has a negative impact on long-term commitment (Fusun Bulutlar, 2008). The factors that causes bullying majorly are due to the bullies inferiority complex towards skilled worker, popular or they are worried about their work are overshadowed by the other employee’s work and ability. Here, the challenge we are trying to overcome is to bring out the unwelcomed behaviour that are taking place in an organization. seeking managerial support to overcome the bullying behaviour faced and explaining the importance implementing measures and other factors to reduce the bullying and improving the commitment in an organization. The proposed hypothesis is to show that how workplace bullying positively affects the organization commitment. There are limited study addressing that what causes workplace bullying, there are studies only related to how workplace bullying affects the organizational commitment as a whole, but there is limited study related to the factors that cause workplace bullying. The bigger vision of this work is to bring out the importance of commitment of an employee in an organization and how workplace bullying badly affects it. To create awareness and develop many programmes to reduce the workplace bullying. The objectives of the study: 1). To study&nbsp; the Impact of Workplace Bullying on Organizational Commitment. 2)To investigate the relationship among workplace bullying and Organizational Commitment (OC). 3). To study what causes the Workplace bullying.</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/gavya/mceclip0.png"></p> Gavya V Copyright (c) 2021 Gavya V https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2461 Wed, 13 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Steganography : Survey and analysis of various methods and techniques https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2300 <p>Security of data is one of the major question now days. As we are moving towards modern<br>technologies, risk on our confidential information also increases rapidly. Steganography is the<br>science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate Multimedia carrier, e.g.<br>image, audio, and video files. Here, we assume that if the feature is visible, the point of attack<br>is evident, thus the goal here is always to conceal the very existence of the embedded data.<br>Steganography has various useful applications. Steganography’s eventual objectives are<br>undetectability, resistance to various image processing methods and compression i.e.<br>robustness and capacity of the hidden data, are the main factors that differentiate it from other<br>security techniques such as watermarking and cryptography. This paper also highlights the<br>security improved by applying various techniques of steganography for data hiding.</p> Pratap Patil, Namrata Jogi Copyright (c) 2021 Pratap Patil, Namrata Jogi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2300 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Core competencies of women entrepreneurs of Kandhamal district of Odisha https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1647 <p>Entrepreneurship over a period of time has been evolved as the back bone of an economy in terms of generation of income and creation of employment. It act as resilience to the poverty in the rural economy. Most of the entrepreneurs in the rural areas are engaged in the Micro, Small and Medium enterprises under the aegis of the Government with slew of policy measures. Radical innovation of the technology permits new and technology savvy firm to leapfrog the traditional firm in the entrepreneurial journey. The crux of the matter in the 21<sup>st</sup>&nbsp;century is the competencies of entrepreneurs to drive the success and failure of any business enterprise. The study aim to investigate the core competencies of women entrepreneurs of Kandhamal district of Odisha through verification of it’s efficacy in &nbsp;acceleration of the business performance. Kandhamal is one of the tribal dominated district of Odisha where more than 65% of the population belongs to tribal community. With the growth and development of technology as well as various policies framed by te Government of Odisha, the entrepreneurship activity among women is a recent innovation. This study aims to justify the competencies of women entrepreneurs of this districts in order to enable them to be recognised in nation and international level. The study uses two stages of research i.e. explanatory and confirmatory research to identify various competencies of women entrepreneurs. The result of the research has further been corroborated with the relevant literature review to establish that entrepreneurial competencies and business performance have been positively co-related. On the basis of identified competencies, &nbsp;quantitative and qualitative data was collated through self designed questionnaires from 300 women entrepreneurs of Kandhamal districts and statistical tools e.g. Mean, Standard deviation and Pearson Correlation method are used to analyse and Co-relate various competencies with the growth in business performance. The competencies which are having higher degree of positive co-relation with the growth in business performance have been identified as core competencies. The results of the research has identified that Personal, Operational, Commitment and Management competencies provide superior results. However, they are at nascent state so far as transformation of competencies is concerned. The result of the study will be helpful for modern, aspirational and Tech savvy women entrepreneurs of Kandhamal district to accelerate aesthetic and quality of their entrepreneurship competencies.</p> Copyright (c) 2021 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1647 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Human Resource Management on employee performance through employee satisfaction https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2962 <p>This research started with the intention of finding out how HRM can improve employee performance while employee satisfaction plays a mediating role. In order to identify the same a total of 5 hypotheses were developed that are mentioned below. H0: Training and development given by HRM ensures employee satisfaction and employee performance; H1: Performance appraisal by HRM ensures employee satisfaction and employee performance; H2: Compensation and benefits by HRM ensures employee satisfaction and employee performance; H3: Work-life balance by HRM ensures employee satisfaction and employee performance; H4: Career planning by HRM ensures employee satisfaction and employee performance; H5: Positive and friendly workplace culture ensures employee satisfaction and employee performance. Every independent variable within these hypotheses is activities that are performed by the HRM department of an organization. By linking these variables with Maslow's hierarchy of needs it is identified how these variables are triggering employee satisfaction. Then from existing literature, it is concluded that these factors by triggering employee satisfaction are ensuring better employee performance in an organization.</p> Sharada Ghosh, Sitikantha Mishra, Anubhuti Gupta, Neha Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Sharada Ghosh, Sitikantha Mishra, Anubhuti Gupta, Neha Sharma https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2962 Tue, 26 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The impact on the psychological health of employees through egotism of managers resorting to Workplace Bullying and Destructive Leadership- A hypothetical case study approach. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1689 <p>Past research has focused on workplace bullying and destructive leadership in times of crises has restrained its prejudiced boundaries by relying excessively upon psychological and social-psychological perspectives. Alarming stress reactions can result from Workplace bullying which refers to continuous exposure to frequent hostile behaviors at work. Due to workplace bullying, a vast number of people and organizations are being impacted in several ways leading to serious psychological issues for employees. In the larger view, workplace bullying and adopting a destructive or tyrannical leadership impacts working conditions, health and safety, personal life, and the right of all to equal opportunity and treatment. In this paper, an effort is made to understand how leaders respond during crucial stages of organization restructuring and how the leadership styles affect the psychological well-being of employees through a hypothetical case study. On the whole, this paper suggests the approaches that could lead to a more rational approach in maintaining the psychological health of employees rather than resorting to workplace harassment and adopting a destructive leadership style.</p> Dr.Smita Singh, Dr .Sourabh Jain, Shruti Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Dr.Smita Singh, Dr .Sourabh Jain, Shruti Sharma https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1689 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 SUSTAINABLE WINE PRODUCTION & MARKETING: EVIDENCES & INITATIVES https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/405 <p>Sustainability has become the corner stone of any present day development activity or policy. Sustainability practices and policies has precipitated &nbsp;into every sector of production and consumption globally across most industries. This paper presents a classification of sustainability practices specific to the wine industry in line with the United Nations Sustainability goals of &nbsp;‘sustainable consumption and production patterns (SDG 12)’ (United Nations Sustainable Development, n.d.).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Wine! a drink considered to be a gift from the Gods in some cultures, is one of the oldest known beverages to human kind. This humble fermented juice of grapes has stood the test of time and has changed little since it’s discovery around 8000 years ago (Marthiano et al, 2019) . Though the drink has not changed much , the way it is produced, marketed and consumed has definitely changed and &nbsp;evolved &nbsp;for good or bad over the years. The vine and wine making process is witnessing a 360 degree change in its production and consumption pattern. Initiatives &nbsp;by responsible wine makers as well as policies and pressure from consumers has encouraged wine makers and marketers to be more responsible towards the way vines and wine are &nbsp;farmed, produced, marketed and consumed.</p> <p>&nbsp;Traditional farming as well as wine making techniques along with modern day knowledge and technology is not only making viticulture and wine making more refined but also more sustainable. The packaging and marketing of wine has also witnessed an increase in responsible and sustainable practices.This research presents a systematic literature review of papers, reports and marketing campaigns on the sustainable practices of the wine industry from farm to &nbsp;glass. The research then focuses on the state of sustainable &nbsp;initiatives and practices adopted and followed in the Indian wine industry and market.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>According to the United Nations (1987), “ sustainable development is development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. &nbsp;According to Baiano (2021), the concept of ‘ sustainability’ is unclear when applied to grape and wine products. Baiano (2021) discusses the role of the Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) and the International Federation of Wine and Spirits (FIVS) in defining ‘sustainability’ with respect to the wine industry.</p> <p>Baiano in his papers states that there has been a significant amount of &nbsp;research in the area of sustainability across the various aspects of the wine industry , especially in the last five years! Baiano states &nbsp;that a search for ‘ sustainable wine’ in Scopus and WoS ( World of Science) resulted in 979 and 763 documents.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Indian wine industry and wine market is still young but growing. As per India -Briefing (2021) India’s modern rendezvous with wine began in 1984 with the setting up of the Champagne Indage plant; however,&nbsp;only recently has the culture around wine consumption changed, increasing multifold from a mere one million liters per annum in 2001 to over 30 million liters per annum in 2019.&nbsp;The Indian wine industry saw a CAGR of 14 percent between 2010 to 2017, making it the fastest growing alcoholic beverage in India.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Being a relatively new entrant in wine world . Indian wine makers and marketers have the advantage of learning and adopting the best sustainable methods and practices from across the world. The main objective of this paper is to understand the best practices from across the world with respect to polices, farming, production, marketing and consumption of wine and then comparing them with the practices followed in the Indian wine industry and market. The findings should help the stakeholders in the Indian wine industry to adopted tested and successful practices being followed the world over.</p> Zacharia Joseph, Leena Fukey Copyright (c) 2021 Zacharia Joseph, Leena Fukey https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/405 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 E-Waste: A Global Hazard and Management Techniques https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/481 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Now a days with the advancement in technology there is more and more use of Electronic items and appliances which results in E-Waste. Waste due to electrical items(E-Waste) includes the electrical waste of machines or the electronic appliances which are discarded after their use. It also includes the electrical items which are broken and are of no use [1].</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp; &nbsp; </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">E-Waste is a source of a number of toxic chemicals that are harmful to the environment and human health. Proper Management of E-Waste is one of the major concerns of all the developing and developed countries.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The risk of e-waste to human body, both in terms of chronic and severe conditions, has become a major public health problem. The toxic chemicals of E-Waste has negative effects on both environment and health [2]. Table 1 describes the diseases caused by the toxins present in E-waste.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Table1. Negative Effects on Health of Improper E-waste Management</span></p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p><strong>Electronic Products</strong></p> </td> <td> <p><strong>Toxic Materials</strong></p> </td> <td> <p><strong>Health effects</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Batteries</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Cadmium, lead and mercury</span></p> </td> <td rowspan="6"> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Birth Defects</span></li> </ul> <br> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Brain, heart, skeletal system, liver and kidney damage.</span></li> </ul> <br><br> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Nervous system Damage</span></li> </ul> <br> <ul> <li style="font-weight: 400;" aria-level="1"><span style="font-weight: 400;">Reproductive System Damage</span></li> </ul> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Computer Monitors and televisions</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Lead</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Electronic Switches, light devices and flat screen displays</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Mercury</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Printed Circuit Boards</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Lead, Chromium and mercury</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Solder on Circuit Boards</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Lead</span></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Old computer and electrical appliances</span></p> </td> <td> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">PCBs</span></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">As a result, with the advancement of technology there arises a problem of E-Waste, it’s proper disposal and management is necessary for sustainable development. Incineration and other E-waste management techniques are not effective as they cause pollution. For e.g. During incineration a large amount of toxic gases are released which is harmful to workers in the plant and also to the environment.&nbsp;</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Also it is estimated that by 2030 the quantity of E-waste will be more than 74 million metric tons, if waste is not treated properly it will in major hazard in future.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Governments and local authorities around the world face enormous challenges to collect, treat, reuse, and dispose of this fast-growing electronic waste in terms of environmental safety and health[3]. E-Waste on improper disposal releases harmful chemicals in soil which affect soil factors like pH and these toxins get mixed with groundwater and make their way to large water bodies causing water pollution which is harmful for both humans and aquatic life.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The best management techniques for E-Waste are Recycle and Recovery of valuable materials from E-waste. But in India due to lack of skilled workers, the return of precious metals is not very good, therefore, a large percentage of metals such as copper, gold, silver, and other precious metals (palladium, tantalum, platinum, etc.) are discarded and lost. Fig1. Shows the flowchart of the process to recover valuable materials from E-waste [4].</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">&nbsp;</span></p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/uditm/mceclip0.png"></p> <p><strong>Fig.1</strong><span style="font-weight: 400;">. Flowchart showing the process of recovery of materials from E-Waste</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">There is a need for a legal rules and regulations for factories and industries to establish sustainable management practices and hence result in sustainable development.&nbsp; &nbsp; The purpose of this paper is to raise global awareness about E-Waste and hazards related to it and hence this paper deals with the description of E-Waste, the problems related with it, various methods to recover valuable items from E-waste and its environment friendly disposal. Also, from this paper we get to know about the best management techniques for waste i.e. Recycle and Reuse. The management techniques mentioned in the paper will eliminate the unethical practices of E-Waste disposal and hence stop pollution of environment (air, soil and water) and it will also be beneficial for the health of worker. We need to adapt proper management techniques for sustainable development otherwise in future, waste of electronics will be harmful.</span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lakshay Tanwani Copyright (c) 2021 Udit Mamodiya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/481 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of perceived employability on career success: Mediating role of competency https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2659 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>In recent scenarios career success of the individual is more complicated because of socio-economic change and lack of knowledge in labour market. Nowadays career and work itself change due to transformation in work context and increasing in market pressure and rapid change in organisation brings the employee more flexible in order to remain competitive advantage. The term "perceived employability" refers to the possibility of "employment" with one's current employer (i.e. on the internal labour market) or with another employer (i.e. on the external labour market). Perceived employability is playing an important role not only in obtaining and maintaining a job but also creating a career satisfaction. In order to find out or grab opportunity in career it required competency to promote career possibility which helps achieve career success.&nbsp; The individual employability should be enhanced by acquiring knowledge, skills, abilities, and other attributes desired by current and prospective employers, which incorporates an individual's career potential. Individuals' participation in competency development programmes, as well as an organisational climate that promotes competency development and it will be favourably related to employability perceptions. Involvement in competency development initiatives refers to how individual employees build their competency by active participation in various sorts of developmental activities provided by their employer. Earlier research in the fields of career management and training and development suggests the possibility of direct relationships with career success. This assumption emerges from the career success model based on sponsored mobility. Under a sponsored-mobility norm system, some individuals will receive special attention from more senior managers, including their supervisors. This suggests that subordinates who receive support and career-related coaching from their supervisors have been selected' for sponsorship. Because of the supervisor's encouragement, the subordinate may perform at a higher level in competence and, as a result, be rewarded with career success.</p> <p>Researchers have recently begun to demonstrate that individual with high levels of perceived employability, that is, who believe they have a strong possibility of competitive advantage in the organisation are better able to cope with today's increasingly complex labour market. The growing number of temporary work and less job security in the labour market, perceived employability is becoming increasingly significant as a method of achieving career success.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The supporting of COR (<strong>Conservation of Resources Theory</strong>) especially effective framework for studying employability since it states that people try to obtain and protect their resources. COR theory defined as anything considered important for a person to anything considered useful in achieving personal goals. As a result, acquiring perceived employability competencies such as occupational expertise, anticipation and optimization, personal flexibility, corporate sense and balance, that improve work opportunities and aspirations, are relevant personal resources that aid in job retention and career success. The purpose of the study is to find the relationship between perceived employability and career success because of the individual's perception of the opportunities that has to obtain a job of his/her choice or to enhance the&nbsp; opportunities are dependent on his/her qualities, behaviours and competency as well as the contextual circumstances around him/her. Earlier research were revealed that employee participation in competency development initiatives as well as perceived support for competency development are associated with increased levels of self-perceived employability to achieve career success but status quo after the pandemic circumstance most of the organisation were rebuild their objectives and policy and create new strategy to overcome from the hard situation. So employee’s and employer are to adopt the competence to perceive his/her employability to attain the career success in this era. After reviewing many articles on perceived employability and career success only limited studies were done and in that study the competency as mediating variable are not studied but the basic theoretical claim that competency development is an important strategy of improving employability is empirically supported.&nbsp;(scholarios, 2008).</p> <p>Thereby, our findings add to the research examining the relationship between career success and employability by applying an integrative approach to competency (including both individual and organisational aspects). The findings also support the notion that competency development is related not only to domain-specific knowledge or abilities, but also to broader views of occupational expertise and flexibility&nbsp;(Schneider, 1996).&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective of the study:</strong></p> <ol> <li>Impact of perceived employability on career success with mediating effect of competency&nbsp;</li> <li>To know the competency impacting on career success</li> <li>To know the relationship between perceived employability and career success</li> </ol> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Fig.1 </strong>Conceptual framework of Impact of perceived employability on career success with mediating role of competency</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/dineshbabu/mceclip1.png"></p> DINESHBABU Copyright (c) 2021 DINESHBABU https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2659 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 CHENDAMANGALAM HANDLOOM REVIVAL CENTRE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/821 <p>The textile industry, one of the largest industries in India contributes about one-fifth of rural industrial production, nearly one-third of total exports, and employs 4.5 crores out of which 35.22 lakh are handloom workers across the country [1]. Contributing 2% to the GDP and 12% to the export income, it held 5% of the global trade in textile and apparel in 2018-19 [2]. The handloom sector contributes nearly 22% of the total cloth production in the country. It also contributes substantially to the export earnings [3].</p> <p>When the growth of India as a country is brought into the big picture, power loom textile mills, which accredits to mass production of textiles at a faster rate and cheaper price, has its shortcomings mainly due to the excessive energy consumption and capital-intensive techniques. Also, due to the machine’s capabilities, the employment it generates is low. Another important consideration is the harmful effect of pollution caused by conventional textile production.</p> <p>Whereas in the case of handloom production, its highly advantageous for the development of the country because it generates labor-intensive opportunities as it is a completely manual operation with fewer capital requirements. It does not harm the ecosystem and requires much less energy. Artisans work diligently to weave the minute details and that level of intricacy of design cannot be matched with a power loom.</p> <p>The handloom industry continues to be a hereditary occupation, that uses traditional methods of production. The handloom industry started facing competition from indigenous textile mills as the first textile mill in Bombay was established in 1851 [4]. Handloom weavers are also faced with a severe livelihood crisis. Ineffective implementation of government schemes, increasing unfair competition from mill sectors are some of the factors responsible. This, as well as lack of exposure, awareness and knowledge on changing technologies, methods and requirements, has posed a great challenge to revive the life of the craft which is globally reputed for its superior quality. Also, the absence of stakeholders such as designers, marketing agents, retailers, and research students has resulted in the fragmentation of these activities.</p> <p>Suicides are on the rise and many are forced to shift their professions due to debts challenging their survival and along with it the craft that amplifies the heritage of our nation.</p> <p>Weaving has been prominent in Kerala since the 15<sup>th</sup> century. In the district of Ernakulam, Chendamangalam is a town in Paravoor taluk, center for Paravoor Handloom Weavers Cooperative Society that is one of the largest weaving societies consisting of 140 weavers. renowned for its handloom kasavu sarees and dhotis. The ivory palette and gold border of the kasavu, once reserved for royalty and wealthy aristocracy, have now become popular among the Malayali population for special occasions such as weddings and festivals. However, weaving waned by the early 20th century due to diminishing encouragement and backing. In the present scenario, weavers are reluctant to stay in this profession due to working conditions and low wages.</p> <p>In 2010, the&nbsp;Government of Kerala&nbsp;applied for Geographical Indication for Chendamangalam Dhotis, Sarees/Set Mundu and&nbsp;since the year 2011, recognized it as a Geographical indication officially [5].</p> <p>Floods in Kerala in 2018 wreaked havoc on already-dead looms, yarns, and finished textiles, resulting in losses of almost Rs 15 crore. Over 350 weavers and associated workers were disheartened after 273 looms were damaged across 7 cooperative societies. The sudden catastrophic situation has left the weavers of the society, who make just about Rs 150 per day, unemployed falling deeper into debt [6].</p> <p>Simply repairing the looms would not bring back the weavers to the craft. The primary agenda is to provide a decent livelihood for them. The solution extends to offer incessant benefits, fair trade practices and a constant workflow. Another factor is that women, mostly above the age of 45, make up 92% of its workforce. Basic amenities such as washrooms, natural light, and circulation must be an imperative part of the design to improve their working circumstances.</p> <p>Although the government has put forward various schemes to aid the cluster, the efforts seem to be uncoordinated. Insufficient measures for the protection of this traditional art and craft, insufficient significance to the need for training and industry fragmentation has given rise to the need for a compartmentalized institution in the perspective of preservation and to address the scope for future research for the socio-economic development of the weaving community and industry.</p> <p>This proposal is an architectural reform where the working conditions, market/demand scenario, firm marketing strategies and supporting activities, future research scopes are addressed. At the same time, the program aims to establish an ideal proposal to build immunity and progress for institutions across the globe as the world is susceptible to extreme rainfall and are always vulnerable to flood risk.</p> <p>The bigger picture of this program would be to expand the field of handloom where tourism would play a major role in expanding their consumer base. By starting small and slowly establishing a specialized brand it will then bring about greater global attention to this dying craft and thereby become a sustainable prototype for the handloom industry. The unique objective of this study will be that by breaking the conventional paradigms and making this cluster more fashionable, it will attempt to bridge that gap between the rural and urban sector as this integrated center is for the rural population. It will suffice the problems of migration of rural population to urban cities as it generates a lot of employment and dignity.</p> <p>The following sustainable development goals will be taken into account:</p> <p>No poverty</p> <p>Quality education</p> <p>Affordable and clean energy</p> <p>Reduced inequalities</p> <p>Decent work and economic growth</p> <p>Industry, infrastructure, and innovation</p> <p>Sustainable cities and communities</p> <p>Climate action</p> <p>Peace, justice, and strong institutions</p> <p>Partnership for the goals</p> <p><strong>Keywords: handloom, infrastructure, employment, research, sustainable, growth</strong></p> Charutha Rajeev Copyright (c) 2021 Charutha Rajeev https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/821 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the Work-Family Integration During Covid-19 And Beyond https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1528 <p>The corporate experts and academicians have been working on identifying and solving problems related to employees work in the office premises. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has altered the job landscape, with a move towards Work from Home becoming increasingly common. This transition calls for various adjustments in organizational policies, tactics, and employee work practices (Hern, 2020). Despite the fact that not all sectors allow workers to work remotely, research has shown that allowing employees to work from home enhances both the productivity and well-being of both the business and the individual (Bathini and Kandathil, 2019; Rupietta and Beckmann, 2018; Wood et al., 2018). In addition, organizations increasingly adopt agile human resource management systems and convert their workforce into a lean and liquid workforce, which may offer the required impetus for this shift to remote working arrangements. However, a separate body of studies emphasizes the negative consequences of work-family integration. This research requires immediate attention from academicians.</p> <p>Work from home or anyplace is a new kind of remote working that allows workers to live and work from anywhere globally, removing numerous premises-based variables, including location, office atmosphere, and so on. Because of this, it has become necessary to explain the people practices, rapidly changing function in the business's success (Choudhury, et al., 2019). Meanwhile, academicians have lately expressed worry over possible detrimental consequences for employees, working from home, due to personal and organizational factors. Therefore, although working from home has both, its advantages and disadvantages, a re-examination of the existing factors during covid-19 and beyond, that supports and hampers the idea of work-family integration, is the area of studies for &nbsp;IT employees.</p> <p>From the discussions with the respondents, it was understood that remote working has some advantages that&nbsp; IT employees are enjoying. Nevertheless, &nbsp;IT employees have confirmed that they undergo extreme stress because of impractical deadlines for the work submission. Similarly, mobile information technology-based devices have hampered their personal life, family, children, and health – both mentally and physically. On the other hand, certain studies also supported the observed outcomes of the research idea, and in fact, researchers have argued that mobile technology has the potential to improve the work-family integration well if used rightly. The study concluded by drawing both positive and negative implications of work-family integration,&nbsp; forms a base for future research.</p> <p>Finally, the study findings would show how the work-family integration of IT employees changed after the series of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns in 2020 and 2021. As discussed at the outset of this article, work-family integration has been linked to various health and well-being problems. Since many IT employees, who were facing work-family conflicts got lessened in such a short time, it is safe to assume that this has also impacted their mental and physical health. There might be more investigation whether reduced work-family conflict offsets, other pandemic-related stresses affect future employees' health. This indicates yet another health-related compensatory mechanism as well. However, the study findings could also point to a new way of looking at emotional inequality based on their age and family positions.&nbsp; Parents did not see the same decline in work-life conflict as young employees. This could be possibly due to the new requirements of integrating the roles of work and family brought on by the pandemic, in the face of constrained institutions that generally provides child care, supervision, and education to children during the typical working day. Our findings as a group show how critical it is to acknowledge that being a young working parent during a pandemic comes with a host of additional obligations. For work-family academics, the study serves as a timely reminder to keep an open mind regarding how stress manifests itself differently for those without children living at home—and what that could mean for broader debates about work-family integration.</p> Sangeeta Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Sangeeta Gupta https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1528 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Online Leadership in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Challenges and Opportunities https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2847 <p>Online leadership is a function that lawmakers esteem as a result of the COVID‐19 crisis. The desire for swift change ensured that society representatives, who might take the requisite actions, were appreciated. Leaders who have been dithering or not acting have faced a greater degree of COVID‐19-related problems in the field. The COVID-19 pandemic shocked many organizations, which has an impact on shifts in organizations' working culture. The position of information technology has proved to be the approach preferred to sustain corporate success. The key goal of this research is to discuss online leadership challenges and opportunities. The research focuses mostly on small and medium-sized businesses worldwide. A qualitative methodology is used to challenge informants dispersed by computer technology mediation in many world regions. A significant finding in this paper is that many organizations are not ready to cope with this situation, so that the position of online leadership is very successful in maintaining organizations and that leaders will adapt their leadership style by learning about society and by overcoming the obstacles that they face to become an Internet leader. We often find that woman leaders appear to be preferable to men as the online representative, particularly regarding information technology and the usage of social networking. This paper concludes that leaders who can resolve the obstacles and take advantage of resources to implement strategic advantage tactics can create online leadership.</p> Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Divya Madhavan, Mayakannan Selvaraju Copyright (c) 2021 Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Divya Madhavan, Mayakannan Selvaraju https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2847 Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Administrative Staff – Exploring the Potential Human Resource in Higher Education Institutes https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2315 <p>Vision, Mission and Objective building are very challenging tasks and it requires aims<br>which will construct future requirements and connect them with the present scenario. Modern<br>Education System will require skilled and qualified Human Resource alongside with the faculty<br>working in Higher Education. The aim of higher education in India is to create Knowledge<br>Society, inculcating Research &amp; Development culture, Innovations through incubation centers,<br>access to quality education, etc. The terms ‘Knowledge Society’, ‘Information Society’ and<br>‘Learning Society’ have become familiar expressions in the higher educational parlance and<br>are and will remain potential contributors in growth and development of any society.<br>Higher Education Sector is organized and a growing sector, considering the vision of<br>education Government of India (GoI) through Ministry of Education (MoE) has always<br>encouraged higher education through providing access, equity, quality with accountability at<br>affordable cost, while doing so MoE has build strong educational information management<br>system through All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE), National Institutions Ranking<br>Framework (NIRF), etc. MoE has also observed that education shall reach every aspirant by<br>offering special programmes for gifted and talented students, special programs for Girl’s<br>education, education for disadvantaged groups, etc.<br>As mentioned in Table &amp; Figure 1 the total number of Higher Education Institutions have<br>increased by 92% which indicates the vision of GoI – MoE regarding higher education in India.<br>Considering the Teaching Resource available all over India as per Higher Education surveys in<br>the academic year 2019-20 is 15,18,813 (Fifteen Lac Eighteen Thousand Eight Hundred and<br>Thirteen) As faculty, teachers are important human resource for imparting education at any level<br>the administrative staff are the human resource which are the silent partners in the higher<br>education system. The total number of administrative staff in 2019-20 reached up to 12,90,701<br>(Twelve Lac Ninety Thousand Seven Hundred and One)<br>The research tries to explore the roles of administrative staff in higher education<br>institutes, as the percentage of Faculty – Administrative staff is near about 85 %. The research<br>also tries to highlight some of the missing areas between the actual growth in higher education<br>sector and the current scenario in administrative work profile, the study will also try to bring<br>some insights on the potentials of the silent resource – administrative staff consisting of<br>Registrars, Office Superintendent’s, Accountants, Senior and Junior Clerks, and how to make a<br>proper use of the potential human resource available in the campus.<br>Exploring the human assets available, analyzing their potentials, studying the current<br>growth and needs of higher education, effect of introduction of Multidisciplinary, Research<br>Culture and Holistic education on the faculty, the changes needed as in job specifications and<br>job descriptions according to the changes in the higher education sector will be part of this<br>study.</p> Rajendra Ramanlal Shah, Vijaya Puranik Copyright (c) 2021 Rajendra Ramanlal Shah, Vijaya Puranik https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2315 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A study on consumer expectation towards retail service quality-with reference to Ghaziabad https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2348 <p>The remarkable expansion of retail in India is due to increased number of hypermarkets, supermarkets etc. The increased numbers of retail store in order to sustain and succeed needs customer loyalty &nbsp;&nbsp;which can be achieved by catering to the needs of the customers. This study is an attempt to understand the expectations of service quality from the consumer side and how the service provider specified in the electronics retail industry is delivering the same. Pre-sales and after-sales services and the quality of on-time sales services are on the utmost requirements of the customers nowadays. The factors which are identified in this study would be helpful for the retailers to in providing quality services to the customer to meet their expectations.</p> Mrinal Verma, Puja Roshani Copyright (c) 2021 Mrinal Verma, Puja Roshani https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2348 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ROLE OF MOBILE PHONES IN ADOPTION OF FINANCIAL TECHNOLOGY-IN CONTEXT TO MSME SECTOR OF INDIA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1056 <p><strong>PURPOSE-</strong>A report from (World Bank, 2018) indicates that the mobile phone is accelerating the rise in financial inclusion globally. Similarly, (GSMA, 2021) states that mobile money awareness is increased to 33% in 2020 as compared to 18% in 2019. Also, COVID-19 led a large proportion of mobile money users to use more sophisticated financial services such as credit, savings, and insurance. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the role of Mobile phones (Lashitew <em>et al</em>, 2019) for adopting Financial Technology on registered Micro, Small, and Medium enterprise of India. This study will reveal the respondents' motives for adopting Mobile technology as well as preferences and acceptance for using Financial technology. Also, the behavioral intention of the MSME sector for adopting Financial technology is measured with the help of the Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) and the Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology model (Venkatesh et al, 2003).</p> <p><strong>DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH-</strong>The paper was based on a descriptive and inferential research design for which original data is collected using a close-ended structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of three parts. The first part covers the demographic variables of the respondents. The second part covers items related to awareness and preference of MSMEs for using Financial technology through mobile phones. The third part covers items related to the Technology Acceptance Model and the Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. The data was collected during the period of December 2020-February 2021. Questions were asked directly from the owners/managers of small and medium scale enterprises situated in Shahdara Industrial Area in East Delhi of North India to understand the Technology infrastructure of MSMEs and to predict the innovative methods which can lift the working of MSMEs. The researcher was able to collect 117 valid responses.</p> <p><strong>FINDINGS-</strong>The Financial technology has changed the ecosystem of Indian MSME as well as the Banking Sector. The Financial technology acceptance rate through Mobile is very high among the MSME sector of India. The financial technology acceptance through Mobile phones was not found to be affected by all behavioral variables explained in TAM and UTAT models. The financial technology acceptance through Mobile phones was not found to be affected perceived ease for use, perceived usefulness, and trust through, government support, satisfaction and, peer influence in case MSME sector.</p> <p><strong>PRACTICAL/SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS</strong> -We identify the important factors MSMEs consider while adopting financial technology. The findings of this research give banks specialized in small businesses, financial institutions, and government departments a foundational model that can be used to support Financial technology acceptance in the MSME sector.</p> <p><strong>ORIGINALITY/VALUE-</strong>This empirical study contributes to the novel understanding of the acceptance and preference of the MSME sector towards Financial technology through mobile phones.</p> UPASANA GUPTA Copyright (c) 2021 UPASANA GUPTA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1056 Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Digitization and its impact on consumer perception and buying behaviour with respect to demographic phenomena https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1136 <p>The concept of digitization on consumer perception and their buying behavioural pattern is very curious context for the business organizations, industrialist and greatly for the market leaders. It is the notion that most of the business organizations necessary to understand and take pitch in to this that really to know how the change is takes place around the universe The major significance of this research study is to that to know the contribution of the digitization on consumer perception and their buying behavioural pattern jointly with the few consumer demographic factors as such. To analyse this the data was collected conveniently from the 500 respondents in kolar town and Bangalore city. Primary data collection method was used by the researcher i.e. by creating the google forms and conducted online survey. In most of the research articles the authors consider the Gender and Age (Ameer Ahmad, Noor Ul Hadi, 2020) as the significant. This study reveals that along with the age and gender wise consideration it is recommended that to consider the level of earnings with the age classification is most important context during the digitized promotional activity because this will also impact of the perceptual concept of the consumers The main aim of this study is to know what demographic &nbsp;&nbsp;factor will greatly impact on the consumer perceptual concept and on the consumer behavioural pattern. The research study findings provide practitioners and scholars the valuable data, Also the Shortfalls and future research recommendations</p> LOKESH R Copyright (c) 2021 LOKESH R https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1136 Wed, 22 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Towards sustainability: Examining the antecedents of organic products usage intention in India during COVID-19 pandemic https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2601 <p>The novel coronavirus disease(COVID-19)&nbsp; raised both public health and mental health concerns globally [1]. This also changed the buying behaviour of people due to various reasons such as difficulties in direct purchase, health concerns availability of products etc. [2]. Pandemic period has witnessed increase in usage of organic products, mostly related to immunity enhancement[3]. The present study investigates the antecedents of organic products usage intention in India. Based on previous research in this area we considered four constructs- environmental concern, health concerns, attitude to buy organic products and intention to buy organic products.</p> <p>We investigated the association of environmental concern, health concerns, attitude to buy organic products and intention to buy organic products. For this, we conducted cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected from 573 respondents from India. An online survey was conducted using snowball sampling.&nbsp; Sample consisted of 366 males and 207 females. The mean age of the respondents was 39.5( SD 9.75).</p> <p>Structural equation modeling (SEM) methods as implemented in AMOS 24.0 [4] were used to test the research model. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was performed with maximum likelihood estimation to examine the goodness of the model.The models’ goodness of fit was evaluated using the criteria: relative χ2: ( χ2/df )&lt; 3, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA): ⩽0.08, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR): ⩽0.06, , comparative fit index (CFI) ⩾0.90, and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) ⩾0.90[5], [6]. Cronbach’s α, average variance extracted (AVE), composite reliability (CR), and average loadings (AL) were also used to check the reliability and validity of the instruments.</p> <p>The results of SEM analyses showed that the proposed model fits the data adequately with χ<sup>2</sup>/<em>df</em> = 1.78, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.01, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.05, and SRMR = 0.05. &nbsp;The relationship between the environmental concern and attitude to buy organic products was significant with β = .22, p &lt; 0.05.&nbsp; The relationship between the health concern and attitude to buy organic products was significant with β = .32, p &lt; 0.001.&nbsp; The relationship between the environmental concern and intention to buy organic products was significant with β = .27, p &lt; 0.01.Also, the relationship between the health concern and intention to buy organic products was significant with β = .31, p &lt; 0.001. The relationship between attitude to buy organic products and intention to buy organic products also found to be significant with β = .19, p &lt; 0.05.</p> <p>The study contributed to the antecedents of intention to buy organic products to sustainable practices literature. Business owners can focus on&nbsp; more sustainable practices considering the outcomes of the study[7] . Future studies can focus on longitudinal design to replicate the robustness of the results. &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>References </strong></p> <p>[1]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; R. Tandon, “COVID-19 and mental health: Preserving humanity, maintaining sanity, and promoting health,” <em>Asian J. Psychiatr.</em>, vol. 51, 2020.</p> <p>[2]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; N. Donthu and A. Gustafsson, “Effects of COVID-19 on business and research,” <em>J. Bus. Res.</em>, vol. 117, no. June, pp. 284–289, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.06.008.</p> <p>[3]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; M. Verma and B. R. Naveen, “COVID-19 Impact on Buying Behaviour,” <em>Vikalpa</em>, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 27–40, 2021, doi: 10.1177/02560909211018885.</p> <p>[4]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; J. L. Arbuckle, “IBM® SPSS® User’s Guide Amos<sup>TM</sup> 24,” <em>IBM, Chicago, IL.</em>, pp. 1–720, 2016, [Online]. Available: ftp://public.dhe.ibm.com.</p> <p>[5]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; B. M. Byrne, <em>Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming</em>. New York,NY: Routledge, 2013.</p> <p>[6]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; L. T. Hu and P. M. Bentler, “Fit Indices in Covariance Structure Modeling: Sensitivity to Underparameterized Model Misspecification,” <em>Psychol. Methods</em>, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 424–453, 1998, doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.424.</p> <p>[7]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; R. Lathabhavan, “Sustainable business practices and challenges in Asia: a systematic review,” <em>Int. J. Organ. Anal.</em>, 2021, doi: 10.1108/IJOA-04-2020-2121.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> REMYA LATHABHAVAN, Ephzibah E P Copyright (c) 2021 REMYA LATHABHAVAN, Ephzibah E P https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2601 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Organic Perishable food and its buying behaviour: A systematic review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1510 <p>A systematic review is conducted on Organic Perishable food and its buying behaviour an emerging area of research. The article maps quantitative research literatures and qualitative research literatures for review on Organic Perishable food published from the year 2010 to 2020. The systematic reviewing of literatures includes analyzing the related researches characterized by research question, analytical assessment of research literatures and combining the findings through constituting synthesis. Suitable keywords were used to find literatures and chosen after quality assessment of pertinent literatures.</p> Lakshmi Shetty, Dr. Kavitha Desai Copyright (c) 2021 Lakshmi Shetty, Dr. Kavitha Desai https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1510 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ecotourism: A Sustainable Approach to Tourism in the New Normal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/906 <p>Ecotourism refers to tourism that promotes responsible travelling practices and habits travelling to natural areas. It involves tourism focusing on conserving the environment, and improving the welfare and interests of the local populace. Ecotourism aims to school the travellers, tourists, hotels and other stake holders to be sensitive towards ecological conservation. In the early 1980s Ecotourism came under focus and over a period of time it gained momentum as a crucial effort by environmentalists, so that future generations may experience destinations comparatively unexplored by human intrusion. Ecotourism promotes educating travellers on local environments and natural surroundings in order to foster ecological conservation. Ecotourism also fuels the efforts to produce economic opportunities that make conservation of natural resources financially possible.</p> <p>Study reveals that 1.5 billion international tourist arrivals were recorded in 2019, globally. Further it has been forecasted tourism would become a leading and resilient economic sector, especially in view of current uncertainties. According to the Air Transport Action Group, the world’s airlines carried a total of over 3 billion passengers in 2013, a figure which has steadily increased since. Oxford Economics expects that figure to almost double, reaching 5.9 billion by 2030. All these people are not only emitting huge quantities of CO2 (indirectly) but also putting great pressure on many environments. The end of pandemic would further increase the tourism rate across the globe as people would rush to break their monotonous and confined life of lockdown during pandemic. Hence there is an urgent need for a responsible and sustainable tourism that would serve twin purpose of generating income for communities around the world and also sustain the local environment instead of putting more pressure on it and exploiting its resources. This research study is about the concept of ecotourism and the need for ecotourism in the present times. The study will also explore the different ecotourism sites in the world and how sustainable they are. The research would attempt to provide an overview about the importance of the ecotourism and as a sustainable approach to tourism in the perspective of travel and tourism industry post pandemic times. The study also will suggest steps to make Ecotourism Sustainable impact&nbsp; on&nbsp; the&nbsp; ecosystem&nbsp; and&nbsp; the&nbsp; local community and the positive involvement of the&nbsp; local&nbsp; community&nbsp; in&nbsp; maintaining&nbsp; the ecological&nbsp; balance&nbsp; are&nbsp; some&nbsp; of&nbsp; its&nbsp; key elements.&nbsp; In&nbsp; the present&nbsp; paper&nbsp; there would be a comprehensive study on the scope&nbsp; and&nbsp; challenges of ecotourism in &nbsp;coming&nbsp; years. Ecotourism&nbsp; may&nbsp; take&nbsp; a&nbsp; very important&nbsp; role&nbsp; in&nbsp; unorganized&nbsp; sectors especially&nbsp; those&nbsp; who&nbsp; are&nbsp; not&nbsp; employed&nbsp; or are not doing any regular job. This paper analyzes the problems of ecotourism and proposes some suggestions with respect to guidelines that can be implemented by the policy maker. From a macro perspective, the government should tax the eco-scenic spots in order to so and the tourism industryThe practical implication of this research study would be translated into harmonious development of recommendations for the government and tourism industry</p> Sunanda VIncent Jaiwant Copyright (c) 2021 Sunanda VIncent Jaiwant https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/906 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 GREEN FINANCE: ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND CHALLENGES https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/940 <p>Capital allocation by financial markets plays a significant role in economic development as it channelizes the funds in the most efficient and effective way. Green finance, being one of the most innovative financial instruments promotes sustainable business models. It has shifted the focal point from shareholders wealth maximization to stakeholders’ value generation. This can be achieved by framing and implementing appropriate strategies which ensures environmental sustainability. Climate change has been a cause of concern and agenda of many international organizations since long. Regulators have been trying to encourage financial instruments such as green bonds and environmental, social and governance funds along with fostering corporate social responsibility. The current paper attempts to study the progress made by India in adopting and incorporating the new financial instruments which comes under the purview of green finance along with the challenges, which can loom over in future. The paper will highlight the impact of adopting green finance on the economic development of the country.</p> Shruti Aurora, Dr Vasudha Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Shruti Aurora, Dr Vasudha Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/940 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Contribution of Direct Tax Revenue Vs Indirect Tax Revenue towards India’s GDP – A Comparative Study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2298 <p>Tax revenue in India comprises of direct and indirect tax revenues in the domestic taxes<br>levied in India. In a rapidly progressing economy like India, taxation holds a strong<br>significance as the kind of tax policy reforms determine the overall performance of Indian<br>taxes towards the Indian Economy. From the introduction of GST in India, the indirect tax<br>wing has had a stable yet subtle flight, however, the direct taxes have dominated the overall<br>tax revenue contributions towards the nation’s GDP. This research paper aims to study the<br>trend of tax revenues in India for both direct and indirect taxes in India before and after the<br>introduction of GST in India. The study also attempts to study the growth rate in direct and<br>indirect taxes and their contribution towards the nations GDP. This research paper also<br>dissects the impact of recent direct tax policy reform, direct tax administrative reform and<br>economic policy reform on the direct tax revenue and total tax revenue. The study is based on<br>the data comparison of direct and indirect taxes in India for the last 15 years. An increase in<br>the tax revenues has been studied by analyzing the contributing population to identify the<br>actual ratio of tax revenues to contributing population. The study uses the applicable research<br>tools to achieve the results from the study while maintaining the required quantum of<br>accuracy.</p> Ashish S Kathale, Jayesh Jadhav Copyright (c) 2021 Ashish S Kathale, Jayesh Jadhav https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2298 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainability of electronic wastemanagement in Digital India: A Global Sustainable Agenda 2030 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/959 <p>Introduction<br>E-waste management is good for the economy due to three main reasons—it facilitates safe disposal of electrical and electronic waste, it enables recovery of materials like precious metals, plastics, etc, which can be reused and it provides opportunities for employment in the entire value chainThe study acknowledged a conspicuous global agenda of sustainability development 2030, problem gap in both technological stipulation caused by ICT and market practicability of organized and unorganized recycling industry raising a need to address the sustainability of electronic waste management. As more digitalization leads to more e-waste management and more business prospects by digital economic environment of India.<br>E-waste and sustainable goals<br>In September 2015, the United Nations and all Members states adopted the ambitious 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. This new agenda identified 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) and increasing the levels of e-waste management. A better understanding and more date on e-waste will contribute to the achievement of several goals of the 2030 agenda for sustainable development. A better understanding and management of e-waste is closely linked to Goal 3 (Good health and Well being), Goal 6, (clean water and sanitation), Goal 11 (sustainable cities and communities) Goal 14 (life below water)<br>Research Problem:The e-waste recycling sector is fast evolving with the entry of various recyclers in the organized sector i.e. licensed unit to gain access to e-waste, due to competition from informal collectors, scrap dealers enabling them to pay comparable prices for the collection of e-waste.The study acknowledged a conspicuousproblem gap in both technological stipulation casued by ICT and market practicability of organized and unorganized recycling industry raising a need to address the issue.As very few of research work is carried out in this regard so the above problem remains unattended so the present research gains significance<br>Research Objective<br>The specific objectives that we intend to meet are presentfor, bridging the gap between the organized and unorganized divide in e-waste management in India and to establish a viable working model for e-waste management through recycling.<br>Conclusion &amp; Discussion This study justifies the study by (Criado-Gomis et al 2019) that the role of the informal sector in the value chain of e-waste entrepreneurship continues to remain important due to its potential to generate employment. Research also advocates the study of (Kolte et al 2021) that current nature of the informal sector and its predominance use of manual instead of mechanical recycling methods support the informal sector to maintain those physically focused actions. The situation is varying now with the organized recyclers inflowing the sight and high-end recycling envisaging inclusive environmental conformity and efficiency in the dispensation of waste and the revitalization of a high quality product. Bust such units are unable to access the materials due to the informal collectors, scrap dealers and recyclers in the informal sector who are able to reach for the door-to-door collection and are able to pay a good price for the e-waste in comparison of the formal recyclers. The creation of an association would e.g. allow receiving formal registration and certification as e-waste recycler. In procession with the NEP (National Environmental Policy 2006 rules), the cluster then has to categorize and chronicle its core activities, and to get legitimately legally registered (e.g. as association).<br>Implications :Prospective Proposed Model<br>• Setting up National and local recycling structures for e-waste management<br>• Fostering international business partnerships<br>• Fostering Sustainable Financing and Incentive Schemes<br>• Promoting mechanisms of increasing producer responsibility<br>References:<br>Bazan C. “From lab bench to store shelves:” A translational research &amp;amp; development framework for linking university science and engineering research to commercial outcomes. J Eng Technol Manag [Internet]. 2019 Jul;53:1–18. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0923474817304599<br>Soomro BA, K. Almahdi H, Shah N. Perceptions of young entrepreneurial aspirants towards sustainable entrepreneurship in Pakistan. Kybernetes [Internet]. 2021 Jul 13;50(7):2134–54. Available from: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/K-07-2019-0504/full/html</p> Rashmi Ranjan Panigrahi, Dr. Rahul , Dr. Prashant, Dr. Ashish Copyright (c) 2021 Rashmi Ranjan Panigrahi, Dr. Rahul , Dr. Prashant, Dr. Ashish https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/959 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Competing With Traditional Business Model: Zero Budget Natural Farming against Chemical farming https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2330 <p>Zero Budget Natural Farming or ZBNF, is a set of farming methods, and also is a<br>grassroots peasant movement, which has spread to various states of India. Padma<br>shriSubhashPalekar is founder of this technique of faming ZBNF. It has attained wide<br>achievement in south India, especially the south Indian state of Karnataka where it first<br>evolved.The word zero budget means no expenses or no credit, without any credit &amp; without<br>spending any money on purchased agricultural inputs. Another term natural farming is a<br>technique of chemical-free agriculture drawing from traditional Indian practices. In other<br>sense, natural farming shows the significance of the synergistic impact of both plant &amp;<br>animal products on crop establishment, to form soil fertility and microorganisms. Natural<br>farming is working with nature produced great food, &amp; keeping healthy over selves, it is also<br>called as do-nothing farming on the grounds that the farmer is considered as a facilitator &amp;<br>the real work can be done by nature. No tillage, no pesticides, no chemical fertilizer in this<br>farming. A research was undertaken to study understand Zero Budget Natural Farming with<br>reference to Pune district, Solapur district &amp; Ahmednagar District in Maharashtra State. 435<br>farmers were surveyed. The awareness about ZBNF is quite high with the farmers .No<br>marketing strategy is used by ZBNF producers. However, the farmers are in favor of<br>implementing a sound marketing strategy for the ZBNF products. 4Ps of the classic<br>marketing mix can be identified with the ZBNF products like Gogary, vegetables and fruits.<br>ZBNF implementation can be a game-changer in the field of agriculture. Few farmers were<br>found using ZBNF technique since last 25 years. It is a highly efficient and effective farming<br>model as compared to be the traditional chemical farming. A research was undertaken to<br>study ZBNF farming with reference to Pune, Solapur&amp; Ahmednagar Districts in India from<br>Maharashtra state. This paper presents the study Objectives of the study included studying<br>the concept of ZBNF and marketing of ZBNF products, understanding marketing mix used<br>by ZBNF producers, and finding out the problems of ZBNF while implementing the<br>distribution through traditional channels.Most of the existing research [1-10] on ZBNF is tilted<br>towards technicalities of ZBNF. A study through a marketing perspective employing the<br>classic dimensions like marketing strategy, and marketing mix is not seen. The literature<br>advocates use of ZBNF but fails to answer basic marketing questions like what kind of<br>buying behavior is seen in case of ZBNF products? This study addresses marketing related<br>questions pertaining to ZBNF vegetables and fruits.Primary data was gathered through a<br>survey questionnaire from a sample of 435 farmers and 600 consumers from Pune District,<br>Solapur District and Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra state.In case of satisfaction of<br>ZBNF, the agreement percentages of the 435 farmers was 96% with p-values &lt;0.05. This<br>indicated high level of satisfaction and in general about ZBNF, amongst the farmers. The<br>disagreement percentage for existence of a marketing strategy was 67% with a p-value of<br>&lt;0.05. Agreement percentages of 435 farmers 79% with p-values &lt;0.05 were found in case<br>of marketing mix features.For problems in distribution through traditional channels, 80%<br>agreement was found with p-value &lt;0.05.All the null hypotheses were rejected in favor of the<br>alternate.The satisfaction about ZBNF is quite high with farmers. Statements like I have<br>heard about ZBNF fruits and vegetables, I have general knowledge about ZBNF fruits and<br>vegetables, I have cultivated ZBNF fruits and vegetables, and others were responded with<br>high levels of agreement. No marketing strategy is found to be in place in case of ZBNF<br>vegetables and fruits. For statements like - The marketing strategy highlights health benefits<br>for consumers, it focusses on environment benefits, it promotes ZBNF as natural fruits and<br>vegetables, and others, and major disagreement was found. However, the farmers are in<br>favor of implementing a sound marketing strategy for the ZBNF vegetables and fruits. 4Ps of<br>the classic marketing mix can be identified with the ZBNF products. Strong agreement from<br>farmers was seen for statements like - ZBNF product is superior in terms of quality, ZBNF<br>product is environment friendly, and others. There are problems with the existing and<br>traditional channels of distribution of the ZBNF products. This can be concluded based on<br>the agreement to statements like - Use of traditional distribution channels for fruits and<br>vegetables has a significant adverse impact on price realization, Selling directly to customers<br>fetches a much higher price, and others. A cooperative association can be formed by ZBNF<br>farmers with contributions of the farmers as share capital. The capital can be used to<br>construct shops which will be the distribution outlets for the ZBNF products. There can be<br>exclusive shops which can sell only the ZBNF produced vegetables, fruits and other<br>products. Government of Maharashtra has to take a lead in promoting ZBNF in the state like<br>what Andhra Pradesh has done. ZBNF has significant advantages and has been found to be<br>in alignment with the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) set for 2030.Overall a lot of<br>work needs to be done on ZBNF vegetables and fruits especially on the marketing front.<br>Creating awareness, putting in place a right marketing strategy, and using the right<br>distribution channels are some of the issues that need to be addressed immediately. ZBNF if<br>implemented properly can be a game-changer in the field of agriculture. It is a highly efficient<br>and effective farming model as compared to be the traditional one.</p> Chandrakant Thorat, Satish Pawar Copyright (c) 2021 Chandrakant Thorat, Satish Pawar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2330 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Perspectives for sustainable tourism development: the case of Russia’s Far East region https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/215 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Because of its long history and vast territory, Russia has become a rich mix of different ethnic groups, nationalities, and cultures. &nbsp;However, the concentration of political power in Moscow and St. Petersburg has led to an imbalance in the development of other regions. Russian government recently began to see the sustainable tourism development as one of the possible scenarios for improving the socio-economic situation in rural areas. Having a status of a "tourist donor" country, Russia faces even larger challenge to develop sustainable tourism in remote regions.</p> <p>Currently Russia is at the initial stages of tourism development, including first timid steps in legislative consolidation of sustainable tourism and ecotourism concepts. Although the Russian government declared tourism as an instrument for improving non-capital regions development, there is a need to address a plethora of challenges in advance. Similar to governmental approach, the academic literature published on tourism in Russia is mostly focused on the analysis of tourism industry growth indicators and quantitative economic evaluations which leaves a little space for the discussion of problems in sustainable and ecotourism development in the country. This research aims to examine the current situation of sustainable tourism and ecotourism development in remote regions of Russia with an accent on governmental programs.</p> <p><strong>Research design and methods</strong></p> <p>Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated difficulties, the study adhered to an expanding online research methodology. Initial secondary data was collected from documents, reports and research papers, and analysed in order to gather basic information about the state of the industry and indicators of its development. Further primarily data was collected from five email interviews with local government officials of Primorsky Territory responsible for tourism development and local practitioners from the Land of the Leopard National Park managers.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The results of secondary data analysis showed that despite the declaration of the sustainable tourism development in rural and remote regions in Russia’s tourism policy documents, this industry is poorly developed, and the governmental programs are lacking the understanding how to achieve this goal. Both the national park managers and local administration representatives emphasised that ecotourism is at the very beginning level of development. Ecotourism is sporadic and is promoted mainly by specially protected natural areas managers and activists of non-profit organisations. Sustainable tourism development in Russia lacks the academic basis, research and expert discussion of the problems.</p> <p>Ecotourism and other sustainable forms of tourism development in the region are facing several problems. One of the main problems is the undeveloped of tourism infrastructure, which lacks governmental financing support. Another issue is the insufficient development and outdatedness of legislative framework in tourism at the national and local levels. Specially protected natural areas face bureaucratic problems in land use legislation, for example the absence of laws on the disposal and processing of household waste, and land usage. Finally, residents and communities are practically not involved in the ecotourism activities of the region.</p> <p>Another problem is low level of environmental education of local communities’ members. There is still no centralized national policy for ecotourism development support and promotion. Document analysis showed an almost complete absence of any legislative acts regulating this area at the federal and local levels. That is also confirmed by the interview results. Moreover, the national park managers showed more in-depth knowledge in this area than the representatives of the local administration and the Tourism Agency.</p> <p>The national park managers showed more profound knowledge of ecotourism stakeholders' issues and their role in the development of this sphere. Representatives of specially protected areas understand their role as one of the main stakeholders in developing ecotourism in their region and are actively working in this direction within their competence. While agreeing that they are also important stakeholders, local government and tourism agency officials showed less understanding of their roles and responsibilities.</p> <p><strong>Future research perspectives</strong></p> <p>This research has been primarily concerned with the role of government in sustainable tourism development in Russia based on interviews with national park managers and regional government officials. Therefore, the generalizability of the results may be limited because other areas and sustainable tourism stakeholders may have different opinions. Thus, further research may focus on the rest of the sustainable tourism stakeholders' involvement (ex., local communities, tourism businesses, etc.) and include other regions of Russia.</p> Olesia Silanteva Copyright (c) 2021 Olesia Silanteva https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/215 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Fintech and Future of banking in emerging economies post covid 19 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2845 <p>Fintech is a general concept that refers to financial technology technologies and companies that use it to deliver financial services to customers. Fintech is a term that describes businesses that use technology to deliver financial services. Fintech has changed the banking industry by providing a more convenient way for consumers to communicate with banks. Due to enhanced digitization, people can conveniently access the information they need from either place. The financial industry has been transformed by the widespread use of smartphones. The reason for this exploration is to distinguish the fate of individual banks. Monetary advances are changing individual banks and the whole financial industry. Despite the fact that the fundamental financial aspects of banking has not changed, data innovation improvements may maneuver banks into exchange banking because of IT-drive cost efficiencies. Therefore, data was looked through the scholastic channels, information bases, monetary articles, and the assessment of experienced financial industry people have heard. Nonetheless, banks ought not misery relationship banking. All things considered, banks need to direct themselves to buyers' new inclinations for IT-driven items and use IT improvements to reconfigure or even rehash relationship banking. Serious changes are likewise approaching in banking because of the section of Fintech new companies and IT organizations into the typical financial business. Government mediation and guideline give banks extra an ideal opportunity to change. All things considered, banks should adjust to clients' new requests for IT-driven merchandise and influence innovative headways to rebuild or even upgrade relationship banking. Banking will likewise see huge changes because of the presentation of Fintech firms and IT organizations into the customary financial market. Banks have more opportunity to adjust because of government impedance and oversight.</p> Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Nileena Saroja, Mayakannan Selvaraju Copyright (c) 2021 Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Nileena Saroja, Mayakannan Selvaraju https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2845 Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 TOURISTS’ AWARENESS AND CONTRIBUTION OF ECO-LABLES IN SUSTAINABLE GUJARAT TOURISM https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1563 <p><strong>Global warming, pollution and climate change are some of the problems that have become an increasingly concerning issue internationally. Environmental deterioration has led to businesses changing the way in which they conduct themselves, leading to the emergence of green marketing. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on green marketing and consumer behavior, mainly, in developed countries. Eco-labelling describes a scheme in which a product or service may be awarded an ecological label on the basis of its acceptable level of environmental impact. This acceptable level of environmental impact may be determined by consideration of a single environmental hurdle or after undertaking an assessment of its overall impacts. Ecolabels in sustainable tourism and other sectors act as incentives to encourage businesses to achieve significant improvements in their environmental performance. They are one of the many voluntary instruments that can provide an effective complement to formal regulation by national authorities. Credible ecolabels promote sustainable consumption patterns by providing concise and accurate information to consumers to help them identify those products and services which incorporate a good level of environmental performance. Eco labels and eco certifications are environmental tools that help tourism providers to adopt environmentally sustainable practices. This kind of certifications are widely adopted in developed countries, however there is very little information available in developing countries.</strong> <strong>This study will therefor assess the tourists’ knowledge and appreciation of eco labeling in Gujarat.</strong> <strong>Eco-labels can encourage more sustainable tourism by informing consumers’ purchasing decisions, while utilizing market forces to initiate environmental responsibility among competing firms.</strong></p> Meet Mewada, Dr. Renu Choudhary, Dr. Neelam Kshatriya Copyright (c) 2021 Meet Mewada, Dr. Renu Choudhary, Dr. Neelam Kshatriya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1563 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A study on the impact Artificial Intelligence on Traditional Grocery Stores https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2313 <p>The world is gradually ascending towards Industry 4.,0. The impact of AI is visible in<br>almost every industry sector, while the quantum of impact varies. The traditional Kirana or<br>the Mom and Pop stores are an indispensable part of our life, this belief got more<br>confirmation during the Covid19 pandemic. [1] McKinsey &amp; Company found that even<br>during the pandemic 85% of the US grocery sales still occurred in physical stores. It appears<br>that brick-and-mortar stores are part of the future of grocery shopping. People still like to see,<br>touch, and smell goods. While AI has made its way in large supermarkets it still awaits<br>recognition in the traditional kirana stores. [1] Stephen Hawking predicted that artificial<br>intelligence will transform every aspect of our lives. Grocery shops are no exception. The<br>global AI in retail market is expected to reach $24 billion by 2027, rising from$3 billion in<br>2020 and displaying a year-over-year growth rate of 29.7%.. AI is impacting everything in<br>the grocery store, from pricing enhancements to product placements and online order<br>fulfillment.<br>The Indian Kirana Stores seems to be unorganized and are gradually changing the<br>store layout to make it appear more like a supermarket. They have shifted the focus from<br>traditional selling to customer experience, shift from wastages to LEAN management,<br>manual recording of transactions to software enabled recording, manual pricing to RFID<br>based, adaptation of digital money, to name a few. The journey so far shows transformation<br>from initial technology resistance to embracing technology. [2]<br>At a time when the country is facing frequent lockdowns and fighting head over heels<br>during the pandemic, the big retailers and e-commerce companies are facing prohibition on<br>supplying non-essential products and services, the ubiquitous Indian kirana stores rolled up<br>their sleeves, and are witnessing a surge in the sales of essential items. They are even finding<br>it difficult to keep up with the rising demand.<br>Ghaziabad-based Arun Mittal, owner of Mittal Stores, has been “super busy” since lockdown,<br>with sales shot up like never before. “Sales have been doubled. However, procurement issues<br>remain a challenge, impacting order fulfilment.”<br>The brave act of working long hours, agility in time of need and consumer blessing<br>proves the renaissance of these small-format stores – who are now becoming the saviour of<br>the Indian consumers/household,<br>In retail, food and grocery accounts for the largest share in revenues in India and is<br>estimated to account for around 66 per cent of total retail revenue by 2020. Majority of the<br>grocery business happens through unorganized sector i.e the neighbourhood kirana stores.<br>According to research firm Red Seer, there are around 15 million kirana stores in<br>the country; while a Nielsen report states the number to be nearly 12 million,<br>which accounts for 90 per cent of domestic retail and FMCG sales. Around 8 per cent of retail<br>sales come from the modern trade, while 2 per cent from e-commerce.<br>Adaptation of AI can be beneficial in the following areas:<br>Inventory control- AI can automate the procurement process by sending reminders for<br>replenishing stock of a particular product, or understanding the market demand of particular<br>products held in stock through approval workflows. [3]<br>1. Real time reports- Real time dashboards for stock inventory, sales report, profit and<br>loss statements if integrated with Tally or Bahikhata like apps.<br>2. Customer demands and Performance reports- Real time customer demands and<br>performance reports highlighting the spike in demand on a particular day or a decline<br>in demand for efficient planning.<br>Looking at the digital revolution and usage of AI would demand drastic technological<br>changes that will cater to the demands of Millennials to Gen Z and Alpha. Artificial<br>Intelligence has come up to the rescue of the Kirana stores who want to provide exceptional<br>customer service and bank upon the range of possibilities. AI helps retailers analyze customer<br>data and change how interactions happen with the shoppers. Furthermore, AI is helpful in<br>predicting demands of products so the stores can manage inventory efficiently and have the<br>in-demand supplies available at all times.<br>The Economic Times thinks AI-aided virtual assistants would be the future of retail industry.<br>These traditional Mom and Pop stores can shift from 7am to 10pm shop model to [4] 24/7<br>model with the help of AI enabled Virtual assistants, that could be programmed to receive<br>orders.<br>&nbsp;</p> Anil Bajpai, Dipti Bajpai Copyright (c) 2021 Anil Bajpai, Dipti Bajpai https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2313 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Internet Advertisements on Consumer Behavior https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2345 <p>This paper will introduce you to the markets of the online advertisement, different techniques and business processes used for the future of online advertisement. Online advertisement is a kind of publicity that enable user to deliver marketing message to attract the customers through internet. The study helps the advertiser to understand the benefits of the online advertisement. According to research on the consumer behavior of the internet user there are two groups of consumers are used online shopping and entertainment. In this study we used primary research methods for the analysis, to find out the insight views of online advertisement. We used questionnaires methods and surveys to be filled in Delhi NCR region only. A consumer can have idea of even a small business with respect to large business related to products and services.</p> Nitin Girdharwal Copyright (c) 2021 Nitin Girdharwal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2345 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evolving Smart Tourism Destinations Post Covid 19 Pandemic – A conceptual study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1781 <p>The travel and tourism industry is one among the most adversely impacted sectors due to the<br>Covid – 19 pandemic outbreak. The government imposed travel restrictions, strict quarantine<br>rules, closure of international boundaries and termination of Visas by countries has created<br>huge repercussions in the global tourism industry. This, in turn, has paved way to the<br>progression of destinations to transform into smart destinations by deploying the latest<br>innovative technology. Rapid development of Information and Communication Technology<br>(ICT) has considerably increased the reliance of potential tourists on mobile applications and<br>social media sites to make their travel decisions. Marketing and branding of destinations<br>through social media sites and Smart Tourism Mobile Applications are gaining wide<br>acceptance in the global market. Smart Tourism destinations are an innovative concept<br>revolving around the development and transformation of an existing tourist destination using<br>state of the art information technology to enhance its visibility and attractiveness. The influence<br>of social media in travel planning and decision making is considerably high since the past two<br>decades. Virtual branding and marketing through social networking sites and developing user<br>friendly mobile applications to guide and inform the tourists regarding the latest developments,<br>facilities and services offered at the destinations are changing the outlook of the industry.<br>Virtual images and videos, live GPS enabled location trackers, language assistants and other<br>relevant information are made readily available to the potential tourists. The present Covid -19<br>situation has acted as a catalyst towards developing major innovations in Smart technology in<br>the tourism sector like virtual guides or assistance for tourists, automated self-check in facilities<br>at airports, hotels and resorts, latest updates on Covid -19 and the quarantine rules laid down<br>by the government authorities at the destinations to name a few. All these facilities can be made<br>available to the potential tourist at the tip of his fingers. Though these concepts are theoretically<br>well defined, the practical implementation of such technology is an area that still requires major<br>focus on. This conceptual paper attempts to identify and discuss the benefits of Information<br>and Communication Technology and Smart Tourism Destination Applications in reinventing<br>the tourism sector post Covid - 19 pandemic. The empirical findings from the extensive review<br>of literature suggests that Smart Tourism Mobile Applications are preferred by the present<br>generation majorly due to its ease in accessibility, convenience of usage and multitude of<br>information available to the users. The future is heavily relied on the usage and adaptability of<br>technology in all the major segments and sub-segments of the travel and tourism industry. This<br>paper also attempts to shed light on the future trends of the travel and tourism industry in<br>adapting to the technological advancements post Covid -19 Pandemic.</p> SANDHYA H Copyright (c) 2021 SANDHYA H https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1781 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Sustainable Manufacturing Practices on Consumers’ Purchase Intention towards Fashion Apparel in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/533 <p>The Indian apparel market is estimated to cross 59 billion in 2022 (McKinsey state of fashion report, 2019). In 2019, 83% of respondents to YouGov survey of consumers in India considered sustainable manufacturing process as a priority while buying fashion products. However, these responses are purely based on surveys and yet to be documented in scholarly literature.</p> <p>Sustainability means “being able to satisfy current needs without compromising the possibility of future generations to satisfy their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987). Sustainable practices can be defined as activities that meet human needs while avoiding products and services that negatively impact the society or environment [1]. Sustainable manufacturing practices within the fashion industry comprises multifaceted activities throughout the product’s manufacturing life-cycle such as eco-designing, green sourcing, eco-friendly processing, clean energy, green operations, waste minimisation and recycling, resource efficiency etc. that conserve natural and human resources and sustain quality in operations [2], [3], [4].</p> <p>What many consumers do not grasp is that apparel manufacture and retail can cause significant environmental pollution [5]. Understanding the influence of adopting sustainability practices on consumers is important as these practices can impact the reputation of a fashion business and consequently, consumers’ purchase decisions [6]. Therefore, this research proposes to study the impact of sustainable manufacturing practices on consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel in India.</p> <p>The concept of sustainability is an important part of the fashion industry that enables sustainable fashion ideas to spread [7]. The idea of implementing sustainability to daily business is a very important fact and should be considered by fashion companies [8], [9].</p> <p>In response, industry groups such as the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC) have been formed with over 250 global members to promote, “An apparel and footwear industry that produces no unnecessary environmental harm and has a positive impact on the people and communities associated with its activities.” (SAC, 2012).</p> <p>In the recent years, the perception of sustainability in the fashion business is an area receiving predominant focus [10], [11].</p> <p>Even though researchers have conducted studies on the relationship between consumers’ perception of sustainability in the fashion business and their perceived image of a brand [12], those studies did not explore the impact of sustainable manufacturing practices in the fashion industry on consumers’ purchase intention.</p> <p>The study by Choi &amp; Ng in 2011, found out that high sustainability effort resulted in a higher level of purchase intention among consumers in the US, but this study did not include fashion business [13].</p> <p>Whereas, according to the findings of Connell in 2010, consumers’ lack of knowledge about sustainability posed a barrier to their green apparel acquistion [14].</p> <p>This knowledge gap motivated the current research in order to understand the impact of sustainable manufacturing practices on consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel in India.</p> <p>Primary research will be conducted to assess if sustainable manufacturing practices have an impact on consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel in India. A survey using validated questionnaire will be conducted among 150 participants chosen randomly in the age group 18 to 45. Appropriate statistical tools will be applied to evaluate the data.</p> <p><em>Proposed Hypothesis -</em></p> <p>H0: Sustainable manufacturing practices have no effect on consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel in India.</p> <p>H1: Sustainable manufacturing practices impacts consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel in India.</p> <p><em>Objectives of the study-</em></p> <ol> <li>To ascertain if sustainable manufacturing practices have an impact on consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel in India.</li> <li>To understand if the impact of sustainable manufacturing practices on consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel in India is influenced by demographic factors.</li> </ol> <p>When businesses educate consumers further about the environmental benefits of some of their apparel products, and when consumers learn about those benefits, they may be more motivated to purchase the green alternative [15].</p> <p>This research study on the impact of sustainable manufacturing practices on consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel in India aims to help fashion brands throughout India in their decision making, strategy formulation and marketing communication to increase awareness among consumers about their sustainable manufacturing practices and thereby stimulate consumers to purchase from them.</p> <p>The study also aims to guide existing fashion apparel firms to minimize environmental harm and develop firm sustainability competency by adopting the best practices at different manufacturing stages.</p> <p>More and more consumers are looking for information on the clothing available in the market and paying attention to fair-trade and organically produced apparel [16], [17].</p> <p>The Sustainable Development Goals and UNIDO policies includes ambitions related to waste reduction, carbon emission reduction and higher resource efficiency for ecosystem restoration. Therefore, the fashion and textile industry should adopt sustainable manufacturing practices to produce environmentally friendly products in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals [18]. &nbsp;</p> <p>Hence, a study in this area is important to understand if sustainable manufacturing practices have an impact on consumers’ purchase intention towards fashion apparel.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ann Paul Copyright (c) 2021 Ann Paul https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/533 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green Environmental Policy: A Step towards Sustainability https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/837 <p>Green is the new buzzword. "Green" denotes to a world where all the natural reserves in like trees, forest, rivers, sea, oceans, land, dessert, animals and birds are safe and surviving sustainably. All these natural produce of the earth are sustainably governed and preserved to carry livelihoods and safe and sustainable lining of mankind on earth. Green promotes and maintains healthy habitats and ecosystems with growing economic returns from the safe and healthy occupations and activities. Growth strategies are dedicated towards economic growth without ruining the environment. The entire globe across the nations has realized the gravity of green thinking and green policy. The government, the corporate NGOs, consumers, and the other stake holders of the society are now focussing on applying green thinking to their actions, operations and decisions that will benefit the community at large. There is a new drive and revolution to make a positive impact on the environment and remain committed to it by developing and implementing effective green practices and procedures as a rule, not as an exception. Governments are planning legislation and policies to support innovation, efficiency, sustainable budgeting, and green growth. Government is promoting corporate and the society to adopt biodiversity as a culture. Green policy protects biodiversity and projected it as an economically critical resource. Green policy facilitates the industries to utilize natural resources sustainably as part of good business, creating jobs and contributing to long-term growth. Policies and regulations related to environment would accelerate the pace of innovative green technologies (Antoine Dechezleprêtre, Misato Sato, 2018). &nbsp;There is a strong relationship between green technological innovation and sustainable development of social economy (Zhiyong, 2017) the green technology innovation model can lead to improvement of environmental laws and regulations system, environmental accounting system, environment technical standard system and environment economic incentive system.</p> <p>Some of the dedicated actions are stated below that will help in attaining the global green vision:</p> <ul> <li>Measurably reduce carbon footprint</li> <li>Decrease the waste produced by the companies</li> <li>Designing regulation concerning toxic substances and industrial wastes</li> <li>Bring awareness about Green thinking</li> </ul> <p>The primary objective of this research would be to study the concept and importance of Green Environmental Policy in the wake of industry 5.0 and rapid industrialization and digitalization. The study would identify the various strategies and policies that are deployed by the government, NGOs and industries to accomplish resource conservation, waste reduction and waste management and sustainability.</p> <p>The study would attempt to explore the environment strategies that can bring notable progress in reducing global poverty and increasing livelihood without causing danger to the environment, and significantly progressing in managing the environment sustainably. The study would propose a possible framework for the Green environmental Policy for the New Normal. As the world responds to the pandemic, governments, businesses, workers and other actors in society have begun to explore opportunities and options to address these remarkable challenges simultaneously. This study will explore in this regard, a number of public policy measures to drive a green, sustainable recovery process – one that enables economies, societies and people to go back to a better world – rather than return to the same patterns of consumption and production. This study would try to coherently address the pressing need mitigate climate change and loss of biodiversity.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Sunanda VIncent Jaiwant Copyright (c) 2021 Sunanda VIncent Jaiwant https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/837 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Hindrances to Responsible Consumption: A minireview https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1508 <p>The Human Development Report 2020 shows that humankind is too slow in moving towards the sustainable development goals released in 2015 by the UN member countries. The report states that the interconnected planetary and social imbalances are created by human choices and addressing these choices are impeded by rigidities in values and institutions (HDR, 2020).</p> <p>This paper is trying to address such rigidities relating to consumption. Sustainable development goal 12 on Responsible Consumption and Production is aiming for delineating economic growth and sustainable development. It also lists out ambitious goals such as reduction in toxic waste and pollutants, reduction in food wastages, energy conservation and so on. Responsible consumption and production also include energy efficiency and recycling of waste. Human consumption relating to all these goals is far from the desired state.</p> <p>The components in the traditional economic model such as expected utility, motives, beliefs and discounting are impacted by behavioural issues. Therefore consumption decisions are not rational always as assumed by traditional economic theories. Researchers have found that consumption decisions are affected by irrationalities such as anchoring, loss aversion, endowment effect, the sunk cost fallacy, heuristics, overconfidence, framing and so on.</p> <p>Anchoring, for example, prompts people to give too much importance to the early information that they receive. Status quo bias, which means that people prefer alternatives that perpetuate the present conditions. The sunk cost fallacy shows that people make decisions that justify their previous choices (Hammond et al, 1998). When these types of biases in decision making are applied to consumption decisions, consumption is more likely to be irrational and irresponsible.</p> <p>Governments and Institutions need to come up with specific programs and policies to address irrational consumption decisions by people. For example, Thaler and Benartzi (2004) devised a savings program called "Save more tomorrow" for the low saving households which were caused by bounded rationality and self-control. As per the program, people committed in advance to allocate a specific portion of their future salary increases towards retirement savings. The program was successful in bringing about desired behavioural changes in people and increased their savings.</p> <p>This minireview aims to identify the sources of irrationality in consumption decisions. The researchers intend to use bibliographic databases such as google scholar and others. Using search terms such as irrationality, consumption decisions anchoring, heuristics, overconfidence, loss aversion and so on, empirical research papers are going to be identified, selected and reviewed. The researchers also intend to select empirical papers that were published from 1990 to 2020 in reputed journals. The outcome of this minireview would highlight the major causes of irrationalities relating to consumption decisions and how they result in irresponsible consumption. This would help in designing targeted programs aiming at irrationalities in consumption.</p> Sriram Govindarajan SRIRAM, Manoharan Copyright (c) 2021 Sriram Govindarajan SRIRAM, Manoharan https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1508 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Empowering Women and achieving Gender Equality for Entrepreneurial development among the SAARC Nations: A special focus to India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/904 <p>Gender Equality is one of the fundamental human rights and is an essential foundation for prosperous, peaceful and sustainable world. Empowerment of women and girls are an essential element in the expansion of economic growth, social development and entrepreneurial development. Among the South Asian countries, Women Entrepreneurship development, both in terms of Developed and Developing nations, has an immense potential in empowering and transforming the society. Though in many nations, the economic development of the nation is reflected by per capita income, the level of industrialisation and sustainable development. &nbsp;It is evident from the existing literature that the level of development of entrepreneurial attitude among women is closely related to the gender equity status of women which varies among countries. The gender equity status in developing nations is generally lower as compared to the developed nations. To capture the development level of women and their extent to access the resources and capabilities and unbound to discrimination, UNDP’s Gender Development Index (GDI) is used to measure the Gender Equity across the countries. As per the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender gap, dimensions like Economic participation and Opportunities of women, Educational Attainment, Health and Survival as well as political empowerment are taken into consideration for the measurement of the gender gap globally. With a population of 0.65 billion women, India’s Gender Gap has widened to 66.8% from 62.5% in the previous year (Global Gender Gap report, 2021). India’s Substantial poor performance creates an impact on the region’s overall performance,&nbsp;where India is the third-worst performer within the region, closing 62.5% of its Gap. Therefore the purpose of the study is to analyse women’s performance and status among SAARC Nations for venturing into entrepreneurship and to exhibit the role of empowering women in sustainable development of a country. The objective of the paper is to analyse the development status of women among SAARC nations, venturing into entrepreneurship from economic, political, social and environmental perspectives. To achieve this purpose, data will be collected from secondary sources and will be analysed with the help of qualitative methodology. The study will help to analyse the relationship between the gender equality and women venturing into entrepreneurship.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords : Women Empowerment, Gender Equality, Women Entrepreneurship, Sustainable development, Economic Growth, Human Development</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ANNESHA BISWAS Copyright (c) 2021 ANNESHA BISWAS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/904 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investors Perception towards IPO investments – A comparative study of IPO vs SIP Investors in BSE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2296 <p>Behavioural investing as a science seeks to bridge the wide gap between investors<br>psychology and investing decisions. On a contrary, not too many investors are completely<br>aware of the mental pitfalls that await them. Traditional finance theories such as Capital<br>Asset Pricing Model, Efficient Market Hypothesis and Modern portfolio theories presumes<br>that markets are efficient, people make rational decisions to maximise profits. But recent<br>studies on individual investors’ behaviour have shown that people do not act in a rational<br>manner, further revealing that several factors influence their investment decisions in the stock<br>market. The mutual fund and SIP introduction has changed the mindset of many, causing a<br>heavy influence on the total investment in the stock market. The recent COVID Pandemic has<br>also added to the insecurities of many investors. This research paper attempts to study the<br>trend of IPO investments VS SIP investments in BSE for the last 5 years. A comparative<br>study is performed using longitudinal design and relevant research tools to identify the<br>growth in IPO investments VS SIP investments. Principal Component analysis is used in this<br>study to find out the determinants of individual investment behaviour in Bombay Stock<br>Exchange (BSE). The paper attempts to present a critique of standard investment analysis,<br>fundamental and technical, and develops an alternative more comprehensive approach that<br>should include some of the tenets of behavioural finance necessary for investments. The<br>findings will be useful for investors across different sectors to understand common<br>behaviours, whereby they can justify their reactions for better returns. The study also aims to<br>help the financial planners to device appropriate asset allocation strategies for their clients.</p> Shreeya Rajpurohit, Jayesh Jadhav, Hemant Bhise Copyright (c) 2021 Shreeya Rajpurohit, Jayesh Jadhav, Hemant Bhise https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2296 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 WM Model of Training Evaluation Based on the Study of Nursing Staff in Hospitals https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2328 <p>Training Evaluation has been the vital part of any industry. Healthcare Industry is not an exception.<br>Genuineness of hospital depends on numerous factors; well trained nurses being one of the influential<br>and decisive factors. Efficiency and effectiveness of nursing staff depends on training. Hence<br>effectiveness and ‘evaluation of training’ become the deciding factors.<br>The research paper is an outcome of sample size 22.25% of the universe of study. Objective of the<br>paper is to create a ‘Training Evaluation Model’ for nursing staff. The model so designed can be<br>applied to other industries with minor changes, if required. The study is confined to nurses in public<br>and private hospitals in Pune City. Data collection is done through an in-depth questionnaire and the<br>model and qualitative conclusions are yielded as an outcome of the research.</p> Ashutosh Misal, Anuradha Wahegaonkar Copyright (c) 2021 Ashutosh Misal, Anuradha Wahegaonkar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2328 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Advertising Communication and its role in creating an image for a Startup Company https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1150 <p>Communication signals are successful when information bearing messages between a source and a destination are well understood. Advertising communication used by companies as a marketing tool also involves exchange of communication between companies (senders) and potential customers (receiver). Like every communication advertising communication is also notable for its precision and flexibility which is a consequence of the uniquely human ability to use language. Semanticity, generativity, and displacement are unique properties of language which gives the human communication ability to make numerous creative messages. Almost all advertising communication is creative. At the fundamental level the verbal exchange of messages in advertising involves encoding creative messages to be conveyed to customers. The customers decode and understand the messages and in this process they go beyond the literal meaning of words and grasp the particular sense in which the ad agencies create intended them to be understood. If such a thing happens the advertising communication becomes successful in conveying the messages. So the role of communication while making an advertisement is very vital. Therefore while creating advertisements the agencies should keep in mind their co participant’s perspective of how they would process and interpret the messages. So Advertising communications is also a joint or collective activity in which meaning emerges from viewers (customers) collaborative effort. The present paper analyses some of the successful start up companies advertisements in India in the year 2021.To find out what messages in them have successfully held the attention of people we have conducted semi structured interviews, they were recorded. Then these messages were analysed using Bantz’s OCC method. The implication of this paper is that it will further help ad agencies&nbsp; in developing better advertisement communication.</p> Chitrita Prusty Copyright (c) 2021 Chitrita Prusty https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1150 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Application of Travelling Salesman Model for Rural Development of Vidarbha Region https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1297 <p>The centrally situated Vidarbha in the country is known for its highest rate of suicide done by farmers in the last two decades. Vidarbha region shares a good contribution in growing cotton oranges, vegetable and even has a substantial livestock. The non-availability of storage, increase in the wastage of the perishable items, under estimate of livestock in the region, are some identified major problems of this region. This research work is an attempt to provide the shortest aerial path using Travelling Salesman model. In Vidarbha region, there are six air bases either closed or are used in commercial or noncommercial modes. If all these six air bases are accelerated for rural development in terms of utilization of perishable items and livestock, the revenue generation for farmers of the region can help in their upliftment. On the other hand, aviation sector can add another benefit in this region. Thus, output of the Travelling salesman model can provide a win-win situation for the rural development of the Vidarbha region.</p> Satyajit Uparkar, Dr. Vinod H. Asudani, Dr. Sachin D. Upadhye, Dr. Monika R. Seth Copyright (c) 2021 Satyajit Uparkar, Dr. Vinod H. Asudani, Dr. Sachin D. Upadhye, Dr. Monika R. Seth https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1297 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of women in transforming the corporate world https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1379 <p>For a long time women have been subjected to gender inequality in the workplace. According to a report by Pew Research Center, at least 4 in every 10 women have faced gender discrimination at work. Women have been a driving force for the growing Indian economy but their own growth has remained at a standstill for a long time. Gender pay gap and sexual abuse at workplace still continues to be a challenge for working women. According to a report, for women to achieve equal pay it will take almost 39 years more.&nbsp;</p> <p>Despite all of these barriers, representation of women in corporate India went from 21% to 30% in just 5 years. There are many examples of women leaders who not only changed their company’s culture but also came up with better thought-out policies to increase gender diversity. Although we are yet to see proper results of what these campaigns have achieved, they still keep us hopeful towards a better future for women in corporate.</p> <p>This paper aims to highlight how women have changed the corporate culture for the better despite having the challenges of breaking the stereotypes. In order to validate our hypotheses, we asked a number of women who are working in big corporations about their views on the steps taken by the management for gender diversity, inclusivity in the corporate culture, their ambitions and the changes that they would like to see in the future. This paper brings new insights into what struggles do female employees face and how the corporate culture affects the risk taking ability as well as the confidence of women to reach the “C-suite roles”.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Our findings indicate that companies with a good representation of women in top managerial positions tend to perform better than those that don’t.&nbsp; These companies also do a better job in retaining and developing women into being more corporate ready. The reason for this lies in the difference between the leadership behavior of men and women.Insead’s executive education program evaluated leadership capabilities in men and women to see if underlying gender biases underestimated women.&nbsp; According to an analysis of thousands of 360-degree assessments collected, they noted that women outshine men in all areas but one: vision. There are several explanations for why it seems this way, from them dismissing the significance of selling visions based on its rodomontading nature to the tendency to pass fewer directives and affinity to sharing the credit that may seem less leaderlike.&nbsp; On the other hand, women have shown better credentials in emotional intelligence, perseverance, designing &amp; aligning, and even team building.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This paper intends to dig down deeper explain simplistically what policymakers need to focus on to access the unending potential women possess. Women may constitute a minority in the topmost positions of organizations, but it affects more than just one corner of the company. Women could follow the "Conventional strategy men accompany in doing business," but they're not. Multiple studies and surveys indicate a better work environment and productivity in workplaces where women are in the leading positions. In addition, numerous businesses commenced by them have shown to hold significant social and environmental influences woven into their core objective. They bring in faith, transparency, authenticity, and meaningful experiences, notably in the corporate offices. Therefore, recognizing their capabilities and channeling them to unravel what they can do to improve society is more eminent.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ananya Singh, Kannak Copyright (c) 2021 Ananya Singh, Kannak https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1379 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A study of consumer’s preference towards purchase of private label brand electronic goods is affected by demographic segmentation Pune city https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2311 <p>Private label brands are also found in almost all consumer durables categories<br>globally. Though once considered cheaper, poorer alternatives to manufacturer<br>brand products, private Labels are a win-win solution for retailers and customers<br>in the current retail market structure. Reasons for retailers choose to offer private<br>labels include generating additional margins, filling gaps in product range,<br>including a product variant or a size in a category and to differentiate their store’s<br>product range from competitors thereby creating distinctive advantage<br>There is a need to understand the consumer’s preference for private label to<br>formulate the various marketing strategies to retention and acquisition of<br>consumers. This paper has examined the attitudes of consumers towards the<br>purchase preference of private label. The objective of the research is to determine<br>the factors that would influence the consumer’s preference towards the purchase<br>of private label products. The study of Consumer preferences is of great<br>importance in the context of the competitive ability of branding and formulating<br>the various marketing strategies.</p> Sandeep Suresh Londhe Copyright (c) 2021 Sandeep Suresh Londhe https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2311 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Review of microfinance and training programs in relation to women's economic empowerment https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2343 <p><span class="VIiyi" lang="en"><span class="JLqJ4b ChMk0b" data-language-for-alternatives="en" data-language-to-translate-into="ar" data-phrase-index="0">The research is based on the idea of reviewing some policies of economic empowerment of women in both Syria and India as a comparative study and taking the microfinance and training programs as criteria for empowerment to know to what extent the economic empowerment policies have reached in the two countries in light of the decline in the level of marginalization experienced by women in developing societies and countrie. After the analysis and review of these policies, both countries showed progress in the field of economic empowerment of women, and these programs seemed to be more continuous in India compared to Syria, where the programs operate temporarily and then expire after the funding allocated to these programs, despite the progress that has been progressed in the field of economic empowerment, there was a shortcoming in other aspects such as health, education and politics in both countries.</span></span></p> Hussain ALsameer Copyright (c) 2021 Hussain ALsameer https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2343 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Core competencies of women entrepreneurs of Kandhamal district of Odisha https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1821 <p>Entrepreneurship over a period of time has been evolved as the back bone of an economy in<br>terms of generation of income and creation of employment. It act as resilience to the poverty<br>in the rural economy. Most of the entrepreneurs in the rural areas are engaged in the Micro, Small and Medium enterprises under the aegis of the Government with slew of policy<br>measures. Radical innovation of the technology permits new and technology savvy firm to<br>leapfrog the traditional firm in the entrepreneurial journey. The crux of the matter in the 21<br>st<br>century is the competencies of entrepreneurs to drive the success and failure of any business<br>enterprise. The study aim to investigate the core competencies of women entrepreneurs of<br>Kandhamal district of Odisha through verification of it’s efficacy in acceleration of the<br>business performance. Kandhamal is one of the tribal dominated district of Odisha where<br>more than 65% of the population belongs to tribal community. With the growth and<br>development of technology as well as various policies framed by te Government of Odisha, the entrepreneurship activity among women is a recent innovation. This study aims to justify<br>the competencies of women entrepreneurs of this districts in order to enable them to be<br>recognised in nation and international level. The study uses two stages of research i.e. explanatory and confirmatory research to identify various competencies of women<br>entrepreneurs. The result of the research has further been corroborated with the relevant<br>literature review to establish that entrepreneurial competencies and business performance<br>have been positively co-related. On the basis of identified competencies, quantitative and<br>qualitative data was collated through self designed questionnaires from 300 women<br>entrepreneurs of Kandhamal districts and statistical tools e.g. Mean, Standard deviation and<br>Pearson Correlation method are used to analyse and Co-relate various competencies with the<br>growth in business performance. The competencies which are having higher degree of<br>positive co-relation with the growth in business performance have been identified as core<br>competencies. The results of the research has identified that Personal, Operational, Commitment and Management competencies provide superior results. However, they are at<br>nascent state so far as transformation of competencies is concerned. The result of the study<br>will be helpful for modern, aspirational and Tech savvy women entrepreneurs of Kandhamal<br>district to accelerate aesthetic and quality of their entrepreneurship competencies</p> Sarita Dhal Dhal, Dr. Dhyanadipta Panda , Dr. Puspalata Mohapatra , Dr. Nishi Kanta Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Sarita Dhal Dhal, Dr. Dhyanadipta Panda , Dr. Puspalata Mohapatra , Dr. Nishi Kanta Mishra https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1821 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green HR in The Work From Home World https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/679 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic situation was unprecedented and it forced companies around the world to explore the remote working option. The Information Technology (IT) industry responded deftly and adopted a remote working model. In the last 18 months,&nbsp; IT companies have realized the benefits of remote working as it has helped them in significant cost saving. The situation has also helped in increasing&nbsp; productivity. It is evident that remote working is here to stay and is also going to be an integral part of the working world. This has been confirmed by several Chief Executive Officers of leading IT companies.</p> <p>In the past, while companies have explored the option of being environment friendly, actual initiatives taken towards the goal where far and few. Organizations and Human Resources departments have been mostly focussing on talent fulfilment, employee engagement and retention initiatives. There was little or no effort in driving these initiatives from an&nbsp; eco-friendly perspective. With at least 7,500 companies issuing annual sustainability or corporate responsibility reports in line with linking outcomes to the United Nation’s Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDG’s), sustainability is becoming an integral factor of business strategy.</p> <p>The pandemic situation has indirectly opened the doors for several Green HR initiatives. We studied the current situation and prepared a questionnaire. We decided to conduct a semi structured interview and spoke to 14 different HR professionals from various IT companies.&nbsp; In order to achieve optimum use of the interview time, we worked on an interview guide. The guide had some core questions and some questions associated with the core questions. There were two parts to the questionnaire. The first part was to understand what the organizations have done in the past or are currently doing. The second part was meant to brainstorm on the way forward and what organizations can do in the future. This questionnaire guide was consciously kept short in order to allow the discussion to be free flowing especially when we moved to the brainstorming part.</p> <p>The points shared by these HR professionals corroborated the fact that remote working has already lead to several green initiatives. Some of these were planned initiatives and some of them were accidental outcomes. The initiatives have helped in pollution control, power savings, reduced food wastage, helped companies go paperless and has paved way for many more future green activities. We have carefully curated some of our recommendations based on our brainstorming session with the HR professionals. These suggestions, if implemented will go a long way in making the green mandate a reality.</p> <p>With the companies deciding to either to completely work remotely or work on a hybrid model involving more than half the employees working from home and the rest from office, the scope for a continued environmental saving is very high. However, it is important for the organizations to realize the green saving, have an executive sponsor like the CEO and aggressively push to implement the green initiatives.</p> <p>While this study covered the organization’s green priorities and the HR initiatives, the employee view on such initiatives were not cross checked. This leaves room for further studies on this topic. As remote working is the future work strategy, it is important to plan more green initiatives without losing much time. The HR departments should take the lead on such activities.</p> Gokul Santhanam, Dr. Balaji, Sumedha Copyright (c) 2021 Gokul Santhanam, Dr. Balaji, Sumedha https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/679 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Job satisfaction of the employees at Red Star University in Vietnam https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/102 <p>Employees are the internal customers of organizations, meet the current work requirements and are willing to work with the organization to achieve business goals. However, most organizations only focus on customer satisfaction with the product, and pay little attention to whether employees are satisfied with their jobs or not. Educational institutions are no exception. Satisfaction of the employees with the job will promote the quality of teaching and research. According to Oshagbemi (2000), job satisfaction is a person's emotional response resulting from a comparison of actual results achieved by that person with what they want, anticipate and deserve to achieve. However, in educational institutions, most of the research focuses on students as customers and assesses the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with their study program, while often ignoring satisfaction with the work of official staffs and lecturers in the University. Therefore, conducting the current study on the satisfaction of official staffs and lecturers with the job in educational institutions in general and Red Star University in the North of Vietnam in particular is really necessity in the current period.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Doing the current research, the authors aim to archieve three objectives:<em> first</em>, to detect factors affecting the satisfaction of officers and lecturers; <em>second</em>, to assess the impact of those factors on the employees’ satisfaction at Red Star University; and <em>finally</em> to propose some solutions to improve the satisfaction of the official employees with their job at Red Star University.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To achieve the objectives, the current research analyzed the effect of the six factors on the employees’satisfaction with their jobs at Sao Do University in the North of Vietnam, which include: job characteristics, income and welfair, training for promotion, colleague, superior, working condition. The individual factor is also investigated in this study. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results of the research show that all the six factors have positive relation to the employees’ satisfaction with jobs while the individual factor (age, gender, educational/skill level) has no different effect to the employees’ satisfaction with job. Quantitative research methodology was applied for the research and some suggestions for Sao Do University was also proposed to increase their employees’ satisfaction with their jobs.</p> Thi Phi Nga Nguyen Copyright (c) 2021 Thi Phi Nga Nguyen https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/102 Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of influencer market on consumers of the tourism industry https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3562 <p>This research has focused on the concept of influencer marketing and its impact on consumers of the travel and tourism industry. The goal was to find out whether travel and tourism companies through influencer marketing can attract consumers in this post-Covid situation or not. For this purpose, empirical data were collected from fifty social media users who are following at least one travel influencer on any social media site. From their responses collected by sharing survey questionnaire, it was found that most of the participants are not influenced by social media influencers in terms of deciding where they would travel.</p> Rojalin Mohanty, Ansuman Samal, Sagar Hambirrao Mohite, Shubhendu Shekher Shukla Copyright (c) 2021 Rojalin Mohanty, Ansuman Samal, Sagar Hambirrao Mohite, Shubhendu Shekher Shukla https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3562 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 LGBT inclusion in UNSDGs – Has the Situation Improved for Sexual Minorities in Indian Workplaces? https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/797 <p>United Nations in 2015 proposed its central transformative promise of ensuring that all are provided with equal justice and fair treatment (UN Sustainable Development Group, n.d.). This Universal Value Principle to ‘Leave No-one Behind” advocates the need to look beyond genders, geography, or age and address discrimination, vulnerability, and inequalities of all forms. &nbsp;Sexual minorities have always been overlooked when it comes to various national and international policies (Dorey). This benchmark decision is a way to ensure that there is absolute equality and inclusivity. To ensure the same, 193 countries agreed to UNSDGs’ proposal and successfully signed in for inclusivity and equality for all genders, not just binaries. In India, the acceptance of sexual minorities has been considered poor owing to societal biases and traditional misinformation. Sexual Minorities find it relatively difficult to break through these waves of biases. Speaking of the workplace, policies support LGBT employees, yet it is ineffective in helping them survive in such a competitive environment. Referring to certain goals in this context, such as goal 5 that talks about gender equality, Goal 10 that aims for inclusivity, and Goal 11 aims for safety. Goal 16 promotes equal justice and reduction of violence, which are necessities for every sexual minority employee who earns a living in the formal work settings. The Universal Value Principle is a way of paving equality and absolute inclusion. However, experiences of the sexual minorities have not been very favorable even after this collective agreement. The sexual minorities are still facing a tough time owing to gender differences and inequality. Indian Societies have miserably failed to accept them wholeheartedly, posing a considerable hurdle in UNSDGs' aim of absolute inclusivity by 2030. The authors in this article hence analyze the situation of sexual minorities in the workplace. The article is a qualitative account presenting an in-depth analysis of experiences that sexual minorities have had in their workplace. The authors have examined the current situation of sexual minority employees at Indian workplaces after including the Universal value in UNSDGs. The authors in this paper have studied the existing issues that the sexual minorities are still facing in their respective workplaces, further comparing it with the sustainable development goals on the grounds of the implicated hindrances that the practice imposes on the aim of the United Nations. The paper relies on primary and secondary data and analyzes in-depth interviews of ten samples from varied formal work settings. An Informed Consent Form that included details of the authors and the paper, i.e., the rationale, aim and objectives of the study, and the procedure to be carried out, was sent through e-mail to prospective Participants. An information sheet was enclosed with the e-mail, which consisted of the Interview Guide used for the interview and verified and validated by experts by then. The recipients willing to take part in the study were asked to revert. Seventeen prospective respondents were contacted through email sent. The authors received thirteen emails with their willingness to be a part of the study. Three of them were unsuitable for the study because the Participants were not within the authors' inclusion criteria. Ten suitable Participants were chosen for the study, and the other three participants were thanked for their cooperation and were informed that participation was no longer required in the study. The data was collected within a span of three months and fifteen days. To conduct the study, qualitative data is considered. Direct Observation has been employed by the authors, noting field notes regarding body language, facial expressions, circumstantial behaviors, and so on of all the participants during the interview. In-depth interview is used as methods of collecting primary data. An Interview Guide was administered for conducting the interview consisting of stem questions corresponding to the research questions and were driven by the study aim. The purpose of using such a guide was to enable the authors to conduct the interview based on certain relevant questions, thereby allowing the Participants to provide relevant information. This method also allowed the authors to ask further clarifying questions which enabled the collection of rich data. Secondary data was also considered to understand the problem better, thus enabling the authors to understand the issue in-depth, thereby drawing conclusive remarks and suggesting that can help make workplaces more gender-sensitive</p> Anurupa Bhattacharjee, Dr. Hemalatha K Copyright (c) 2021 Anurupa Bhattacharjee, Dr. Hemalatha K https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/797 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Systematic literature review of the factors affecting the Quality of Technical Education in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1504 <p>This paper aims to investigate the factors which influence the Quality of Technical Education in India. There is a paramount importance to maintain the Quality in Technical Education in India to become global hub for education and also to improve the Socio-economic growth of the nation. The Technical Institutions in India are following the norms and standards, procedures and guidelines provided by the affiliating Universities, All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), National Board of Accreditation (NBA), National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), National Institution Ranking framework (NIRF).Measuring the quality of these institutions is a big challenges as there is no one single model to measure the quality of Technical Education in India [1]. Another big challenge is to study the factors influencing the holistic development of the students with problem solving abilities, increased creativity and innovation, higher order thinking skills, communication skills, team work, social and moral awareness in depth learning as suggested by the guidelines of National Education Policy&nbsp; 2020 introduced by the Government of India [2]. The study aims to overcome the challenges to measure the Quality of Technical Institutions based on the number of students admitted and number of students placed and research achievement of the faculty. Extensive literature survey will be undertaken to study the impact of parameters influencing the Quality of Technical Education Institutions in terms of Infrastructure, Teaching Learning Process, Industry – Institute interaction [3] and to study the impact of the National Education Policy 2020.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Research methodology planned in this paper is to adopt the Qualitative study by Semi structured interview with stake holders in the academic sector like Policy makers / senior officials who will be able to answer the Questions. Based on the interview, thematic analysis will be done.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The proposed hypotheses are: (a) There is a significant relationship between the infrastructure, teaching process and Industry-Institute Interaction and students achievement in Technical Education [3]. (b) There is a significant relationship between the National Education Policy guidelines and holistic development of the students [2]. The guidelines and the parameters mentioned in the National Education Policy 2020 which is a new thing in this paper and its impacts on the quality and holistic development of the student has to be analysed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The vision of this paper is to help the institutions catering technical education to evaluate their Quality factors and also to identify their weak areas to improve further to serve the students better. The main objectives of this work are to (a) To identify the important factors influencing the performance of the Students in the form of the Students achievement and employability (b) To identify the factors influencing teachers performance in the form of research outcome in the technical institutions (c) To identify the factors envisaged in the National Education Policy 2020 affecting the holistic development by the Students in technical education system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The major impact to the Society from the study is that it will help of the students to know the sustainable quality aspects of the technical Institutions where they are studying and the institutions to know where they stand with respect Quality factors and also there is a scope to improve and sustainable holistic growth of the students as per the aspirations of National Education Policy 2020 to become a global destination for technical education.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The sustainable Quality technical Institutions helps to improve the Socio-economic growth of the nation is important take away message of this paper.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>National Education Policy 2020, Technical Education, Holistic Development, Quality factors, Teaching Learning Process</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>References: </strong></p> <ol> <li>N. Garg, R.K. Mittal, VSRD International Journal of Business and Management Research, Vol. VIII, Issue V(2018)</li> </ol> <p><a href="https://events.rdias.ac.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Factors-Affecting-Institutional-quality.pdf">https://events.rdias.ac.in/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/Factors-Affecting-Institutional-quality.pdf</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol start="2"> <li>National Education Policy, Ministry of Education, Government of India [2020]</li> </ol> <p><a href="https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf">https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol start="3"> <li>R. K. Mittal et all on the Horizon (2018)</li> </ol> <p><a href="https://doi.org/10.1108/OTH-08-2017-0066">https://doi.org/10.1108/OTH-08-2017-0066</a></p> C Nataraju, Dr. Uma Warrier Copyright (c) 2021 C Nataraju, Dr. Uma Warrier https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1504 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainable tourism: Elevating Collaboration between Hospitality Industry and Local Citizens https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1539 <p>Eco-tourism is a crucial aspect of sustainable development for any nation. Hotels are one of the most significant waste produce sources in tourism. The amount of waste generated, as well as the variation in waste products, is astounding and requires attention and needs to be addressed at the earliest. [1] This challenge allows the development of a solution-oriented approach to have more sustainably sound practices in hotels. The wastage varies and ranges from plastics, food waste to paper &amp; glass. The paper's objective is to identify the core areas of wastage and recognize past practices that have been used to combat those challenges. The local citizens play a significant role in encouraging sustainable practices in a centre. The paper deliberates and explores innovative solutions to elevate collaboration and envisions engaging local communities to deliver sustainable impact in cities.[2] This is done by reviewing previous collaboration models in different cities and assessing their shortcomings and successes. The paper will construct a thorough case analysis of a city- pointing to the majority of waste sources in hotels of the city, the woes of the local communities, and suggesting the collaboration measures that can be taken, accordingly.</p> <p>The core values of any service-based collaboration were identified as trust, accountability, and transparency. The paper aims to shed light on the grievances that local communities face in tourism, such as inadequate compensation for their services, lack of a structured approach, and so on. The paper discusses the need and ways to build an inclusive platform to listen to the different local communities of a country in order to understand their grievances and shortcomings and work to meet their needs.</p> <p>The paper also explores the ways in which local talents of a country can be globalised and small businesses, artisans, and workshops can be employed and encouraged to provide their services to meet global sustainable goals of collaboration. Hence, it explores and identifies a need to imbibe &amp; encourage sustainable collaboration opportunities amongst the locals and the hotel industries for their mutual elevation and progress.</p> <p>A collaboration between the two stakeholders mentioned above hasn't been explored yet, and it is sure to provide fruitful results. An example of the same can be illustrated as follows; the core areas of wastage have been identified and solutions have been proposed-</p> <p>Table 1. Illustration of Wastage in Hospitality industry and the proposed collaboration with locals.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="376"> <p><strong>Wastage in Hospitality industry</strong></p> </td> <td width="376"> <p><strong>Collaboration with locals</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="376"> <p>Garden waste</p> </td> <td width="376"> <p>Used to make fertilisers; used in organic farming&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="376"> <p>Old bedding and towels, glass, cardboard, paper</p> </td> <td width="376"> <p>Creation of Local art &amp; handicrafts displayed in hotels and sold in cultural events.&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="376"> <p>Food waste, Drink waste</p> </td> <td width="376"> <p>Donated to poverty-ridden local communities</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="376"> <p>Bathroom toiletries, packaging from products</p> </td> <td width="376"> <p>Plastics to be reused; soaps to be recycled</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The vision of the project is to minimize the waste produced by hotels, tourist spots, and more, with the collaboration of local citizens. It also envisions to support local communities in reaching global audiences, whilst leading the way to sustainable development in the hospitality industry. This will not only preserve a country’s culture and heritage, but it will introduce it to large, global audiences, thereby attracting more tourism.</p> <p>Our idea is not a 'one size fits all' approach. We plan to adapt according to the community and build trust with local stakeholders- providing them employment, a chance to display their talent, and helping them become leaders of sustainable change.</p> Ms Manasi Gupta, Mr Ali Hasnain Copyright (c) 2021 Ms Manasi Gupta, Mr Ali Hasnain https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1539 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Customer Satisfaction towards After Sales Service with special reference to Hyundai Motors Service Centre in Pune https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2294 <p>This study basically focuses on the after sales service offered by “Hyundai Motors<br>Service Centre". A field survey has been conducted to study customer satisfaction<br>regarding different aspects of after sales service offered by “Hyundai dealers Service<br>Centre, Pune. Increasing competition due to globalization, increasing demands of the<br>customer are changing the dynamics of running the business. It’s not enough to meet<br>the customer's expectations and satisfy their needs, but to delight them by providing<br>extra services which add value to the overall organization. In this paper, researchers are<br>in search of finding the level of customer satisfaction of customers and to know the<br>expectations of customers regarding the after sales services of Hyundai Motors Service<br>Centre in Pune city. For the purpose of research, researchers have used primary and<br>secondary sources of data. This data has been analyzed by using analysis tools. The<br>expected results will help the organization to know its strengths and weaknesses, to<br>serve the customer in a better way and to delight the customer. The research work<br>attempts to check whether there is a relationship between after sales service quality<br>attributes and overall customer satisfaction. Finally, the study estimates the relationship<br>between customer satisfaction, customer retention and customer loyalty. The<br>researchers have collected secondary data and primary data. Primary data consists of<br>the data which is collected via interaction with the customer. For this purpose extensive<br>questionnaires had been prepared, and this was then filled through interviews of Pune<br>city distributors' automobile services centers and customers. Secondary data has also<br>been used. A questionnaire consists of questions presented to respondents for their<br>answers. Because of its flexibility, the questionnaire is by far the most common<br>instrument used to collect primary data. The study requirement was primary data was<br>collected by using a questionnaire as a research tool with five points Likert scaled<br>questions, multiple choice rating questions. The study has helped to find out important<br>factors which influence Customer Satisfaction towards After-sales Service of Hyundai<br>cars. The research was thus performed to assess the level of customer satisfaction on<br>the services provided at the service centers for Hyundai Motor owners in Pune city,<br>wherein service centers were taken as a sample which, according to the researchers,<br>represented the population adequately. The research revealed that services provided by<br>Hyundai Motor Service centre or workshops to the customers are highly satisfactory.</p> Prashant Phule, Sachin Vyavhare Copyright (c) 2021 Prashant Phule, Sachin Vyavhare https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2294 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Towards an Integrated Model of Omni-Channel Customer Engagement: The role of Customer Value and Customer Experience https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2326 <p>Marketing channels are sets of interdependent entities who are integral to the process of<br>delivering product or service available to the end customer [1]. Marketing channels have<br>advanced from mono-channel to omni-channel.<br>A well-structured omni-channel supply chain can meet business goals as well as be<br>responsive to customer needs [2], create a unified brand experience through synergy across<br>touch points and unified communication, regardless of channel, platform, or purchasing<br>stage [3] leading to enhanced customer value [4].<br>The Marketing Science Institute has highlighted the need to understand “omni-screen” and<br>“omni-channel” customer decision making &amp; consumer behavior, omni-channel customer<br>value across touchpoints [5].<br>The objectives of this paper are to develop and empirically validate a model of relationships<br>between the Omni-Channel Shopping Value (OCSV), Omni-Channel Integration Quality<br>(OCIQ), Omni-Channel Customer Experience (OCCX) and Omni-Channel Customer<br>Engagement (OCCE) and test the mediating effect of OCCX on relationship between OCSV<br>and OCCE. The study also investigates the moderating effects of age and gender amongst<br>the hypothesized relationships between the four key constructs.<br>The context of the study is the city of Pune in India. Pune is one of the strongest human<br>capital and economic growth engines in India and has a cosmopolitan demographic mix with<br>a blend of natives from various states of India who work with organizations of strategic and<br>national importance, academia and research organizations, young and upwardly mobile<br>population for leading Indian and MNC organizations, start-ups and students from India and<br>abroad. The city is part of India’s Smart Cities Mission and has an estimated population of<br>6.6 million.<br>Data were gathered from 292 omni-channel shoppers of white goods, consumer durables,<br>electronic products in Pune, India, using a self-administered online survey. The<br>measurement and structural model were tested and validated using AMOS.<br>All the four hypothesized relationships were found to be significant. Specifically, OCSV had a<br>strong positive influence on OCCE and OCCX had a positive effect on OCCE. The study<br>found evidence of partial mediation of OCCX between OCSV and OCCE. The moderating<br>effect of gender was evident in the relationship between OCIQ and OCSV. Age had a<br>moderating effect between OCSV and OCCE. The study integrates the dimension of social<br>value with utilitarian and hedonic value into the construct of OCSV in tune with the current<br>digital, social and omni-channel realities.<br>The study responds to the need for relevant theoretical frameworks underpinning<br>omni-channel retailing and complements the extant literature on omnichannel retailing in a<br>developing economy context. The research attempts to broaden the concept of<br>omni-channel shopping value.<br>The study provides a useful framework for retailers of white goods, consumer durables,<br>electronic products to shape their marketing strategies to enhance omnichannel shopping<br>value leading to higher omnichannel customer engagement. The moderating effect of age<br>and gender will aid the retailers to be cognizant of the differences between these groups in<br>with respect to omni-channel engagement and omni-channel shopping value.<br>The dimensionality of omni-shopping customer value construct can be tested along<br>utilitarian, hedonic and social value. Researchers may also investigate social as the fourth<br>channel option along with physical, online and mobile. This study was carried out against the<br>backdrop of the covid pandemic, using non-probabilistic sampling methods. Generalization<br>of these findings must be done with caution.</p> Shailesh Kasande, Parag Kalakr Copyright (c) 2021 Shailesh Kasande, Parag Kalakr https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2326 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Ontology-Based Approach for Process Mining in Business Intelligence https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1949 <p>This review evaluates how process mining and its techniques such as Event log generation, Process discovery, enhancement, and conformance checking are implemented in an organization’s business model and strategies. A study of how process mining alone can influence the critical decision-making elements in a business process is conducted. Since Ontology is one of the most popular knowledge engineering tools in today’s business scenario, the various applications of ontology for business intelligence and how ontology can be integrated with business models are also examined. Methods such as Association Rule mining for interesting facts and hidden knowledge extraction are studied, and these techniques’ influence on an organization’s model is determined. Furthermore, a review of process mining incorporated with business intelligence and how ontology can enhance efficiency is conducted, and a comparative study is drawn.</p> Gayathri P Ramachandran, Dharaneesh M, Dhikshita Sai, Abhilash C B Copyright (c) 2021 Gayathri P Ramachandran, Dharaneesh M, Dhikshita Sai, Abhilash C B https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1949 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green brands representation through colour trademarks for sustainable business practices and environmental concerns https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1986 <p>Colour is an important factor in marketing because it presents itself as a communicative tool <br>with the consumers. The impact of colour in marketing has witnessed the elevation of feeling <br>and mood among the consumers and this factor in the past few years colour has become the <br>main focus in selection of products, thereby enhancing sales and purchases volume. Existing <br>literature has identified the importance of culture in marketing a product through colours with <br>respect to food and clothing among others. When colour is selected in accordance with culture, <br>it’s an additional benefit to the market and marketer as it creates an attraction towards the <br>products and services and helps a commoner who are brand conscious to distinguish one <br>company from the other. Best examples to cite from the online food delivery sector to <br>groceries, clothing here are Swiggy logo and their employee T-shirt colour are orange; Zomato <br>logo and their employee T-shirt colour are red; Starbucks coffee use a combination of the <br>green circle, white words, and white and black image. This gets important as a colour <br>trademark is an Intellectual Property (IP) and no one can use this format as their brand logo.<br>This over the time has developed brand image for identification of products from the premium <br>segment to other mediocre segments. In India, cultural importance may be adhered to colour<br>selection for products packaging and services. A country like India may be more focused on <br>colour selection because of the concept of unity in diversity. The green brand recognition is <br>vital in the context of environmental value and sustainability in the business due to it being<br>concentration and encouragement towards eco-friendly products. This can become more <br>demandable product in the market only if there exists awareness among the consumers and <br>that built responsibility by avoiding the non-eco-friendly products. As trademarks can be <br>classified into two types - one is a traditional trademark and another one is non-traditional.<br>Non-traditional trademarks are shape marks, scent marks, taste marks, colour marks, and <br>touchmark. Colour marks helps to protect the competitive organization from using the <br>combination colours which helps to recognize the brand. The colour combination is strongly <br>tied with a company or service that the brand or company can only be distinguished by the <br>colour combination on this condition colour mark help to prevent the colour combination.<br>Colour is a major marketing tool. More than words or language colours lead the market. <br>Nowadays worldwide green products are in demand. Youngsters are more attracted towards<br>colours and eager to buy the green branded products. When the youngsters start consuming<br>green brand products it helps in promoting a clean and green environment because in India <br>youngsters are more than the aged people. <br>Research studies have not concentrated on responsible consumption with respect to <br>consumers interest in purchasing green brands and also unwanted / unnecessary purchases <br>involving other than green brand products. Also marketing personnel’s knowledge of culture <br>and colours may be recognised. This research discusses the awareness of non-traditional <br>trademarks exclusively with respect to Green brand's representation through colour <br>trademark, a form of intellectual property distinct from industrial property which is best seen <br>as sustainable business practice in terms of production patterns and responsible consumtion.</p> usha swaminathan, Jananipriya Copyright (c) 2021 usha swaminathan, Jananipriya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1986 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A CASE STUDY ON VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN IN WORKPLACE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2688 <p>“Any act of gender-based violence that results in or is likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, co-ercism or arbitrary deprivation of likely, whether occurring in public or private” - defined by United Nation’s General Assembly (1993).</p> <p>Nowadays, Domestic violence against women is the major problem faced by women in both rural and urban. It is existing in many different forms. At least once in their lives, an estimated 736 million women—nearly one in every three—have been victims of intimate relationship abuse, non-partner sexual assault, or both (30 per cent of women aged 15 and older). In 2018, an estimated one in every seven women had experienced physical or sexual violence from their own family members&nbsp;or husband in the previous 12 months (13 per cent of women aged 15 to 49).&nbsp;Domestic violence laws have been passed in at least 155 countries, and sexual harassment laws in the workplace have been passed in at least 140. 155 countries have passed laws on domestic violence, and 140 have laws on sexual harassment in the workplace. The violence’s faced by women are domestic, sexual, physical, cultural, religious, socio-economic, family and patriarchy. This case study is to find the how women facing their problems in workplace and the steps taken by the organizations and the government towards the violence happening against to them. For many years, unions have been speaking out against violence against women at home and at work. However, many businesses are only now realising the scope of the problem of sexual harassment and some still refuse to acknowledge that domestic violence is a workplace issue. Simple policies can have a significant impact. A research on sexual harassment found that more than half of all women in the workplace have experienced some form of sexual harassment, a number that increases to almost two-thirds (63%) of women by the age of 1824. And it's not just about sexual harassment that affects women's working lives. The main objectives of this study are to increases the awareness against women violence, to empower and support the women, to explore the effects of domestic violence faced by women, to inform and influence public and private policies. The challenges faced by the women in workplace are sexual abuse, discrimination, murder and rape. The importance of the case study is to provide a better solution for this act and to encourage women to be bold in every kind of situation happening to them and to make both organization and government to make strict laws towards this act. And this case study will also be developed in some countries like Sweden, Yemen, Iran, Iraq, Estonia because these countries have no domestic violence acts against women.</p> Rabuni Aiswarya Copyright (c) 2021 Rabuni Aiswarya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2688 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Route optimization technique using Microsoft Excel Solver for sustainable logistics in Indian geography https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1522 <p><strong><em>Abstract </em></strong></p> <p>This study aims to structure an approach to optimize the distribution process in logistics operations for a Nagpur-based small-scale 3PL service provider, Pikkup Logistics Pvt Ltd., and in the process to propose a model for companies in the logistics domain to follow. The logistics network designing involves finding an optimum route that covers all the destinations in the least possible distance (Yang, et al., 2019). With an uncertain customer demand, the process of finding the best possible route becomes intricate. A methodology that reduces travel time and distance, to save up transportation costs, inventory carrying costs, and administration costs had to be developed. Two generic requirements are considered in the study. Firstly, a single truck or carrying vehicle delivering to multiple customers. Secondly, a set of fleets traveling to multiple destinations with capacity constraints. For assessing logistics and supply chain difficulties, spreadsheet tools, particularly Microsoft Excel is used with Solver add-in. Spreadsheets can be modified and extended to represent new situations and possibilities, and they can be analyzed from different perspectives. There is scope to explore and enhance the structured format of route optimization techniques namely Travelling Salesman Problem and Vehicle Routing Problem using Microsoft Excel Solver (Jiang, 2010). Carbon emission is a notable factor that forms the base of sustainable logistics operations. This study proposes a model to reduce the distance traveled, by which overutilization of resources can be considerably reduced aiming to control the carbon footprint for sustainable logistics.</p> Janarthanan M, Justin Joy Copyright (c) 2021 Janarthanan M, Justin Joy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1522 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Qualitative study on the Influence of Social Media Marketing Campaigns on consumer purchase https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/209 <p>People now spend most of their time using social networking applications on their phones, thanks to technological advances. There's no doubt that advertising campaigns on various products and services via social media is a better approach to obtain consumers' positive buy intentions. This leads to an increase in sales owing to customers' positive purchase intentions in today's modern environment. Customers should be able to connect with one other on the companies' platforms, according to previous surveys (Rowley, 2004).</p> <p>Everyone is connected to the internet in today's digitalized society, and it's not just the young. Advertising via social applications and the internet is therefore an option for advertisers. To acquire a product or service, a consumer must first form an opinion about that product or service. Until smart phones hit the general market, social media marketing was done via SMS, and several studies have shown that people are eager to be promoted to through their social network phones. It is true that patterns have completely altered throughout time. However, depending on the advertising channel, promotional methods and advertising might influence customer perception and buy intention (Elliott &amp; Speck, 1998).</p> <p>Customer motivation and perception are taken as variables as it plays a key role in influencing consumer purchase decisions. As a result, companies would be able to learn more about how consumers view their brand or product. Advertisers and customers alike profit from the comments and posts of others on social media as an advertising medium (Cha, 2009). Firms often take their lead from social media sites like Facebook that allow internet users to form virtual relationships with one other so they may benefit from their likes and comments on various postings (Andriole, 2010). Users can conduct a variety of functions with social networking applications, including finding, accessing, and sharing information, bill payment, navigation, and shopping. For this reason, several firms have built their own smart phone applications for communicating with clients and advertising their products (Kim, Wang &amp; Malthouse 2015). Intention to purchase may be described as a customer's belief that he or she will acquire a certain product and/or service Numerous elements (internal and/or external) can influence a customer's decision to buy. Apps platforms and social media advertising have the potential to affect consumer views and motivations, therefore influencing their buying intentions.</p> <p>This study aims to examine the influence of social media marketing campaigns on customers' purchase intentions. The target audience (which includes both men and women) who rely heavily on smart phones and social media sites such as Facebook etc. The primary would be collected by interview process for the study. It focuses on the influence of social media marketing campaigns while studying the relationship between consumer perception, motivation, and purchase intention.</p> Siddharth Nanda, Dr. Sangeeta Jauhari, Dr. Kaushik Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Siddharth Nanda, Dr. Sangeeta Johri, Dr. Kaushik Mishra https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/209 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Brexit, international finance and fiscal capacity in the long run https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2841 <p>The elements that influence according to this paper, the approach to international finance and financial governance is evolving, with significant employ for the EU's ability to implement its preferences globally. It appears that two related factors are driving this transition. First, European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) have recently gained popularity in international financial governance due to its unique incentives, priorities, and capacities. Second, as international financial regulation shifts from standard-setting to operational concerns, administrative organizations such as the ESAs have a greater opportunity to exert control.This article examines the consequences of the existence of a social democratic organizational channel by which the EU can engaged with global finance governance using the European Securities and Markets Authority as a research study. The data based on secondary and data collect from the world development indicators. The results analysis run from the smart PLS software and measure the performance of international finance and fiscal capability in long run Results indicate that there is inverse but significant relationship between international finance fiscal capability in long run. The European Securities and Markets Authority has the best track record of any ESA in the world. It also makes some predictions on how the UK's relationship with international finance also its governance and the ESAs as global organizations would be affected by the Brexit decision.</p> Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Priyanka Verma, Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Mayakannan Selvaraju Copyright (c) 2021 Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Priyanka Verma, Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Mayakannan Selvaraju https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2841 Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Market study of hydrogen sensors and sensing systems https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1048 <p>The future of hydrogen is abundant with its numerous applications in refineries, fertilizer industries, nuclear plants, and other upcoming technologies like environment-friendly fuels. With the market for hydrogen being so dynamic and due to its peculiar properties, such as high flammability, low viscosity, low density, high escape rate, and the ability to burn with an invisible flame to the naked eye, a sensing system in place becomes a prerequisite [1]. Hydrogen sensors with various working principles, price ranges, and different applications are commercially available. The different types of sensors for hydrogen at present in the market include electrochemical, catalytic pellistor, metal-oxide, and solid-state type [2]. However, there are various technical and market implications to use the various sensors in the industries where hydrogen is either produced or used as a utility [3].</p> <p>The usefulness of gas sensors predominantly depends on the factors such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time, accuracy, range of detection, durability, and reliability. The focus of the present work is on the use of these sensors for automobiles powered by a fuel cell, use in refineries, as a hydrogenating agent, and for fertilizer industries among many others. Some of the challenges faced in the application of these sensors are the use of sensors in the local markets (ex: small scale fertilizer industries) of the countries and encountering their challenges (cost limitation, lack of personnel to handle the sensor), geographical area of the industry and requirements suited to that area (if the area is prone to dust, it may damage the sensor or susceptible to vibrations from equipment) also plays an important role in the selection of these sensors [4].</p> <p>Although fuel cells are being touted as the future of energy, little is being explored about the disposal of components of the fuel cell like the hydrogen sensor which can prove to be a detrimental environmental problem in the future and a major topic of discussion. [5]. Re-fueling centers and repair stations for hydrogen and its sensors is an upcoming infrastructure and is a major area for development [6]. The future of hydrogen sensors has shown a lot in terms of both the upcoming technology as well as the introduction of a variety of sensors suited for current applications. With the expansion of worldwide interest in hydrogen energy and various governments introducing a framework to incorporate hydrogen energy, the demand for the sensors will increase manifold [7].</p> <p>This paper provides a broad comparison between different types of hydrogen sensors, metal oxide hydrogen sensors in particular, evaluation of the existing market, the future scope, economy, and challenges. A comprehensive study has been put together which focuses on the ways of sensing hydrogen and its quantification, prospective applications of hydrogen, challenges in the field of hydrogen sensing as well as its use as fuel, market study, the global share of hydrogen production and consumption through the years, and the major players in this field. It also gives a comprehensive SWOT analysis for the existing situation of the hydrogen sensor market and a comparative study of the existing sensors in the market</p> Ujwal Shreenag Meda, Sripriya U Copyright (c) 2021 Ujwal Shreenag Meda, Sripriya U https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1048 Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Facilitating the New Normal: Challenges and Opportunities of Facility Management Companies in India. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1741 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong></p> <p>Covid 19 has brought the world to a standstill. The hospitality, Travel and tourism being affected the most due to travel restrictions across the world and within India. Work from home become new normal and the workplaces are uninhabited, which has direct and indirect impact on the ancillary industries. One of the sectors that have been affected majorly are the industries providing Facility Management services to core businesses. Facility management deals with a variety of services and activities. FM is dependent on the type of client business, the client organisation’s structure and the market sector. The two main areas of FM are Upkeep and maintenance of the premises as well as support services such as security, information and communication. All the activities in FM require general, project, financial, customer and people management skills for an effective and efficient work.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong></p> <p>This paper aims to gauge the impact of the pandemic on the Facility management companies in India. This will also capture the positive and negative aspect of pandemic on the FM.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong></p> <p>An empirical research design will be adopted to address the study objectives. A conceptual framework will be proposed to explain the cause and effect of new normal in FM companies. This research involves both primary and secondary data. Primary data for the study will be collected in the form of structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of three sections, where section 1 consists of questions relating to the demographic characteristics of respondents, section 2 containing questions relating to the factors affecting facility management. In the third section, the questions are relating to measuring the intervening variables. Both sections 2 and 3 consists of statements measured on a five-point Likert scale based on the respondent’s perception, where the value 1 is for strongly disagree, and value 5 stands for strongly agree. The secondary is collected to measure the performance of selected Facility management companies in India. This will be distributed among 300 respondents who are senior executives heading selected Facility Management companies in India. The target respondents will be selected based on simple random sampling to ensure the normal distribution of data. The collected data will be tested with Multiple statistical tools using SPSS and AMOS.</p> <p><strong>Conceptual framework.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Based on the objective and variables included in the study, the following conceptual framework is developed with independent variables, dependent variable, and intervening variables.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="14">&nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td>&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Figure – 1: Conceptual Framework</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Though there are many studies have addressed the impact of Covid-19 on various fields, none of them has reported the impact of new normal on the facility management companies. Being an initiative study in this sector, the outcome of the study will help the facility management companies to identify the problems and prospects in new normal. The study implication will help the managers and executives to reframe the strategies to efficiently encounter the challenges of new normal.</p> <p><strong>References:</strong></p> <p>Bartlomiej Gawin &amp; Bartosz Marcinkowski, Business Intelligence in Facility Management: Determinants and Benchmarking Scenarios for Improving Energy Efficiency, Information Systems Management,&nbsp;34:4,&nbsp;347-358, (2017) DOI:&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/10580530.2017.1366219">10.1080/10580530.2017.1366219</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Ramiro Z. Dela Cruz &amp; Ruth A. Ortega-Dela Cruz,&nbsp;Addressing facility management issues and challenges common among public health care institutions in a developing country,&nbsp;International Journal of Healthcare Management,&nbsp;14:1,&nbsp;107-113,&nbsp;(2021)&nbsp;DOI:&nbsp;<a href="https://doi.org/10.1080/20479700.2019.1616387">10.1080/20479700.2019.1616387</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dr Nita Thomas, Dr Umasankar, Dr Boopathy Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Nita Thomas, Dr Umasankar, Dr Boopathy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1741 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Cognitive Dissonance & Behavioural biases in investment decision making – a systematic literature review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1130 <p><strong>Purpose</strong> – The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the literature published in past 8 years <br>on cognitive dissonance &amp; behavioural biases investment decision-making and their relationship. The <br>paper highlights the major gaps in the existing studies on behavioural biases. It also aims to raise <br>specific questions for future research. And, the paper aims to come out with a conceptual model for <br>further research.<br><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong> – We employ systematic literature review (SLR) method in the present <br>study. The prominence of research is assessed by studying the year of publication, journal of <br>publication, country of study, types of statistical method, citation analysis and content analysis on the <br>literature on behavioural biases. The present study is based on 25+ selected articles published in peer<br>review journals between 2013 and 2020. <br><strong>Findings</strong> – Several studies have been conducted on relationship between various behavioural biases <br>and demographics though some of the behavioural biases are yet to be studied. Empirical Studies on <br>cognitive dissonance in relation to investment decision of retail investors are scanty. Much of the <br>existing literature on behavioural biases indicates the scope for research in emerging economies in this <br>area, the supremacy of secondary data-based empirical research, the dearth of empirical research on <br>individuals who exhibit cognitive biases and emotional biases.<br>Research limitations/implications – This study focuses on individuals’ cognitive dissonance &amp; <br>behavioural biases in investment decision-making. <br><strong>Originality/value</strong> – The paper covers a limited time period of 2013 to 2020. To the best of authors’ <br>knowledge, this study is the first using systematic literature review method with reference to cognitive <br>dissonance &amp; behavioural biases and in investment decision-making and also the first to examine a <br>combination of cognitive dissonance &amp; behavioural biases involved in investment decision-making. <br>This paper will be useful to researchers, academicians and those working in the area of behavioural <br>finance in understanding the cognitive dissonance &amp; behavioural biases on investment decision-making. <br><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cognitive Dissonance, Overconfidence Bias, Spirituality Quotient, Behavioural biases, <br>Familiarity Biases, Confirmatory Bias, Illusion of control Bias, In-group Bias.<br><strong>Paper type:</strong> Literature review</p> Sowmya T S, Dr. Nisha Shankar, Dr. Dhimant Ganatra Copyright (c) 2021 Sowmya T S, Dr. Nisha Shankar, Dr. Dhimant Ganatra https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1130 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE AND IMPACT OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES BY AXIS BANK FOUNDATION https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1201 <p>This is a study purely based on the corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices adopted by India’s fourth largest private sector bank Axis Bank. Moreover, the Axis bank had incepted Axis bank foundation in the year 2006 in providing the basic amenities and adequate support to the needy and underprivileged community belonging to rural India. According to the existing literature on social responsibilities by various authors states that, [1] Rahman, &amp; Islam (2019), “has focussed on the CSR and sustainable development practices of commercial banks in Bangladesh had concluded that the banks are implementing CSR ideas to achieve the country's sustainable development goals.” Many researchers in the past have carried out research related to CSR initiatives and practices in the context of banking sector, commercial banks, construction sector and have mainly focused in studying the diverse factors. Moreover, few studies have also concentrated only on the public and private sector banks at a large, performance, [2]Sarita Moharana, 2013 , [3]S. C. Bihari and S. Pradhan(2011). Hence it is vital and essential to study the overall reach and impact of corporate social responsibility practices adopted by Axis bank foundation. <br>Therefore, our research question is as follows:<br>What are the various forms of CSR practices adopted by Axis Bank foundation and to measure the overall reach and impact?<br>The first objective is to study the outreach and reach of CSR activities carried out by the Axis Bank foundation. And the next objective is to study the performance of outreach of various CSR activities rendered by the Axis bank foundation.<br>We have mainly done the study by secondary data which is available in the websites of Axis bank and Axis Bank Foundation (ABF). We have taken the data’s from annual reports for the year 2018 – 2019, 2019 – 2020 and 2020 -2021. We have mainly applied CAGR tool for analysing the overall reach of the foundations activity. Moreover, the analysis has been done for mainly on three-year data from the year 2018 – 2019, 2019 – 2020 and 2020 – 2021.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>CAGR Analysis<br><br>Fig.1. The CAGR analysis of Total Impact</p> <p>Table – 1: The CAGR analysis of Total Impact<br>Total no of projects -5%<br>Total no of partners 0%<br>Households impacted under sustainable livelihoods 27%<br>Geographical outreach<br>States 3%<br>Blocks 23%<br>Villages 14%<br>Source: The calculation of CAGR was done using the data collected from the annual reports of Axis bank foundation from the year 2018 -2019, 2019 – 2020 to 2020 – 2021.</p> <p><br>Fig.2. The CAGR of Development Related to Youth, PWDs, Placement, Skill Centres.</p> <p>Table – 2: CAGR of development related to youth, PWDs, Placement, Skill Centres <br>Youth trained 28%<br>People with disabilities (PWDs) trained 58%<br>Placement 0%<br>Skill centres 3%<br>Source: The calculation of CAGR was done using the data collected from the annual reports of Axis bank foundation from the year 2018 -2019, 2019 – 2020 to 2020 – 2021.</p> <p><br>Fig – 3: The CAGR of Total Collectives.</p> <p>Table – 3: The CAGR of Total Collectives<br>Collectives<br>Self help groups (SHGS) 24%<br>Members in SHGS 23%<br>Federations 2%<br>Members in federations 6%<br>Village level institutions (VLIS) 8%<br>MEMBERS IN VLIS 9%<br>Cooperatives 1%<br>Members in cooperatives 2%<br>Water user associations and other collectives 21%<br>Source: The calculation of CAGR was done using the data collected from the annual reports of Axis bank foundation from the year 2018 -2019, 2019 – 2020 to 2020 – 2021.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><br>Fig. 4. The CAGR of Total Livestock</p> <p>Table – 4: The CAGR of Total Livestock<br>Livestock <br>Households with cattle 63%<br>Households with other animals (poultry/ goats/ ducks/ pigs/ fish) 69%<br>Livestock CRPS trained -82%<br>Livestock-related health camps 24%<br>Source: The calculation of CAGR was done using the data collected from the annual reports of Axis bank foundation from the year 2018 -2019, 2019 – 2020 to 2020 – 2021.</p> <p><br>Fig. 5. The CAGR of Total Natural Resources/ Watershed/ Water Resource Management</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Table – 5: The CAGR of Total Natural Resources/ Watershed/ Water Resource Management<br>Natural resources/ watershed/ water resource management <br>Water harvesting potential created 17%<br>Households with micro irrigation systems 20%<br>Households with major and minor lift irrigation systems 28%<br>Increase in irrigated area (hectares) 11%<br>Trees planted (horticulture, agro-forestry, afforestation) 72%<br>Source: The calculation of CAGR was done using the data collected from the annual reports of Axis bank foundation from the year 2018 -2019, 2019 – 2020 to 2020 – 2021.</p> <p><br>Fig. 6. CAGR of Total Agriculture/ Forestry/ Others</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Table – 6: CAGR of Total Agriculture/ Forestry/ Others<br>Cultivating rabi crops 24%<br>Cultivating kharif crops 39%<br>Cultivating summer crops 34%<br>Integrated cultivation (Crop Horticulture, Floriculture and others) 12%<br>Horticulture 27%<br>Floriculture 40%<br>Kitchen gardening 45%<br>Sericulture 4%<br>Apiculture 1%<br>Preparing organic inputs (Vermicompost, NADEP and Bio Pesticide) 64%<br>Source: The calculation of CAGR was done using the data collected from the annual reports of Axis bank foundation from the year 2018 -2019, 2019 – 2020 to 2020 – 2021.</p> <p><br>Fig.7. The CAGR of Total Well Being</p> <p>Table – 7: CAGR of Total Well Being<br>Households with access to drinking water 103%<br>Households using alternate or improved cooking fuel 42%<br>Households harnessing solar energy 158%<br>Households with women/ adolescents educated on health and nutrition 23%<br>Health camps set up 35%<br>Households with life and health insurance services 22%<br>Sanitation units 140%<br>Source: The calculation of CAGR was done using the data collected from the annual reports of Axis bank foundation from the year 2018 -2019, 2019 – 2020 to 2020 – 2021.</p> <p><br>Fig. 8. The CAGR of Total Projects</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Table – 8: CAGR of Total Projects<br>Rural Livelihood Projects 19%<br>Cumulative Project Funding 16%<br>Skilling Projects 0%<br>Individuals impacted under Skilling -30%<br>Source: The calculation of CAGR was done using the data collected from the annual reports of Axis bank foundation from the year 2018 -2019, 2019 – 2020 to 2020 – 2021.</p> <p>After the analysis of the data we can conclude that, the ABF has performed really well in many vital areas moreover, the ABF has created wonders in major areas. But still there are many areas where ABF needs to improve in order to uplift and reach the depriving community.<br>Our study mainly contributes to the existing literature that, by the way of assessing the various kinds of CSR practices in different areas implemented by Axis bank foundation(ABF). Our study is different in nature because we have concentrated only on the fourth largest private sector bank in India in terms of market capitalisation of [4] Rs. 248,615.91 crore.<br>We are confident that, our study will be an eyeopener for many researchers, practitioners, banks, corporates is to how in depth and in which all areas the corporate social responsibility practices can be effectively implemented and stretched. Moreover, in order to encourage and increase the corporate social responsibility contributions made by companies, banks and other institutions the Government at the day should revamp their existing CSR laws and policies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> VARUN KESAVAN, Dr. K. Sakthi Srinivasan Copyright (c) 2021 VARUN KESAVAN, Dr. K. Sakthi Srinivasan https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1201 Fri, 24 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Working Capital Management At Grupo Antolin Pvt. Ltd. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2007 <p>Management of working capital is a major aspect for the success of a business. It is necessary that a firm should maintain sound liquidity position and also keep in mind that the level of investment in the working capital components should not exceed. As it can lead to the mis-management of working capital, and it is one of the main reasons for a business failure. The working capital requirement of a company is affected by several factors and as a result, there is no specific way of determining it. The criticality of these factors varies with time and the type of business involved [1]. Therefore, in order to yield the estimated working capital required, these factors are to be studied thoroughly. Some of the factors that affect the working capital requirement are nature &amp; size of business, business fluctuations, production policy, firm’s credibility, credit availability, growth &amp; expansion activities and price level changes.<br>A company’s net working capital can be determined by deducting the current liabilities from its current assets. A higher value of the current assets represents a healthy liquidity position of a business firm and it indicates that the firm can carry out its business operations smoothly. But it should not exceed, as the company cannot yield more return. When a company is unable to manage its current liability through its current assets, usually liquidity problem arises. This can threaten the future existence of a company. So, the better a company can manage its working capital, the lower the company’s credit requirements [2].<br>One of the most critical problems in financial management is the working capital management. The company is also facing the same problem to some extent, to maintain its liquidity. The company’s day to day expenses is increasing. The company needs a working capital management, so that there can be enough fund available to the company for carrying day to day activities. And, even it helps to pay off its short-term liabilities like creditors on time without delay and to ensure company’s daily availability. To assess the effectiveness of the use of working capital and how to manage it.<br>The main objective of this study is to determine how the performance of the company is affected by the management of working capital by analysing and evaluating the liquidity position by taking into consideration the various components of working capital management.<br>The term “Working Capital Management” is used for the management of current assets. The assets that are converted into cash in a period of one year are called current assets. Hence the management of inventories, cash, current liabilities, trade receivables and marketable securities can be considered as working capital management. There is a necessity to prepare a working capital management schedule to know the liquidity position of the company and where the control can be accessed.</p> <p>In this study, the liquidity position of Grupo Antolin India Pvt. Ltd. is determined through comparative analysis and ratio analysis. After comparing the data from the Balance Sheet of two consecutive years, it was found that there was an increase in the company’s working capital by 80%. This is due to the variations in the components of working capital such as current assets and current liabilities i.e, the current assets have increased, and the current liabilities have decreased in the year 2018. The cash flow statement of the company, which uses a First-in First-out (FIFO) method for the various incoming raw materials / components was analysed. Based on the various analysis carried out, some suggestions have been given, which will aid the company to manage its working capital in a more efficient way. The company should clearly analyse, identify and prioritize investments by studying the cash flows. Quantitatively evaluate all the available alternatives and choose the best, and build a reliable database of cash flows and document them to lay the foundation for future investments.<br>The better a company can manage its working capital, the lower the company’s credit requirements. The Working Capital Management frequently considered as a tool to maintaining competence of the business inside their operations [3]. For any type of industry, it is very important to have a good working capital management, because it is most likely to be renown the capacity of the company by seeing the working capital of that company over the years. Hence, it has become compulsory to have the necessary amount of current assets all the time, mainly inventories and cash in hand or at bank.</p> Neelam R Patil, Nagappa Pattanashetti Copyright (c) 2021 Neelam R Patil, Nagappa Pattanashetti https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2007 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Impact of Work from Home Environment on Employees’ Psychological Well-Being https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/677 <p>In the context of sustainability, organizations are bound today to fulfil requirements to continue in business. Profit-making alone cannot be a yardstick anymore for companies to claim to be competitive. The Health and well-being of society and employees is one of the important sustainable goals that organizations are bound to abide by. In addition to these requirements, the livelihood of the society is badly affected by the existing Covid situation.&nbsp; Among many changes during pandemic conditions, work from home is one of the notable inclusion. More than 90% of the companies across the globe have implemented some form of work from home since the start of the pandemic in 2019. (Gartner Poll). Earlier publications hail this “virtual office” as an effective means to simultaneously reduce expenses and enhance productivity, morale, and work-life balance [1, 3, 4 and 9].</p> <p>Though this work from home practice helped to keep business operations running, it comes with disadvantages as well. There has been a report of increased stress levels of employees and increased harassment cases in industries. Chair Person of the National Commission for Women has reported a 5 times spike in online harassment. The Health and psychological well-being of the employees are affected due to economic, social and mental crises in the organizations. Studies in the past say that the flexibility of work from home is what employees are looking out for to balance the time for work and home responsibilities [5]. In contrast, some studies say that work from home is having the prospective to distort the boundaries between work and home life [6]. Work from home employees in the past was found to have exhibited characteristics of a workaholic as the result of lack of separation between work and life [8]. Altogether, the work from home/virtual work environment adds a new level of complication as employees attempt to deal with flexibility [7]. Work from home may also result in dissatisfaction in both workplaces and in family life [2].</p> <p>Reduced overhead charges are making many service organizations think about extending or continuing with the work from conditions. Now, they have to overcome the challenges faced by employees during this virtual employment scenario. This research has been carried to identify the association existing between the employees’ perception towards virtual work environment and their psychological well-being.</p> <p><strong>Purpose and Research Questions</strong></p> <p>Unlike western countries, India has got seen or experienced more work from the scenario. Covid situation has initiated this culture and there is a need for exploration. The purpose of this paper is to begin to fill the existing void in understanding the relationship between employees’ perception towards work from home environment and psychological well-being. Because so little is known at this point, this study is framed by posing the following research questions.</p> <ol> <li>What is the effect of a perceived virtual work environment on productivity on psychological well-being?</li> <li>What is the effect of perceived virtual work environment teamwork on psychological well-being?</li> <li>What is the effect of perceived virtual work environment morale on psychological well-being?</li> <li>What is the effect of perceived virtual work environment flexibility of work on psychological well-being?</li> <li>What is the effect of perceived virtual work environment work/life balance on psychological well-being?</li> </ol> <p><strong>Research Design:</strong></p> <p>Descriptive research design has been deployed to collect data from employees of IT firms through well-structured questionnaires, which are reliable and valid.</p> <p><strong>Research Objective:</strong></p> <p>To identify the impact of employees’ perception towards virtual work environment and its impact on their psychological well-being.</p> <p><strong>Hypothesis:</strong></p> <p>H1: Virtual work environment is likely to affect purpose in life component of psychological well being</p> <p>H2: Virtual work environment is likely to affect the self-acceptance component of psychological well being</p> <p>H3: Virtual work environment is likely to affect autonomy component of psychological well being</p> <p>H4: Virtual work environment is likely to affect personal growth component of psychological well being</p> <p>H5: Virtual work environment is likely to affect environmental mastery component of psychological well being</p> <p>H6: Virtual work environment is likely to affect the positive relationship with other components of psychological well being</p> <p><strong>The novelty of this Study: </strong></p> <p>Although prior studies show both positive and negative effects on the interaction between work from home and psychological well-being, conclusions are limited by the way virtual environment, psychological well-being, and work-family interaction have been modelled. This research presents a framework that defines psychological well-being as a multidimensional phenomenon and identifies the effects of the work from the environment from those of distance from the organization.</p> <p><strong>Implications of the Study:</strong></p> <p>This study result will help organizations to focus on areas in virtual setup to improve the psychological well-being of their employees. Organizations can take a cue from this study for framing work from home policies for their employees in the new normal.</p> M. Ramesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 M. Ramesh Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/677 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Technology integrated Inclusive Learning Spaces for Industry 4.0 Adaptive Learners- LUR Model for Sustainable Competency Development https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/715 <p>Sustainability in human resource development is the main focus in this dynamic millennium. Technology integration has led to new revolution in businesses and industrialization requiring advanced competencies which has created sudden gaps between industry and academia as well as in the labor population. Industry 4.0 is fueling the emergence of smart factories globally adopting the smartest technologies that aim to achieve the SDGs and facilitate inclusive growth of the societies, businesses and ecology. Intelligent tools and smart technologies open new opportunities along with challenges of upskilling employees and developing their competencies through unlearning and relearning of the new ways of doing work. Decent work practices, human resource development, growth in businesses and inclusive learning environment are certain sustainable development goals that is mandatory for Industry 4.0 to be progressive in an uncertain environment. Goal of learning in this millennium is to create inclusive learning environment for all. Inclusivity in the millennial age learning environment (referred to as Learning 4.0 age) is achieved through the integration of technology and learning accessed by masses in a standardized, indiscriminate, self-paced, affordable and technologically friendly form, while also instilling in the learners with the skills required by Industry 4.0. The outcome-based learning is the new model, wherein the parameters have been identified to access the corresponding outcome as per the industry requirements. According to Future of Jobs Report, World Economic Forum (2020), the Industry 4.0 demands completely new skills and competencies like- collaboration, complex problem solving, creativity and innovation, emotional intelligence, people management, decision making and cognitive flexibility in order to attain a sustainable future for all. The global societal and economic discord emerging due to the uncertainties in 2020 mandates the need to relook at the social contracts and adopt the unlearning-relearning model. Fully realizing the potential of Industry 4.0 will demand a more inventive, inclusive approach to talent development, and some conscious unlearning of outmoded ways, paired with learning of contemporary methods. Thus, this study focuses on the Unlearning-Relearning (LUR) model to bridge the gap between Industry-academia 4.0 and fill the skill gaps. The study aims to highlight the need for creating technology-integrated inclusive learning spaces for millennials as per the Industry 4.0 requirements by proposing a model – ‘Unlearn-Relearn Model’, which incorporates advanced technology, unlearning-relearning concept and strong feedback loop to achieve its purpose of sustainable competency development.&nbsp; The model attempts to propose methodology to enhance teaching-learning process in order to generate industry ready graduates for a smarter next generation labor force based on the responses of Educators, Learners and Industry experts. The study adopts qualitative approach. Primary data has been gathered through Delphi method and focus group interviews of students, academicians and industry recruiters in the domains of management and Information Technology in Bengaluru, the IT capital of India. The qualitative data is analyzed using content analysis (Elo, S., et al., 2014). The findings of the study have enduring practical implications in molding the millennials into industry 4.0 ready professionals and achieving specific SDGs. The study suggests partnerships with public and private organizations along with digital and inclusive methodologies and strong feedback loop that offer compelling solutions strengthening today’s millennial workforce and transform curricula for the next generation of students.</p> NITU GHOSH, Bharti Ayer, Ruchika Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 NITU GHOSH, Bharti Ayer, Ruchika Sharma https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/715 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Platform Skills amongst the Faculty of Business Management, Pune, India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1393 <p>Platform skills are presentation behaviors that a trainer does to successfully transmit the content<br>to the audience. Guila Muir defines it as, “The presentation strategies that a trainer employs to<br>effectively communicate information are known as platform skills.” To get their messages across,<br>both presenters and trainers must have exceptional platform skills. Guila Muir emphasizes the<br>importance of the content delivery effectiveness to the viewer over the content itself in her blog<br>"When a Trainer is a Presenter." This should not be confused with abilities that ensure<br>participation (which, in general, only trainers use) (which, in general, only trainers use). Faculties<br>undergo various Faculty Development Training Program in India that majorly focuses on<br>Teaching aids and technology. Platform skills has not been included in any training program<br>neither has been a separate training entity for Faculties of business management. After having a<br>conclusive evidence from the Industry experts that the Post Graduate Management Students<br>lack Presentation and content delivery skills (Which we call as Platform Skills) which make them<br>difficult to sustain in the corporate life, it should be the important part of the curriculum and<br>should be consistently implemented was the qualitative output of the Experts reply. Also, Experts<br>suggested that the inclusion of the Skills in Students could be effective if done by the Regular<br>Faculties as students are open and bonded to them. This could have been possible only when<br>the Faculties are either aware or if not aware should be made aware of platform skills by giving<br>them the necessary training. To the check the same the research has been conducted on finding<br>the awareness of the Platform Skills and to check if they need training for the same so that they<br>train the Post Graduate Management Students in Faculty of Management. Objectives of the<br>Study: - • To check the Awareness of Platform skills amongst Faculties and its importance in<br>Corporates • Are the elements of Platform skills included in the syllabus and the Academic<br>Calendar • Self-check of the Platform skills Parameters Faculties would like to get trained on •<br>Crucial 5 Elements of Platform Skills out of 16, students need to get trained from Faculty’s point<br>of view. • To understand if the teachers are interested to attend and get trained in Platform Skills<br>Development Workshop. To collect the responses, an online questionnaire was used as a<br>method and email was used as a medium. 43 business management faculties from 11 different<br>institutions within respective universities responded to the questionnaire. This information was<br>gathered over a period of 53 days. Those business management schools with soft skills training<br>programme spaces in their academic calendar were specifically targeted. This information was<br>gathered over a period of 53 days. Those business management schools with soft skills training<br>programme spaces in their academic calendar were specifically targeted. It we opt for purposive<br>sampling method in choosing the institutions. On the Data analysis and interpretation part it was<br>found that very few of the Faculties could define Platform Skills Right. Most of the Faculties feel<br>Platform skills are required to get the Job in Corporate World. More than half of the faculties have<br>not been trained on platform skills and most of the Faculties are interested to attend Platform<br>Skills Development Workshop on Classroom Content Delivery, Confidence, Voice Projection,<br>Speaking Rate and Facial Expression. Half of the Faculties say No slot for Platform Skills are<br>included in the Academic Calendar. Also, as per the suggestions of the faculties, students should<br>be trained on further mentioned platform skills: - Confidence, Eye contact, Pronunciations,<br>Speaking Rate, Classroom Delivery principles. In conclusion with recommendations: - Through<br>trainings, guest sessions, activities, and other means faculties should be made aware of Platform<br>skills. Faculties should have a separate training on how to train the students and to utilize the<br>skills in the classroom. Experts should assess the change in the faculties’ pre and post Platform<br>skills TTT Training. It should be included as a critical component of training in terms of placement<br>and skill development. The development of platform skills should be a part of the academic<br>calendar. Enhancement of platform skills with the input of faculties and industry experts, a model<br>for the top five elements of Platform skills should be developed. An Instructor's Booklet for the<br>Platform Skills Development Model should be created. If the Platform Skills Model Training is<br>available, faculties should be allowed to attend.<br>(We propose to design Platform Skills Development Model which can be minimum of 15-21<br>days.)</p> Prathamesh S Nadkarni, Priya Singh, Ravi Joshi Copyright (c) 2021 Prathamesh S Nadkarni, Priya Singh, Ravi Joshi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1393 Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A study of Air Quality Index During COVID-19 pandemic: with reference to Delhi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/759 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Seema Garg<sup>1</sup>, Navita Mahajan<sup>2</sup>, Namrata Pancholi<sup>3</sup> ,Supriya Lamba<sup>4&nbsp;&nbsp; </sup></p> <p>Email ID:&nbsp; seemagarg1 @gmail.com</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; navitamahajan07@gmail.com</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>A nationwide lockdown imposed in India initially for three weeks from 24th March to 14th April 2020 and extended up to 3rd May 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected economic activities all around the world. Due to the forced restrictions, pollution level in cities across the country drastically slowed down just within few days. This leads to number of discussions whether considering lockdown to be the effective alternative measures for controlling air pollution[4].&nbsp; Though it took a huge amount of human lives as well as increased unemployment to the large extent, it puts a positive impression on the environment. To control and stop the speedy extend of this deadly virus or disease, the Government had imposed a strict lockdown on their citizens which created a constructive impact on the atmosphere. Air pollutant concentration had been investigated and analysed in this study to analyze the impact of lockdown on the environment. Based on the air pollutant concentration, Air Quality Index (AQI) is deliberated. The Air Quality Index indicates the most and least polluted cities in the world. A higher value of AQI represents the higher polluted city and a lesser value of Air Quality Index represents a less polluted city. The impact of lockdown on air quality with respect to air pollution has been studied in this work and it is observed that the air pollutant concentration has reduced in the city during the lockdown period. It has been also detected that the PM2.5&nbsp;and PM10&nbsp;are the most affecting air concentrator which controls the air quality of all the selected places during and after lockdown. The present study eventually worked on this direction to look upon the air quality scenario amidst the lockdown period scientifically with special reference to the megacity Delhi. With the aid of air quality data of seven pollutant parameters (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3&nbsp;and NH3) for &nbsp;monitoring stations spread over the megacity ,National Air Quality Index (NAQI) to show the spatial pattern of air quality in pre and during-lockdown phases. To investigate the interrelationship among the various parameters the Pearson correlation analysis was conducted .The results demonstrated that during lockdown air quality is significantly improved. Among other pollutants, NO2&nbsp;and CO level have also reduced during-lockdown phase. It was observed that during the lockdown period, the air quality index on most of the days was observed to be good and satisfactory in all the metropolitan cities that indicated an improvement in air quality due to a reduction in vehicular and industrial emissions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;Air Quality Index (AQI), Carbon monoxide (CO), Ground-level ozone (O3), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Covid-19</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>[1] Amann M., Purohit P., Bhanarkar A.D., Bertok I., Borken-Kleefeld J., Cofala J., Heyes C., Kiesewetter G., Klimont Z., Liu J., Majumdar D. (2017), Managing future air quality in megacities: a case study for Delhi. <em>Atmos. Environ.&nbsp;</em>2017;161:99–111.&nbsp;</p> <p>[2] Dholakia H.H., Purohit P., Rao S., Garg A. Impact of current policies on future air quality and health outcomes in Delhi, India.&nbsp;<em>Atmos. Environ.&nbsp;</em>2013;75:241–248.</p> <p>[3] GoD: Government of Delhi Chapter 12, Transport, Economic Survey of Delhi, 2014–15. 2016. <a href="http://delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/DoIT_Planning/planning/economic+survey+of+dehli/economic+survey+of+delhi+2014+-+2015">http://delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/DoIT_Planning/planning/economic+survey+of+dehli/economic+survey+of+delhi+2014+-+2015</a>&nbsp;Available at:</p> <p>[4] Mahato, S., Pal, S., &amp; Ghosh, K. G. (2020). Effect of lockdown amid COVID-19 pandemic on air quality of the megacity Delhi, India.&nbsp;<em>The Science of the total environment</em>,&nbsp;<em>730</em>, 139086. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139086">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139086</a></p> <p>[5]M. Jamal, S. Chakrabarty <em>et al.</em>&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>Microsyst Technol</em>&nbsp;<strong>24,&nbsp;</strong>4217–4223 (2018). <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-018-3724-6">https://doi.org/10.1007/s00542-018-3724-6</a> &nbsp;</p> <p>[6] A. Santos, J. Ferre, Borrull, J. Pallares, L.F. Marsal, Physica Status Solidi (a), 2011, 208, 668.<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48253-7">https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48253-7</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>[7] K.S. Chang, C.K. Chang, S.F. Chou, C.Y.Chen (2007),&nbsp; <em>Biosensors and Bioelectronics</em>, 22, 2914, 2007. <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2006.12.001">https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2006.12.001</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Seema Garg, Dr Navita , Dr Namrata, Ms. Supriya Copyright (c) 2021 Seema Garg, Dr Navita , Dr Namrata, Ms. Supriya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/759 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Interactive Algorithmic Procedure for Promoting Individualized Environmental Tutoring https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1427 <p>This work presents an interactive algorithmic procedure (IAP), including 21 activity stages and 4<br>decision nodes, for promoting individualized environmental tutoring. The proposed scheme is based on a<br>modification of Holland’s methodology for quantifying the distribution of personality types while determining<br>the degree of environmental awareness of young people in order to evaluate their attitudes and beliefs as<br>regards their willingness to be actively engaged with the environment and provide educators valuable<br>information that they may use to formulate proper educational material. The framework has been implemented<br>in a sample of 240 students of secondary and tertiary education. Further to quantitative results obtained by<br>estimating various kinds of correlations based on the answers to the questionnaire we designed/circulated, we<br>have indicated that at least two personality types, the investigative and the artistic (after Holland), should be<br>divided into sub-categories in order to establish more effective interactive links with the students that belong to<br>these sub-categories. In accordance of these findings, we prepared paradigmatic assignments to serve as<br>prototypes.</p> Odysseas Kopsidas Copyright (c) 2021 Odysseas Kopsidas https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1427 Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Influencer Marketing on Consumer Buying Decision https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3560 <p>The purpose of this research is to identify how influencer marketing can influence buying behavior of the consumers. To find out the same, primary data collection method was followed in this research work. Sample size was 66 however, 50 complete responses were received. From the responses it was found that most some participants directly buy products recommended by influencers while most of them check reviews about that product before buying it. Some consumers compare recommended products with other products before buying and some consumers check the price before buying. Therefore, from this information it can be concluded that influencers can positively influence buying behavior of the consumers. However, several factors affect this. For example, higher number of followers ensures that an influencer influences consumers. However, if influencers are paid for product promotion then it cannot influence consumer buying behavior. On the other hand, area of expertise of the influencers also plays a major role in influencing buying behavior of the consumers. Besides, if an influencer is from a same country with the followers, then the influencers can easily influence their buying behavior.</p> Abhilash Satapathy, Ansuman Samal, Kilaru Madhavi, Raju Agrawal Copyright (c) 2021 Abhilash Satapathy, Ansuman Samal, Kilaru Madhavi, Raju Agrawal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3560 Mon, 22 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green Transportation Modes: The paradoxes of development for Tourism in Bengaluru https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2227 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Transportation is one of the vital processes that move people from one point to another. It is considered to be the largest industry in an urban society, and its purpose serves people in various modes such as providing accessibility, development and is even directly connected to environmental aspects. The Transportation system of a given area, especially in an urban context, has detrimental effects on society, economy and environment, as stated by the UN Sustainable development goals. This paper studies the effect of implementing Sustainable transportation modes in the city of Bengaluru, India, and its direct and indirect implications on the Tourism of the city.&nbsp; Accessibility is an important element of Tourism, without which the act of travel is not possible. Given the current scenario of uncontrollable environmental pollution, Sustainability and its effective areas have a major role in positioning and placing Tourism success at an operative level. The study also emphasises the role played by the state government of Karnataka, India, in instituting Green transportation in the city of Bengaluru. The strategies designed, planned and implemented by the government should encompass a ‘Green’ approach so as to reduce environmental footprints. A lot of private entrepreneurs and business giants are also already into sustainability by incorporating policies and recommendations. To strengthen the research, detailed discussions were conducted with industry experts, along with a case study of a Private transportation company that offers green transport to the public. Although the business aspect is quite active, the focus of this paper is on the comfort and wellbeing of the public provided by Green transportation, at the same time importance is given to the question of how urban development can be enhanced in a sustainable manner. It is also true the urban development is directly connected to Sustainability. The technologies nowadays have enabled the people to freely communicate, through which tourism is also benefitted. The paper also intends to find the change of tourist perceptions after their travel so as to know the level of experience, and whether Green transportation can influence the visibility of the environment in Bengaluru. The concept of “Transit-Oriented Development’ is a critical finding in this regard. If implemented, it will result in an economically viable development pattern for the government, and also will develop affordable and people-oriented green transportation modes. The article is concluded by presenting various strategies and methods that both private and government professionals must use to ensure that the ‘Green approach’ is implemented in all phases of transportation development in Bengaluru.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sejana Jose Vadakumcherry Copyright (c) 2021 Sejana Jose Vadakumcherry https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2227 Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 “Private Labels” A step towards financial effectiveness in retail business development” With Special reference to online retailing. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2292 <p>: According to recent survey India is the fifth largest &amp; the most preferred destination<br>globally. India is the highest among all countries in terms of “per capita”retail store ability. The<br>growth of retailing in India is not just in big cities but even in tier II &amp; tier III cities.<br>If we talk about Indian online retailing it has already exceeded the rs 22500( US 3.19 billion )<br>approx. in terms of sales by 2020 &amp; which shows a significant growth of around 76% approx.<br>comparing previous years.<br>When we visit any retail outlet like hypermarket, supermarket etc. we find there two categories of<br>products, one is “National brands( NL)” &amp; another is “Private brands(PL)”.<br>National Brands are owned &amp; distributed under the brand name owned by the producer nationally.<br>National brands are already established brands.<br>Private labels are companies own brands &amp; they are getting it produced from contract manufacturers<br>in a customized way.<br>Private Labels are also know as “In House Brands”, “Home Brnads” or “Store Brands”. They are<br>fastly increasing even in online retailing e.g. amazon , mytra etc.<br>The whole Research paper is about the growing trend of “Private brands “in online retail &amp; it’s<br>significances in terms of overall retail business development &amp; safeguard in recession.<br>The objective of the research paper is also about the changing face of private labels in terms of<br>appearance &amp; availability &amp; to prove that they are not just a cheap priced imitation of national<br>brands but a profitable model &amp; safeguard in recession time.<br>The whole research paper &amp; analysis is based on Primary &amp; secondary research method. A<br>well-structured questionnaire is designed for consumers to make the analysis more authentic. A<br>thorough literature review is done through magazines, articles, books, &amp; web based on the<br>contemporary issues &amp; updates regarding online retailing &amp; e-commerce sector.</p> Siddharth S. Karale, Prabha Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Siddharth S. Karale, Prabha Singh https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2292 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PARADIGM SHIFT-USE OF A.I IN BUSINESS 4.0 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2324 <p>During the last few years we have been witnessing tremendous changes in the<br>way we are targeted with highly technological products and services in India. The first of such<br>personal experience few years ago I had was with on purchasing of shoes on a very popular<br>e-comm site. After a long gap of more than six months i was browsing to purchase a pair of<br>shoes , as soon as I entered the web page and typed a word or two all my search history came in<br>a drop down box which surprised me. Also a list of suggested product catalogue popped up at<br>the bottom of my mobile screen. This situation created curiosity inside me that what makes the<br>website remember my product search history almost six months later and also how the online<br>marketer evaluate my search history and suggests me the products which I would like to buy in<br>future? The second such experience is with you tube. As and when I browse into the site<br>automatically the list of videos come onto the home screen which I would normally prefer to<br>watch on you tube. And also in the search box when I put the cursor to type for search all my<br>search history drops down. It makes me excited to know how a digital device can be connected<br>with every other gadget and it can control the action as per our voice command. For example<br>Amazon developed “Alexa”. It fascinates me to find out how a car could drop the on boarder at<br>it’s exact destination that to with out the help of a driver. It sounds more of fantasy. But no it’s<br>not it’s the concept of Artificial intelligence which is ruling the market places and businesses all<br>over the world. At present it might be at a very nascent stage but surely the AI is set to dominate<br>the business and market places in the coming future. The immense potential of this AI sector<br>enticed me to peep into the sector in India and draw a sector wise analysis and reflect what the<br>current scenario presents regarding the use and market size of AI in Indian business scenario.<br>Keywords- e-Comm, you tube, search history, Alexa, AI.</p> Rasmiraj Palo Copyright (c) 2021 Rasmiraj Palo https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2324 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of perceived risk on intention to use online banking https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/357 <p>Online banking is a major service for the contemporary banking sector's expansion plan. Nonetheless, this service was not extensively utilized due to the danger of online transactions remained afraid of consumers. Thus, the detailed and distinctive risk job in risk awareness for the banking industry is an important and useful task. The influence of perceived risk in online banking use is investigated in this research. The findings of SEM (structural equation modelling) show risk elements “privacy risk, security risk, social risk, time risk, and financial-performance risk” in perceived risk, which has a negative impact on desire to utilize online banking. Research findings may assist in suggesting ways to improve safety and mitigate online banking risk.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Reepu Copyright (c) 2021 Reepu https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/357 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW PAPER ON IMPACT OF BEHAVIOURAL BIASES IN FINANCIAL DECISION- MAKING https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1797 <p>Traditional finance is constructed on four principles which are portfolio principles of Markowitz, the arbitrage principles of Miller and Modigliani, the capital asset pricing model of Sharpe, Lintner and Black and the option-pricing model of Black, Scholes, and Merton, These principles conclude that the market is efficient and competent. Patrons of traditional finance recommend that individual behavior frequently reflect rationality. EMH of Samuelson also explains that people behave rationally, maximize their expected utility and process all available information. EMH states that stock prices reflect all the available information. It is impossible to “beat the market” consistently on a risk adjusted basis since market price should only react to available information. Proponents of traditional finance state that the market and investors who access the market are rational. But in reality investors cannot act rationally all time. They are frequently influenced by psychological factors like state of mind, emotions, trading theories, values and interpretation of information, which mislead them to act as irrational investors, (Kahneman and Tversky). Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky were known as the fathers of behavioural finance. Though, many literary works are carried out by them in behavioural finance. Proponent were advocate that investors behavior influence by psychological bias. From the above findings, it concludes that Most of the standard finance theories give more importance to fundamental factors instead of give importance to decision making process of individuals. Therefore, there is necessitating developing modern finance to study these irregularities. The main aim of this paper is to study how psychological factors influence the investment behavior of individuals through review of literature from secondary sources like Journals, Magazines, Books etc. The study also has tried to discover the relationship between the behavioral biases and the investment decisions of the individual investors of stock market. The study was found through review of literature that heuristic factors like overconfidence, representativeness, and anchoring of behavioural finance has more influence investment decision process of investors while investing in stock market and factors of prospect theory were not influencing more on investment decision of investors. These factors influence more while taking short term investment decision in the stock market. &nbsp;“Heuristics are simple efficient rules of the thumb which have been anticipated to explain how people make decisions, come to judgments and solve problems, usually when facing complex problems or incomplete information. These rules work well under most situation, but in certain cases lead to systematic cognitive biases” – Daniel Kahneman .Tversky and Kahneman identified the influence of human heuristics on the decision making process. Tversky defined heuristic as a strategy, which can be applied to a variety of problems that usually but not always give a correct solution. People often use heuristics (or shortcuts) that reduce composite problem solving to more simple judgmental operations (Tverskyand Kahneman, 1973). The result of the study will help investors to improve their decision making by considering and governing heuristic factors like overconfidence, representativeness and anchoring of behavioural finance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ashish Vaid Copyright (c) 2021 Ashish Vaid https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1797 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Digital Leadership and Digital Entrepreneurship – A catalyst in Women Empowerment https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1872 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The competitive business environment has evolved over the years and digital presence has become an inevitable need of every business. Adhering to pandemic changes, the new normal has mandated the need for digital transformation of organizations. With the advent of this, digital entrepreneurship has led to the change in the working methods of many organizations, specifically MSME’s have faced major disruptions in both the ways. There have been women entrepreneurs who have entered the workforce with their own digital start-ups and there by contributing to the economy and personal empowerment&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The study focuses on the contribution of digital entrepreneurship, specifically led by women in the MSME sector. The intention is to know and analyse how digital entrepreneurship and leadership has led to empowerment of women in small and medium size enterprises.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The advent of digital platforms has helped women to venture into entrepreneurship as it proves advantageous in terms of flexibility of work, autonomy and accountability, low costs involved and also huge networking opportunities which have helped women to evolve as digital leaders and entrepreneurs [1].&nbsp; Entrepreneurship is more of a strategy, and it requires certain skills, characteristics and competencies which further leads us to explore the concept of digital leadership in the era of digital entrepreneurship.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A female at workforce is hindered in her career through glass ceilings and leadership gaps. This applies for succession in a huge corporation as well in a self- owned business. To shatter these and with the multitasking life needs of her, starting up of a business of her own requires mastery in terms of digital literacy, entrepreneurial skills and also certain leadership traits . Thus, a Female Digital Entrepreneur is defined as a one who explores market opportunity exploiting the digital space to create something new. <em>Digital entrepreneurship merges technology with entrepreneurial talent and skills applying traditional entrepreneurship approaches such as opportunity spotting, resource gathering, and talent and cash management whilst leveraging digital technologies to increase the rate of creativity and innovation</em>. [2]. The ability to lead an organization varies in the digital modes. However, leadership attributes such as communication, transparency, trust to keep the momentum of the business in spite of its size these attributes remain mandatory and varies based on nature of the company [3]</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The outcome of the study shall help in comprehending the current opportunities, challenges that digitalization has given for women entrepreneurs. It also will help in understanding, what changes have occurred in the leadership styles to run a digital business in today’s business environment. The study explores the facets and digital leadership and digital entrepreneurship together on empowerment with focus on women in Tamilnadu. The blend of these dimensions indeed makes the study unique and shall help in showcasing the upsurge of women entrepreneurs and the leadership capacity in line with the digital transformation that happened worldwide post pandemic.</p> <p><em>Keywords:&nbsp;Digital Entrepreneurship, Digitalization, Industry 4.0, Digital leadership, Women </em></p> <p><em>Leadership </em></p> <p><strong>RESEARCH METHODOLOGY</strong></p> <p><strong>Research Design</strong></p> <p>The study descriptively showcases the contribution of digitalization in empowering women for the better, in terms of their entrepreneurial ventures and transformation leadership capabilities to adhere to the digital space</p> <p><strong>Sampling framework: </strong>Women leaders and Entrepreneurs in in Tamilnadu&nbsp; who have explored digitalization in their current role or new venture</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Sample size:</strong> 150 &nbsp;</p> <p><strong>CONCEPTUAL DESIGN </strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Fig.1.</strong> Conceptual design</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The conceptual depiction highlights that the study aims at contemplating the impact of digital entrepreneurship and leadership on women entrepreneurs. The paper intends to explore the dimensions associated in digitalization and empowerment of women</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>References</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>[1] Kamberidou, I. Distinguished women entrepreneurs in the digital economy and the multitasking whirlpool.&nbsp;J Innov Entrep&nbsp;9,&nbsp;3 (2020) <a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-020-0114-y">https://doi.org/10.1186/s13731-020-0114-y</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>[2] Scuotto, Veronica, et al. "The shift towards a digital business model: A strategic decision for the female entrepreneur."&nbsp;Women entrepreneurs and strategic decision making in the global economy. IGI Global, 2019. 120-143. DOI:&nbsp;10.4018/978-1-5225-7479-8.ch007</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>[3] Bolte, Sophia, Joanna Dehmer, et al. "Digital Leadership 4.0." Acta Technica Napocensis-series: applied mathematics, mechanics, and engineering 61.4 (2018).</p> Aarthy S, Dr Indradevi Copyright (c) 2021 Aarthy S, Dr Indradevi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1872 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on Sustainable Development Impact on the Colleges and Universities of the State of Telangana https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/736 <p>Sustainable development needs to evolve as a standard paradigm for planning and decision<br>making. As a dynamic condition, needs to understand interconnections and interdependency<br>between environmental, economic, and social systems. The communities and institutions<br>cannot be sustainable and there is no existence of social justice without achieving<br>sustainability. The institutions need to be committed to understand the root cause of today’s<br>injustices and provide humanness by integrating the understanding of environmental<br>degradation and modeling environmentally sustainable practices. The young students need to<br>be educated for sustainable development and creating consciousness, learning and guidance<br>to enhance perceptive. The attitude, Skills and Knowledge links to develop awareness and<br>ideals to allow people from all spheres and all ages for assuming responsibility to create and<br>enjoy a sustainable future. Sustainable growth for adaptive learning and innovation recognizes<br>and appreciates environmental limits by offering accountability for governments and<br>economies for all. The educational institutions require thinking again for their missions, restructuring courses, research programs to reach communities and operations of the campus.<br>Preparing students, staff, whole campus, and community to be more proficient decision<br>makers for the increasingly complex, dynamic, and uncertain future environment by integrating<br>sustainability into major activities of educational institutions by providing a tremendous<br>opportunity. The sustainable growth study is done using survey of sustainability at college or<br>university level accomplished seven critical proportions of higher education. The Sustainability<br>Assessment Questionnaire is intended to encourage discussion and further evaluation by<br>campus different councils who are conversant about and responsible for the actions.</p> Akram Pasha Copyright (c) 2021 Akram Pasha https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/736 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Content Marketing as a sustainable marketing strategy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/812 <p>The term sustainability has grown to encompass several disciplines. Sustainability not just means ecological sustainability but also includes societal sustainability and business sustainability. Traditional marketing methods were more of Above the Line (ATL) and less of Below the Line (BTL) and hence considering costs were not sustainable to businesses. One big difference between traditional marketing and digital marketing is the emphasis digital marketing pays in providing information that is sought by the target audience. &nbsp;Consumer behavior is analyzed and then the digital marketing strategy is planned accordingly.&nbsp; With constantly changing technology and consumer behavior, the brands are finding themselves in a highly challenging situation to attract customer attention and convert purchase intension into actual sales that bring revenue. Digital Marketing has an advantage over the traditional marketing because it is ubiquitous, mobile, targeted, and participative. That in effect increases the value and effectiveness of the digital marketing strategies. This article traces business sustainability affected by effective digital marketing methods.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Content Marketing in its non-digitized form &nbsp;&nbsp;started in early 1891 and has increased by leaps and bounds. In 1891, “August Oetker sold small packages of his Backin baking powder to households with recipes printed on the back. In 1911 he started publishing his very successful cookbook. It went through major updates over past 100 years and is one of the most successful cookbooks globally reaching 19 million printed copies” (Schmidtke, 2015). &nbsp;From the early days when it was used by John Deere who launched the Furrow Magazine to Farmers to make their work more profitable to today’s websites that document the products / services, company policy, management team, superior process, customer testimonials white papers, case studies etc the usage of content in digitization has increased dramatically.&nbsp; Content has always been an important part of any effective digital marketing strategy. The quality of the content and inputs from the content consumers are important hallmarks of any digital marketing strategy. Consumers who use buy at stores randomly now look at products online and browse the reviews before purchasing online. Companies like Facebook and AirBnB depend heavily on user driven content. The article dwells on the importance of content marketing on digital marketing strategies and how it is a sustainable practice for corporations to depend on content marketing as the key to effective marketing and sales. It is important to understand the role of content management in a effective digital marketing which will support business sustainability.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Content marketing induces participation of the target clients in content building. Content Marketers ensure brand recognition, brand loyalty, increased sales, and reduced costs. (Content Marketing Institute 2017, Metrick). An increase in the online content can generate more customer demand, have a competitive edge in terms of seeking better attention but to retain the existing customer requires more hard work and more marketing spends. There are huge costs benefits in creating blogs that are attention grabbing, or videos that are visually attractive or podcasts that leave a lasting impact.</p> <p>.</p> <p>Today, the customers are spoilt for choices and at the same time creating more challenges for every marketing professional to innovate and execute new strategies. Our primary objective was to study the role of content marketing as subset of a sustainable digital marketing strategy and to study the two way communication among the digital marketer and consumers which leads to greater customer &nbsp;involvement, mindshare and better customer relationships and loyalty.</p> <p>We systematically reviewed the available literature on the use of content marketing in small business enterprises of African, Central Asian and European markets during the last 10 years. We examined the&nbsp; research content published by top tier journals and investigated their definitions ,theoretical background and main results for further studying the&nbsp; reasons why content marketing helps sustain businesses. Two factors that came to the forefront were customer engagement and the cost of content marketing. Both these factors were analyzed and their roles were critically examined in the sustainability of business enterprises. During the course of the work it was also noticed that there is a lack of structured research with respect to Indian context.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Key words:&nbsp;Consumer behavior, content marketing, sustainable business, purchase decision, brand equity, social capital</p> Prachi Sinha, Debamitra Basu Roy, Priya Prateesh Nair, Sanjay Rama Rao , T. Banerjee Copyright (c) 2021 Prachi Sinha, Debamitra Basu Roy, Priya Prateesh Nair, Sanjay Rama Rao , T. Banerjee https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/812 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analyzing the Evolution of Modern Tamil Script for Natural Language Processing https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2874 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The objective of this paper is to analyses the evolution of various scripts and languages used in India. It is imperative to discover the gradual changes of scripts and languages which reveal the linguistic relation between various people.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Paleography is the study of ancient writing systems &amp; deciphering and Epigraphy is the study of writing engraved on different materials shortly called as inscriptions or epigraphs. The Tamil script has passed several stages. Harappa or Indus script is the first known script in India.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The findings show that Tamil script has evolved from various stages. Initially writing was started from graffti marks. Then it is modified to various scripting styles called Brahmi, Tamil Brahmi, Vatteluthu, the Pallava-Chola script and the modern Tamil script. Tamil Brahmi had different diacritical marks to produce sounds like ர, ற, ல, ள, ந, ன, ண which are not found in Brahmi. Pallava kings brought reforms in Tamil script. They introduced letters like ஷ, ஜ, ஹ, க்ஷ, ஶ்ரீ,ஸ into Tamil script to read Sanskrit words, when they were written in Tamil.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value: </strong>Script conversion tools are Avalokitam, Anunaadam,&nbsp; Jinavani&nbsp; kalveetu and&nbsp; Aksharamukha.&nbsp; Anunaadam tool attempts to analyze allophonic variants in a given Tamil input and produce a phonetically transcribed text. Jinavani&nbsp; kalveetu app converts Tamil to&nbsp; Tamil Brahmi and Vatteluttu.</p> Kaladevi R, Revathi A, Manju A, Mayakannan Selvaraju Copyright (c) 2021 Kaladevi R, Revathi A, Manju A, Mayakannan Selvaraju https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2874 Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Karma at Workplace: With Special Reference to Higher Education Institutions in South Gujarat Region https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2307 <p>Background<br>Karma derived from the Sanskrit word Karman, meaning “act” the term karma carried ethical<br>work. Its focus to work unselfishly for others without expecting anything from anyone.<br>Person’s actions create his/her future. Person’s future cannot already be written, that would<br>depend on karma.<br>Purpose<br>This paper intends to understand how karma influence at workplace and to understand what<br>do people think about karma at workplace and whether it is real or not.<br>Methodology<br>The research methodology used was primary in nature and descriptive research design has<br>been made use of with the review of the literature. The research was conducted among 457<br>faculties of higher education institutions from south Gujarat region through structured<br>questionnaires.<br>Results<br>The conclusion of this research is that people are believing karma and many people are<br>believing that karma can influence at workplace. This paper presents the framework of karma<br>which helps in enhancing the organizational success.</p> Hiteshkumar S. Patel, Vinod Patel Copyright (c) 2021 Hiteshkumar S. Patel, Vinod Patel https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2307 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Crowdsourcing a technique to Sustain in Educational Industry https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1655 <p>Education, which plays an important and corrective role in balancing the country's socioeconomic framework, is at the heart of Human Resource Development [1]. Education is the<br>foundation of our wisdom, character, ethics and radical development in our personal<br>development and in promoting our complete society. It is a vital source of information and aids<br>in the improvement of learning quality. Today, the pandemic period has changed the delivery<br>methods of teaching and learning. Sustainability of educational industry is a question mark<br>starting from small tutoring institutes to larger universities in India. This paper attempts to<br>review Crowdsourcing (CS) as a remedy for these institutes to sustain in this pandemic period<br>and as well to adopting digital platforms to facilitate teaching and learning cost-effectively and<br>efficiently [2] [3]. Like Indian Government, all institutes aim to make education accessible to<br>everyone. However, we are still in the early phases of framing policies which involves a<br>balance of academics and extracurricular activities. The initial steps toward adopting<br>crowdsourcing as a formal learning and teaching method have been taken by many private<br>institutes in India [4]. It is necessary to build a solid framework that incorporates ethical and<br>legal factors. It has the potential to be a very useful and dependable educational paradigm if it<br>is correctly conceived and implemented. It has the potential to have a significant impact on<br>educational technology applications [5]. Over the next few years, it may become a new<br>paradigm in educational technology development. Practitioners and researchers must continue<br>to investigate the innovative use of crowdsourcing in education. The possibilities of<br>crowdsourcing in both government and private institutes have to be examined. A proper<br>taxonomy helps to identify the contribution of crowdsourcing to education and to improve<br>educational performance [6]. Researchers can also utilize taxonomy to characterize and<br>categorize current and prospective initiatives. Despite the urgency of it, empirical<br>investigations and theoretical knowledge structures are lacking. The crowdsourcing concept<br>can have a major effect on educational technology applications as it brings a novel method to<br>the creation of educational systems through outsourcing to a great number of external system<br>developers or persons. CS benefits education in four ways: educational content development,<br>practical experiences, complementary knowledge exchange and feedback enhancement. This<br>paper systematically reviews the available sustainability ways for educational institutes<br>through CS, IT platforms and learner motivators. Conventional Institutions, Open Online<br>Institutions and Individual Educators shall be able to identify their methodology to deliver the<br>content to the learners. In order to take use of the opportunities presented by CS, educational<br>institutions currently lack the information, skills, and understanding necessary to develop a<br>crowdsourcing-enhanced learning and teaching strategy that is effective. Taxonomy assists<br>them in determining which aspects of crowdsourcing can be beneficial to education. While this<br>is happening, it also assists researchers in distinguishing between existing and future CS endeavours, as well as providing substantial input for the development of CS-related theories.<br>The final section of the paper analyses crowdsourcing using the following structure: what is<br>crowdsourced; who are the players; why do they contribute; and how is it crowdsourced, before<br>concluding with an educational framework based on crowdsourcing. Future research will<br>benefit from the establishment of coherence in this previously poorly described domain, and<br>individual endeavours will be placed within a higher-principle framework as a result.</p> Dunstan Rajkumar, Dr. K. Kishore Copyright (c) 2021 Dunstan Rajkumar, Dr. K. Kishore https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1655 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 COVID-19 Impact on Domestic Workers in Pune City with special reference to Peth Areas https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1391 <p>Year 2019 saw the first and foremost human tragedy that has played out across the globe<br>The COVID-19 pandemic. People are experiencing unprecedented levels of disruption in<br>their homes and communities, as well as in their jobs. Domestic workers are the ones who<br>perform work in or for a private household or households. They basically provide direct and<br>indirect care services, and as such often termed as the key members of the care economy.<br>Their work include tasks such as cleaning the house, cooking, washing and ironing clothes,<br>taking care of children, or elderly or sick members of a family, gardening, guarding the<br>house, driving for the family, and even taking care of household pets. A domestic worker<br>may work on full-time or part-time basis; may be employed by a single household or<br>through or by a service provider; may be residing in the household of the employer (live-in<br>worker) or may be living in his or her own residence (live-out). A domestic worker may be<br>working in a country of which she/he is not a national, thus referred to as a migrant<br>domestic worker.<br>Every sector of the Society saw huge impact of COVID-19 pandemic professionally and in<br>person on the livelihood, security and health of formal as well as informal sector workers,<br>domestic workers, majority of whom are women were also not left untouched by this<br>pandemic. Being least or weakly organized and majority of them lacking any sort of<br>institutional support, domestic workers are extremely vulnerable to exploitation and<br>violations of human rights. We can say although the domestic workers provide essential<br>services, domestic workers rarely have access to rights and protection. Survey conducted<br>by ILO shows that they earn 56 per cent of average monthly wages of other employees,<br>and are more likely than other workers to work either very long or very short hours They are<br>also vulnerable to violence and harassment, and restrictions on freedom of movement.<br>Informal domestic workers are particularly vulnerable.<br>The researcher interviewed around 50 domestic workers from Pune city Peth areas, on<br>issues concerning with working conditions, livelihood and household dynamics, health and<br>Government support during the pandemic. Analysis of the data showed results like,<br>widespread job loss amongst domestic workers during March–June 2020 along with<br>drastically reduced income and increased workload. About 60% domestic workers reported<br>discrimination at workplace, and 40% worked without any safety measures or medical aid<br>or financial aid. Many reported domestic violence at home, increased work burden at home,<br>issues related to health etc. The study findings point out the urgent need to have some<br>institutional and state support specifically for the women domestic workers, to help them<br>rise from poverty, health hazards else social exclusion will remain as it is.</p> Bharati Ranjit Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Bharati Ranjit Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1391 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mother tongue as a medium of instruction in Gujarat: Measuring the impact on personality development in children through core self-evaluation approach https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2702 <p>Quality education is one of the key sustainable development goals. The New education policy<br />in India emphasizes on mother tongue instruction upto class 5 to foster a faster learning<br />process, improved learning outcomes, enhanced classroom participation and decrease in<br />school dropout rate. These intended benefits, supported by available literature, not only helps<br />in building the personality of the child but also enhances the quality of education. This study<br />is an attempt to understand the impact of mother tongue based instruction till class 5 on the<br />personality development of the child. Children who underwent mother tongue based<br />instruction till class 5 and are now studying in 6th, 7th and 8th classes through mother tongue<br />based instruction are being considered for the study. Around 500 students from these classes<br />belonging to 10 different schools whose mother tongue is Gujarati and are having Gujarati as<br />a medium of instruction in Gandhinagar district, Gujarat are being considered for the study.<br />To test the personality development in children, core self-evaluation measure proposed by<br />Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., &amp; Thoresen, C. J. (2003) is being employed for the study.</p> PARULKUMARI BHATI, Rahul Gandhi Burra Copyright (c) 2021 PARULKUMARI BHATI, Rahul Gandhi Burra https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2702 Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainable Green Connected Systems through integrated Organic Waste Management Eco-model for the Green Clean Campus https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1424 <p>The establishment and maintenance of sustainable green connected systems became a critical concern for the education organisations in the last three decades and are considered as the engine room for fostering the Green- Clean Campus in tropical regions. The tropical regions tend to produce a huge amount of biomass with multiple organic cycles due to regular sunlight with high temperature, humidity and prolonged monsoon. So, biomass management with organic cycles is a crucial factor in tropical sustainable campuses. Organic waste management is concerned with the implementation of strategies for reducing waste production, processing at the origins, and green connected sustainable organic waste processing systems. The model discussed in this study has proven benefits of cost optimization, reduced fuel conception, enhancing biodiversity with a sustainable ecosystem, and foster sustainable practices in the educational campus. This model connects agri- farming, pisciculture with aquaponics, piggery farming, and livestock farming as green connected systems for waste management with a centralized anaerobic wastewater recycling system. The products of these multiple farming serve as the sources of fresh organic inputs for the campus refectory with economic and health benefits. The technological and analytical support systems ease these processes. This model established at Vimal Jyothi Campus has been instrumental in reducing biomass waste production, organic waste management with energy-saving, inculcating sustainability practices in campus and establishment of Green Clean Campus.&nbsp; The model can be integrated with intelligent monitoring systems and automation.</p> Genimon Vadakkemulanjanal Joseph, Anit, Agnes Copyright (c) 2021 Genimon Vadakkemulanjanal Joseph, Anit, Agnes https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1424 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The mediating role of institutional support in the relationship between work place spirituality and pro-environmental behaviour https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2116 <p>In 2019, 32.28 percent of the workforces in India were employed in service sector, only second to agriculture sector which employees 42.6%. It is widely agreed that promoting changes in individual behaviour, such as encouraging employees towards green production plays a pivotal role in achieving sustainable development. However, employees need to be supported and provide enough space by the organization for sustainable future. Assuming the speed of degradation towards world environment, Industries and citizens of the globe are discovering through innovative ideas and intentions to protect the environment. According the current situation, change in the attitude and behaviour of hotel industry employees in the direction of sustainability are the strategy to the effective implementation of sustainable goals.</p> <p>The objective of this study is to assess the impact of workplace spirituality and institutional support on pro–environmental behaviour (PEB) among the hotel employees, This study shows how behavioural practices followed by hotels in developing sustainable future. The authors examined the effect of, institutional support and workplace spirituality on hotel employees’ PEB in India. This study employee causal research design with quantitative research approach. The quantitative research method was adopted for the study.&nbsp;The survey was conducted between June 2021 and Aug 2019 in metro cities like Chennai, Bangalore, Kolkata, Delhi, Cochin, Hyderabad, of India.</p> <p>Convenience sampling method was used to select three, four and five star hotels that are graded by The Hotel &amp; Restaurant Approval &amp; Classification Committee (HRACC) in India. Upscale hotels are more likely to be involved in environmental practices compared to other small accommodation types. Cross-sectional data was collected using survey method through questionnaire. Measures were identified and valid scales was adopted for the variables through literature review after pilot study a fine tuned questionnaire was prepared for date collection. Online survey method was used for data collection. The link to the online questionnaire was embedded in the email sent to the human resource manager of the hotels. The email explained the purpose and importance of the study and requested to forward the online questionnaire to their employees in the various departments of the hotels in their organization excluding managers or executives. Reminders were sent to the respondents every week through emails and phone calls to complete the questionnaire.</p> <p>Data analysis includes descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation. In addition, to check the nature of relationship between variables, a series of regression analysis was used to test hypothesis. To test likely mediating effect of institutional support on the relationship between workplace spirituality and pro-environmental behaviour, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was employed. Standardized beta were used for all of regression analysis. The value of p less than .05 was conceded for statistical significance,</p> <p>The practical implication of the study shed light on how providing support and peaceful environment by the organization will encourage employees in hospitality industry towards pro–environmental behavior. This study also contributes to the best practices followed by hotels in India which can be adopted in other service industries.</p> <p>This study provides an analysis of the direct effect of workplace spirituality on pro-environmental behaviour of hotel employees and mediating effect of institutional support in this relationship.</p> Ramakrishnan O, Dr. Danie Kingsley J Copyright (c) 2021 Ramakrishnan O, Dr. Danie Kingsley J https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2116 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prognosticating the retail evolution in emerging markets with special focus on India - A descriptive study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/142 <p>With the dot-com boom, we started hearing words like disruptive marketing, Omni-channel etc. very often and business houses are discussing these topics very seriously. What could be the reason for this? It is simple. With the increasing rate of digital literacy, consumers and sellers are migrating to the digital world, there everything is transparent and enough information is available for the consumer to take smart and empowered purchase decisions, and it makes the customer more opportunistic. Similarly, digital market places make new entries easy and simple, and sellers are under pressure due to increase in competition.</p> <p>In this study researchers studied different research works happened in the area of online retailing across the world in different economic and market situations and identified how customer preference towards online retailing changes in different economic stages by product category. Also identified barriers to online purchase in different stages of online retail evolution. The objectives of this study are (1) Assess the capability of ecommerce to grow or sustain (2) Draw an ecommerce evolution road map (3) Recommend action areas for small retailers to make the digital commerce an opportunity (4) Recommend the right ecosystem for ecommerce.&nbsp;</p> <p>Researchers concluded that all the markets will evolve to a stage where there is seamless flow between Online and offline channels and Omni-channel capability is the basic requirement for the traditional shops to maintain competency and sustain in the new retail world. However, researchers suggest that the Omni-channel ecosystem should not be in the hands of private entities, it should be with the government to ensure that retailers as well as the consumers are not exploited and monopoly is not established. Additionally, in this study researches call out focus areas for the traditional shops to leverage the digital revolution.</p> <p>The Retail evolution model proposed by the researchers is given below:</p> <p><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/pradeepalex/mceclip2.png"></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Some of the key takeaways from this research are narrated below:</p> <p>Growth of ecommerce is an unavoidable reality. Currently, e-commerce is not able to penetrate into many segments because this channel does not have solutions for many service problems. Once ecommerce develops ecosystem that provides right solutions to bridge these gaps, it will challenge the existence of traditional retail shops and create monopoly. This revolution may take short to long period depending on the economic stage of the country. The only way traditional retailers can survive is by developing online channel capabilities. Government should be cognizant of the fact that small retailers play a major role in the economic system especially in terms of ensuring equality in income distribution. Developing an Omni-channel ecosystem for the scattered traditional retailers to come together, collaborate and provide complete solution to the consumer will be the key factor for the survival of this Mom and Pop shops retail community, but this Omni –channel ecosystem should be managed by government to avoid monopoly.</p> Pradeep Alex Copyright (c) 2021 Pradeep Alex https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/142 Thu, 02 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Prefabricated Houses - A Model to Sustainable Housing Market https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1500 <p>Effective spatial planning in an urban centre is the need of the hour especially for offering affordable and sustainable houses.&nbsp; Spatial planning may help in achieving Sustainable development Goal (SDG)(09) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure,(11) Sustainable cities and communities and (15) Life on Land. Prefabricated houses can be an innovative and a prompt strategy in spatial planning of the city. Prefabricated house is also known as a prefab house, which is manufactured in advance in offsite, then it is delivered and assembled on site [1]. Prefabricated houses can be a solution for some of the problems of urban cities. Compared to conventional construction, prefabricated houses encourage effective use of land in terms of less pressure on land resources, cost effective, resource efficiency, environmental friendly and affordability. The prefab house also supports environmental sustainability and economic affordability. In terms of environmental sustainability, it offers energy efficiency with the help of high thermal performance, waste and resource minimization, water efficient fixtures, innovative sustainable design strategies and consumes less floor area. It also offers economic affordability since the approach is cost effective materials, cost effective design, initial purchase cost and operational cost in a descending order of preference [2]. Conventional construction of house not only has significant impact on the environment but also hindering life’s quality of residents in terms of dust, mud, noise, traffic delay, space invasion and waste disposition in public space. Whereas prefab technology offers reduced environmental impact on construction site, easy to disassemble, promote reuse and recycling [3]. The major driving factors for prefabricated housing constructions are sustainability, affordability, durability and build time. The global market for prefabricated housing is expected to grow at a CAGR of 6% between 2021 to 2026 whereas in India it is expected to grow at 8.5%. The reason behind this growth is the increase of expensive residential property markets around the globe and increase awareness and benefits of prefabricated houses. Compared to Asia, Europe and North America are the largest market for prefabricated house. Though in countries such as Brazil and India, the popularity and demand of prefabricated houses has been increasing because of affordability and sustainability [4], it is essential to understand the consumer preference and acceptance towards these models of houses especially in the Indian market where conventional way of constructing house is common. It is important to study the prefabricated housing market for a country like India, considering its growing population and necessity of access to affordable and sustainable houses. The main objective of this study is to identify the determinant factors of prefabricated house and its impact on preference among urban consumers, a key stakeholder of the housing market towards prefabricated houses. The study is quantitative in nature and adopts a survey method. A structured questionnaire is developed based on the objectives of the study. The questionnaire majorly focused on perception of Sustainability, Affordability, Durability, Barriers, Opportunities, and Quality. The newness in this study is to explore the options and the acceptance of prefabricated houses in developing urban markets. Prefabricated house market may enhance sustainable practices in achieving societal and environmental goals.</p> Nagarjuna G, Arjun B S, Shabarisha N, Gowri Shankar R Copyright (c) 2021 Nagarjuna G, Arjun B S, Shabarisha N, Gowri Shankar R https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1500 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainably reviving the beautiful craftmanship that goes into every single thread. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/898 <p>The UN17 Sustainable development goals represent the aspiration for a more sustainable future.&nbsp; But there are real challenges as we enter an era of climate breakdown, biodiversity loss, escalated social division and so on. The goals define the challenges we need to address in order to achieve a better and a more sustainable future for all. It is the duty of an architect to carry forward the idea not just in an aspirational level or as future potential but including them in the present real world. There must be radical measures and we&nbsp; must focus on how we think, design and build our societies.</p> <p>The intention of the research is inclusion of the sustainable goals and application of them in the project that is to be proposed which is the handloom hub . Handloom weaving holds a very rich history in India and it also plays an important role in the economy of India. It is much more connected to the people of the country. So designing spaces for such rich heritage must date back to the traditional way of designing them but as well &nbsp;using modern methodologies.&nbsp; The project is a handloom hub &nbsp;in the city of erode which would be a combination of production, training , research and marketing units . The significance of the research work focuses &nbsp;mainly bringing in sustainability aspect through the approach of vernacular architecture and the implementation of the built with immediately available materials, workmanship and resources, which results in the buildings that &nbsp;provides dignity of a workspace. This project would say that virtue is gained not because of impressive array of natural materials, nor because it was handmade. The value would &nbsp;gained because of how the materials are used in keeping with their intrinsic character and the purpose.</p> <p>Handloom as an industry faces decline in the rate of production in national level. There are lot of challenges which include problems ininfrastructure, marketing, administration, procurement of input material, lack of knowledge towards the consumer preference and taste, No technology advancement, competition from powerlooms and mills as a major marketing related problem, accumulation of huge stock and marketing of handloom products ,Lack of Technical training And Lack of design support.</p> <p>The major challenges that are to be resolved is the infrastructure, marketing , administration, technology and design support. These problems are to be resolved in a very intirinsic way. When we take infrastructure it is providing a proper work space that would environmentally and climatically help the weavers in producing goods, in marketing the product itself is a sustainable one ,thus it would have retail outlets that involves the human aspect which would be a business setup and sustainable management, technology involves the improvement of the project in a wholesome way using sustainable technological solutions. To compete the powerlooms the solution is to provide innovative design advancements and the various collaboration of designers around the globe.</p> <p>The hypothesis is to try to implement the vernacular architecture of erode into the the design strategy, ensuring the health and well being of the people, keeping in mind about the environmental effects, &nbsp;providing industry innovation and infrastructure, having in mind the climatic changes and its various aspects and bringing in &nbsp;optimum energy efficient solution to the built and unbuilt spaces .</p> <p>The research majorly unique in a way as of how high level of efficiency a design could produce in a rural setup that connects and intertwines the society and its regards &nbsp;with the sustainable goals and the environmental aspects . Sustainable goals not just focus only about environment it has become a broader spectrum where there is inclusion of various human related factors as well. This the has to manage and deal with the business, administration and institutional setup. The degree of human participation in various aspects becomes one of the important focus of the project. It also accounts to the advancement in economy and technology and providing proper solutions for social problems. These advancement uplift the significance the project on a very sustainable way. The final output would be a design that is&nbsp; both environmentally and humanely effective. The design would&nbsp; much affect the society in the grounds of a very traditional craft that is native to the people culturally and geographically in a sustainable way. There is involvement of society in such a system , the intervention improves the quality and &nbsp;lifestyle of the weaver community and it also helps others to enjoy the traditional craft in&nbsp; the way it is presented to them . The whole research is bound to the geography , cultural value and human value. Thus finding solutions through the sustainable development goals in a way that would result in a very unique dimension to any project approach that has been done.</p> Maya NR Copyright (c) 2021 Maya NR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/898 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A study of Work Life Balance and its Challenges for Medical Professionals in the Health Care Sector with special reference to Pune and Mumbai. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2322 <p>: In today’s fast paced and unpredictable world it’s not an easy task to achieve work life<br>balance. Every successful employee has to pass through the dilemma of work life balance<br>between the personal and professional life. Overall performance of employees going through<br>any such problem either at the work place or in the family will be definitely affected, so it is<br>important to study the various factors which disturb his/her work life balance. Due to change in<br>the management and advancement of technology it is becoming challenging to retain employees.<br>Utmost care is being taken by each hospital towards hygiene and safety of the employee. Even<br>then, initiative taken for work life balance is the most important aspect in employee engagement<br>in Health Sector. There are various challenges for medical professionals like global competition,<br>personal lives/family values and aging workforce, changing technology, handling shift duty and<br>family at a time. Attrition rate and employee engagement are the present challenges that<br>exacerbate work life balance of medical professional. Therefore there is a need to study in detail<br>the work life balance of the medical professionals which includes Doctors, Nurses, Ward Boy,<br>Medical Representatives, Lab Technicians, Cleaning staff, Helpers etc. This study is focusing on<br>factors influencing work life balance of medical professionals and the challenges to maintain the<br>work life balance to improve work performance. This study is based on primary and secondary<br>data. To analyze the data the Descriptive statistics has been used. Responses have been<br>collected from staff and doctors of different hospitals from Pune and Mumbai metro cities.</p> Sandhya Sunil Shelar, Anita Khatke Copyright (c) 2021 Sandhya Sunil Shelar, Anita Khatke https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2322 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Empirical Study on Competencies Required for a Sustainable Educational Research https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2023 <p>Research Competencies are the blends of skills, knowledge, and capability of a data analyst to identify, gather, analyze, test, retest, and interpret it in a structured form. Empirical studies are required to reveal the list of competencies a researcher should possess to build their efficiency in sustainable educational research. This paper addresses the above-stated gap by considering three variables: personal effectiveness competencies and academic competencies as exogeneous variables, and research competencies as an endogenous variable. The type of research design used in this study is descriptive research, with a sample of 160, where respondents are professors and research scholars in the Universities around Vellore district, Tamil Nadu. We have conducted reliability, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling with the help of SPSS 25v and AMOS. The reliability and validity values were established through SPSS 25v and structural equation modelling was conducted in AMOS. The hypothesized model has a good fit has found.&nbsp;This study has found a significant impact of personal effectiveness competencies and academic competencies on research competencies.&nbsp;The curriculum is an essential element in boosting personal effectiveness and research competencies. This study can be extended to other geographical areas and also it could include other competencies like workplace competencies, technical competencies, industrial competencies, and efficiency for further studies.</p> Shakti Priya A Copyright (c) 2021 Shakti Priya A https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2023 Sat, 09 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Study of factors influencing work life balance among women during pandemic period https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2305 <p>Work life balance has been evident for many years but, pandemic has made it evident with the<br>impacts it created for economies, sectors, businesses, people and practices. This profound nature of<br>work life balance exists due to global competition, renewed interest in personal lives or value<br>systems and family expectations from woman in societies where there where a huge disparity in the<br>responsibilities rendered by woman both in personal and professional life. In such conditions woman<br>at workplace have faced many challenges balancing stakeholders both at work and home and at large<br>society too. This research paper is an attempt to identify the influencing factors affecting work life<br>balance for woman professional across varied demographical aspects and roles played in their jobs.<br>Methods<br>A pre-validated questionnaire survey was done on woman across India and abroad. The data is<br>analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics to validate the most influencing factors for work<br>life balance.<br>Model used<br>The researchers have applied the EFA (exploratory factor analysis) method subjected to variables<br>like demographics, personal satisfaction, professional satisfaction, organisational support, HR<br>policies at workplace, Attitude towards Work life balance and Work Life Balance practices by<br>individual and Work Life Balance practices by company. A sample survey data of (n=150) was<br>collected and validated for the results.<br>Conclusions<br>The present study proved that company’s preparedness to tackle with pandemic situations and its<br>impact on WLB practices is significant today and for the future of woman employee retention,<br>productivity and support.</p> Aditi V. Aljapurkar, Yamini Ghanghorkar, Satyajit D Ingawale Copyright (c) 2021 Aditi V. Aljapurkar, Yamini Ghanghorkar, Satyajit D Ingawale https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2305 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 IMPEDIMENTS FOR WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN THE NEW NORMAL: EXPLORING THE FACTORS FACING BY WORKING INDIVIDUALS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2337 <p>All over the world, because of the pandemic the scenario for working individuals totally changed from the reality before. The complete lockdown compelled the organizations to follow the concept of work from home. The study will examine the comparative factors before pandemic and new normal which impact the domains of personal and professional end; the impediments on the way to balance work and life roles for a working individual and identifying the factors that need to be adopted with the new normal scenario. This study will be analytical and descriptive in nature by collecting data on a primary and secondary basis. Primary data will be collected from working individuals by following the telephonic interview, whereas secondary data will be collected from various publications related to the current situation.</p> Neha Guleria, Richa Khushgal Copyright (c) 2021 Neha Guleria, Richa Khushgal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2337 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Does Seasonality and Volatility affect the price discovery of Agricultural Commodities: A review paper on Indian commodity market https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/523 <p>The goal of this study is to figure out how seasonality and volatility affect agricultural commodity price discovery. Based on the title, a few empirical papers were chosen, and the researchers analysed the data using econometrics tools and techniques, specifically generalised autoregression conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) and EGARCH to figure out how seasonality and volatility affect price discovery agricultural commodities. Price volatility and seasonality in risk-return conjugated effects on agricultural commodities from spot and futures markets are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, this study discovered that previous research papers only considered the near month contract of futures and options because they believed it contained more information about the spot and futures markets, but they failed to explain the other external forces that affect price discovery in the commodity market at times. There are few studies that have looked into the efficiency of the agricultural commodity spot and futures markets in India, specifically at the individual agriculture commodity level, employing both price discovery and volatility spillover. In a nutshell, this study claims that excessive price volatility and seasonality have an impact on agri- commodity price discovery.</p> Supriya yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Supriya yadav https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/523 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Creating Responsible Managers: A Means to Achieving SDGs https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1340 <p>The United Nations lists six principles for Responsible Management Education. They are Purpose, Values, Method, Research, Partnerships and Dialogue.&nbsp;These principles are adopted as well as endorsed by UN member states and seen as a framework in enhancing the skills and mind-sets of future leaders. As Sparks &amp; Hirsh (2000) rightly mentioned <em>“We cannot expect teachers to teach what they do not know, nor to use yesterday’s training to prepare today’s students for tomorrow’s future.” </em>In today’s world, there is a discrepancy between what management education provides from what students and employers demand. Understanding and adhering to the needs of society, manager’s education plays an immaculate role in identifying the sustainable goals for business and society at the same time.</p> <p>In September 2015, world leaders during the historic UN Summit adopted the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs) paving the way to their vision of the world in 2030.The idea is to adopt and implement these goals across all the countries to make this world a more sustainable and better place. Achievement of such a humongous task requires efforts from all fronts. Quality education is not only one of the SDGs but also a means to achieve many other SDGs. Education in general and management education in particular could be used as a propelling force to ensure capability-building without compromising the capacity of people in the future to address these burgeoning issues. As Sustainable Development Goals are being implied for a sustainable future, only a worthy manager can show responsiveness towards the same. Quality management education not only builds a manager in profession, but also a social engineer who innovates new ideas to pay back to the society.</p> <p>Through this paper we would try to understand the ways and means through which managers can implement the SDGs both for the organization like poverty elimination, quality education, gender equality, decent work and economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure and responsible consumption and production.The paper would mainly be descriptive in nature based on secondary data from various sources like books, magazines, journals, blogs, websites, etc.&nbsp;&nbsp;The paper intends to incorporate the opinions of management graduates, academicians and industry experts to assess their perspective in the role of business education in the achievement of a more sustainable world. The qualitative approach of the paper ought to explore the underlying assumptions with the expectation that a wide coverage of articles and literature would enable us to cover all possible aspects of the issue.</p> <p>In order to retain the relevance of management education, there is a need for fundamental transformation of business schools for creating leaders with more responsibility as well as sustainability mind-set, and be a provider of solutions to crises. Currently companies are paying a lot of attention to address social, economic and environmental issues. They have come to realise that the sustainability of organisations and society lies not only in making profits but also in contributing towards all those causes that may make the world a more sustainable place. Corporate houses may pave the way towards achieving all these if their acquisition process incorporates creating the talent pool that has mental and moral inclination towards the sustainability issues and it is only possible if these ideas are part of the fundamental management education system.</p> Rajshree Sharma, Deepti Sinha, Merin varghese Copyright (c) 2021 Rajshree Sharma, Deepti Sinha, Merin varghese https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1340 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Impact of GST on Real Estate Industry in Pune City https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1389 <p>t Real estate industry is quite possibly the main mainstays of the Indian economy. Real<br>estate contributes between 6-8% to India's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and it stands second<br>get-togethers industry as far as business age. Under old VAT system, numerous charges were<br>pertinent in land area like Service expense and VAT. Under GST system circuitous tax collection<br>in this area is completely patched up. The feature of the GST system for Real estate sector is the<br>accessibility of Input Tax Credits (ITC) paid on inputs, capital products and input services. Under<br>the past system, developers would be responsible to pay a huge number of duties like VAT,<br>Central Excise, Entry Tax, LBT, Octroi, Service Tax, and so forth, the credits of which were not<br>completely accessible against the output tax liability. Notwithstanding, the GST system<br>accommodates ITC qualification on development and different services procured, consequently<br>killing the shortcoming introduced by the cascading impact of taxes. This paper endeavors to<br>reveal insight into the effect of GST on the land area and featuring the central points of interest.</p> Shilpa R Kulkarni, Sudhindra Apsingekar Copyright (c) 2021 Shilpa R Kulkarni, Sudhindra Apsingekar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1389 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 THE ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN UAE:` NARROWING THE GAP BETWEEN EMPLOYERS' EXPECTATIONS AND STUDENTS' PERCEPTIONS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2853 <p>This review targets portraying the view of bookkeeping understudies and assumptions for managers concerning the abilities and information required by accounting graduates and the job of advanced education in a similar cycle. For this, an audit was driven on Twenty-seven associations who use college graduates working in the assembling and monetary areas, tended to by a Managing Director (MD) or Human Resources Director (HRD) and 534 college understudies. They finished a poll that assessed the apparent significance of, and fulfillment with, conventional employability abilities. While the businesses saw an absence of suitable abilities as the greatest hindrance to utilizing graduates, understudies believed just three abilities to be a higher priority than employers: insight in the field, initiative and authority, and field information. Contrasted with understudies, managers respected commitment and readiness to take on additional work as key necessities. As far as fulfillment, understudies were more fulfilled than bosses in nineteen abilities from a sum of 32. This study discovers the role of higher education in thinning the gap between employers' expectations and accounting graduates' soft and technical skills. Alternatively, it also suggests the significance of skills development in the university curriculum to be reinforced to develop skillful human resources in accounting so as to meet the employer expectations.</p> Mayakannan Selvaraju, Dr. Eugin Prakash Pathrose Copyright (c) 2021 Mayakannan Selvaraju, Dr. Eugin Prakash Pathrose https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2853 Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A study on Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD) and its Related Psychological Factors during the COVID-19 Lockdown https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/896 <p>Restricted mobility has forced people into the confines of their homes; perceived depression, anxiety and stress increases. This has not only increased the dependency on the internet, but also to look at the mental health which often becomes a catalyst for human beings to develop addictive behaviour. This study is undertaken to measure the levels of internet addiction and the levels of depression, anxiety and stress and also to analyse the association between internet addiction and the levels of depression, anxiety and stress. We have taken a sample of 293 respondents from the state of Assam, India using convenience sampling. The responses are gathered with the help of a questionnaire using DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale) to look into the perceived mental health of the participants. Whereas, IAT (Internet Addiction Test) is used to study the prevalence of internet addiction and two scales: BSMAS (Bergen Social Media Scale), IGDS9-SF (Internet Gaming Disorder Scale) are subsequently used to look into the different forms of internet addiction.</p> <p>Results from the participants indicate the prevalence of mild depression, moderate and severe depression. Prevalence of moderate anxiety level is found to be the highest, followed by mild anxiety and severe anxiety, while extremely severe anxiety level is also found. The respondents have mild stress; following in higher frequency is moderate stress. Severe dependence on the internet is also found to be prevalent; while moderate internet addiction and mild internet addiction are also found. Overall problematic social media usage is also found prevalent; while the prevalence of online gaming addiction is also found.</p> <p>The results of correlation are shown in table 1. It has been indicated that the respondents have mental health issues (depression, anxiety and stress) which have directly impacted the level of internet addiction. The results of the correlation analysis in table 7 show that internet addiction is strongly impacted by the level of depression (r=.450, p&lt;0.000), anxiety (r=.515, p&lt;0.000) and stress (r=504, p&lt;.000). Looking into the different forms of internet addiction, social media usage is also strongly impacted by the level of stress (r=.404, p&lt;0.000). It can be found that weak association is found between the levels of social media addiction and weak and depression (r=-.298, p&lt; 0.000) and moderate association with anxiety (r=.337, p&lt;0.000). Negative association is also found in the levels of online gaming addiction and depression (r=-.182, p&lt;0.002), while weak association was found with anxiety (r=.249, p&lt;0.000) and stress level (r=.277, p&lt;0.000).</p> <p>This study helps the researcher to take a closer look on internet addiction in relationship with underlying mental health issues that an individual maybe experiencing such as depression, anxiety and stress. It helps the researchers to understand better the underlying problems in accelerating addictive online behaviour and also to understand better in situations such as decrease in contact with friends and family, decrease in creativity, inability to identify the state the respondents are in, feeling of numbness, or indifference to most day-to-day situations, getting hyperactive, overreacting to situations etc. Depression and anxiety have a significant economic impact; the estimated cost to the global economy is US1 trillion a year in lost productivity (WHO, 2013). Human beings are the most important asset to any organisation, awareness is important to identify the signs and symptoms of pathological behaviour. It can not only impact the individual, but their colleagues as well as the organisation itself. Clearly, awareness is required on this issue, which can be then resonated throughout the organisation. Furthermore, policy-makers need to understand the kind of behaviours that are reasonable enough and those that are not acceptable and requiring immediate intervention to avoid any losses.</p> <p>Table 1.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td colspan="5" width="518"> <p><strong>Correlation between IAT, BSMAS, IGDS9-SF, and DASS21:</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="137"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="66"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="111"> <p><strong>Depression level</strong></p> </td> <td width="103"> <p><strong>Anxiety level</strong></p> </td> <td width="101"> <p><strong>Stress level</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2" width="137"> <p>Internet Addiction Test</p> </td> <td width="66"> <p>r</p> </td> <td width="111"> <p>.450</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>.515</p> </td> <td width="101"> <p>.504</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p>P value</p> </td> <td width="111"> <p>.000</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>.000</p> </td> <td width="101"> <p>.000</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2" width="137"> <p>Bergen Social Media Scale</p> </td> <td width="66"> <p>r</p> </td> <td width="111"> <p>.298</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>.337</p> </td> <td width="101"> <p>.404</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p>P value</p> </td> <td width="111"> <p>.000</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>.000</p> </td> <td width="101"> <p>.000</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="2" width="137"> <p>Internet Gaming Disorder Scale</p> </td> <td width="66"> <p>r</p> </td> <td width="111"> <p>.182</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>.249</p> </td> <td width="101"> <p>.277</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p>P value</p> </td> <td width="111"> <p>.002</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>.000</p> </td> <td width="101"> <p>.000</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="5" width="518"> <p>r= correlation coefficient, p value is significant at .05</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kaushik Handique, JUSTINA TERONPI Copyright (c) 2021 Kaushik Handique, JUSTINA TERONPI https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/896 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS HAIR CARE PRODUCT (SHAMPOO) IN NAGPUR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2320 <p>The basic purpose of this study is to study the consumer behaviour at the time of purchase of<br>hair shampoo in the Nagpur city of Maharashtra. This study was conducted in Nagpur city,<br>Maharashtra. In this study, researchers are studying the factors that influence the behaviour of<br>consumers towards shampoo, to find the range of shampoo brand awareness surrounded by<br>the consumers, and also to study the regularity of consumers towards a particular brand.<br>Convenience random sampling technique has been adapted and Primary Data from 50<br>respondents has been collected from the hair care product users of Nagpur city. Initially,<br>researchers developed a set of questionnaires relating to the consumers' behaviours towards<br>various brands of shampoo. The researchers focused on demographic features like age,<br>gender, income, occupation are used and various statements to find the awareness and<br>attitudes are analysed. Basically, this is a descriptive study which has been designed with<br>descriptive and analytical in nature to examine the various factors that influence consumer<br>behaviour at the time of purchase towards shampoo. Hypotheses were tested through<br>association between the variables. All the variables studied were significantly related to<br>demographic factors and consistency and were significantly related to consumer behaviour at<br>the time of purchase towards shampoo. In this study, researchers has used tool like chi-square<br>for determining the factors affecting the consumer behaviour at the time of purchase towards<br>shampoo in Nagpur city, The chi-square shows that there is a significance association<br>between age and consistency for hair care products, significance association between price<br>and consistency of hair care products also there is a significance association between types of<br>ingredients and consistency about hair care products. The findings of the paper focus on<br>consumer behaviour. It has been seen that the factors like age, price, and types of ingredients<br>do not influence the consumer behaviour at the time of purchase towards shampoo in Nagpur.</p> Bhakti Shete, Prashant Phule Copyright (c) 2021 Bhakti Shete, Prashant Phule https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2320 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Personality Antecedents and Consequences of Workplace Bullying among employees in Banking Sector in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1061 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Workplace bullying has become a great social concern both for the employees and the organisation, it not only impacts the well being of an employees but also has serious implications on the performance of an organisation. Bullying is usually defined as a subset of aggressive behaviour, in which the aggression is repeated, and in which there is an imbalance of power such that it is difficult for the victim to defend him/herself [1] .While work environment features are well-established antecedents of workplace bullying, much of the research on personality traits as antecedents of bullying remains inconclusive [2 -3].There are three distinguishing features of workplace: bullying persistency, power disparities and intent to harm [3 - 4] First, persistency of the inappropriate behaviours in terms of repetition (at least once or twice a week), duration (at least for six months) and patterning (of a variety of behaviours involved) is one of the most salient features of bullying .Researchers in the area of workplace bullying have often highlighted that the reasons for such bullying could lie in the victim themselves. However, there is not much clarity with regard to the personality traits/attributes of victims, which increases their vulnerability to such negative behaviours.</p> <p>The aim of this study is to examine the personality antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying among employees of banking sector in India. The research design for this paper is quantitative in nature where the data were collected via electronic questionnaire. The items in the research instrument were pooled from existing literature and distributed to employees working in various profiles at banking sector. Previous literature reveals that the Big Five personality characteristics have some predictive power to explain victimization from workplace bullying. Therefore, the factor analysis technique was adopted to examine the hypothesis formulated. First, the exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine the factors and then, the confirmatory factor analysis was used in the study to determine measurement model. Further, the path analysis was executed to determine the influence of personality traits on workplace bullying behavior which in return influence the employee performance in organization. The finding of the study revealed that the most important personality antecedent related positively with workplace bullying is neuroticism. The investigation also indicated that the victims of the workplace bullying showed the tendency to leave, reduce job performance and increased level of stress . This study will help the banking sector and related institutions in the identification of individual traits which will help them to predict the likely victims of bullying and initiate the anti-victimization efforts to effectively safeguards individuals in the workplace.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Workplace bullying, Big Five Traits, Personality, Antecedents</p> Jyoti gupta, Dr.Raghavendra K, Dr.Ishwar Kumar, Malini KK Copyright (c) 2021 Jyoti gupta, Dr.Raghavendra K, Dr.Ishwar Kumar, Malini KK https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1061 Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investor personality traits : Antecedent of financial risk tolerance and investment decision making. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2426 <p>The article captures the present state of research on personality trait influence on investor risk tolerance by providing a critical review of the existing body of literature. The utmost aim of the investment is to get the optimal return. Investors at times behave rationally and sometimes irrationally for the same type of investment. The underlying tendency in the return variation makes it mandatory to investigate what are the possible reasons for the fluctuation of returns and what are the possible factors thus leading to irrational investment. High-risk yields high return and an investor has to tolerate some amount of risk. How much risk an investor can tolerate makes it unavoidable to understand his psychological factors. There are variety of factors that act as an antecedent to the risk tolerance level of an individual e.g his personality factors, financial literacy, demographic factors and all other related variables associated with it. Personality trait is&nbsp; a&nbsp; primary important factor which is considered to align the direction of the risk tolerance level of an investor either in positive or negative direction. Thus the challenge of understanding of volatility of return expectation and sensitivity of investor towards risk tolerance is addressed by the critical review of existing body of knowledge. The importance of financial behaviour has enhanced because of the boom in the growth rate of financial market from the recent past years , accessibility to various financial products and disparity in individual investor profile. The financial attitude and behavior of an investor largely affect financial decision-making. The present study aims to describe the possible impact of personality traits on the risk tolerance of individual investors which ultimately impacts the investor's decision-making. The study also intents to correlate personality traits and investment decision-making. This study has adopted the descriptive research design. The thorough study of relevant literature has enabled us to lay down the logic for relating personality traits and financial risk tolerance. The methodology followed in this paper is mostly the reviews of empirical studies, theoretical research works and case studies. The description of dimensions of big five personality trait model and their relationship with risk tolerance level have provided a logical and coherent base for the implementation of the model. The model has revealed how big five personality traits have continuously influenced the risk-taking capability of an investor. Thus the article reviews the key theories and constructs, identifies inconsistencies in findings and provides explanations towards a common understanding.</p> shakira mukhtar Copyright (c) 2021 shakira mukhtar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2426 Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Artificial Intelligence in Indian Banking Sector https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/465 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The advanced development and progress in computer hardware, software and Internet related technology have made irrevocable changes in our society. Computers, Internet and the mobile devices have become valuable and influential part of our lives. IT is evolving very rapidly, which offers excellent opportunities for expanding the client base, introducing new products, and improving the existing ones, also it is increasing the efficiency in shorter period of time.[7] Among the various IT advancements of recent years, the evolution or enhancement of Artificial Intelligence is mind blowing. In other words, AI is the technology, that refers to, computer having various skills like humans, that may increase the efficiency of the firms.[6] Particularly, Artificial Intelligence is used for the tasks that are impossible or difficult for humans to perform. In this paper, we have focused on the discussion about the role of Artificial Intelligence in Indian banking sector. No doubt, Artificial Intelligence have made the banking powerful and now it is becoming the most essential agent for banking industry.[4] Artificial Intelligence refers to the technology, when computer programs are capable to implement the knowledge without interruption and involvement of any human. So, in this paper we will discuss about the various applications and implementations of Artificial Intelligence in Indian banking industry.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Now-a-days Artificial Intelligence is being adopted by many people all around the world because people gradually shifted their mindset from cabled network to online network. We all know that, business houses and banks deals with enormous amount of data and artificial intelligence is capable of dealing with huge number of data patterns more efficiently than any human being. So, it is very useful and essential technology for such industries. Now, the question arises that, why should Indian banking use Artificial Intelligence enable technology? So, there are many reasons that, why should artificial intelligence be implemented in the banking industry and some of these reasons are listed below: Huge competition, High process driving services demand, Customized service at banks, Raising the efficiency of the employees, Profit growth increment, To reduce the safety risks, Handling huge amount of business data, To ensure efficient and effective decision-making.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Artificial intelligence implemented in the banking sector helps the banks to completely restructure their operations, establishing new and innovative products and services and it also affects the customer experiences. Some of the possible areas where artificial intelligence are/can be implemented in banking sector are listed below: Risk Assessment, Internet Banking Fraud Detection, Credit Card Fraud Detection, Financial Advisory Services, Trading, Managing Finance, Accurate Decision-Making, Automated Customer Support, Claims and Insurances Management, Automated Virtual Financial Assistants, Predictive Analysis in Financial Services, Wealth Management for Masses.</span></p> Jyoti Thakur Copyright (c) 2021 Udit Mamodiya https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/465 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Analysis of the Regional Trade Agreements among One Belt One Road Nations https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1289 <p>The world is witnessing major economic integration driven by China under the One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative with varied impacts on participating countries (Baniya, Rocha, &amp; Michele, 2019). This paper estimates the effect of three important concepts in the international trade flows among One Belt One Road countries. These facets have been previously discussed separately in the literature: the partial equilibrium effects on international trade flows of regional trade agreements (RTAs), international trade, and international borders. To the best knowledge of the researcher, the literature lacks a thorough study of partial equilibrium effects of RTAs on trade among OBOR countries. Therefore this study analyzes the partial equilibrium effects using structural gravity for a robust trade policy analysis besides estimating the effect of other gravity variables among the countries belonging to OBOR. The method used by Yotov, Piermartini, Monteiro and Larch (2016) is used in this paper to investigate the partial equilibrium effects on trade flow among the member countries while addressing the distance puzzle issue. It also accounts for several sensitivity issues such as endogeneity, phasing-ins of the RTAs, reverse causality, multilateral influences using various estimation techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) framework and Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (PPML) model in structural gravity Table 1. While previous literature mainly focused on the trade facilitating effect of RTAs, this paper empirically and critically analyses the effect of RTAs on international trade among the OBOR countries. The study focuses on factors besides RTAs, such as social, political, technological that play a vital role in facilitating trade between OBOR countries and analyses their impact on the participating countries. Therefore this study aims to draw a contrast of the globalization effects besides the impact of RTAs on trade among OBOR countries by analyzing the impact of international borders on the trade flow. The study will facilitate the need for discussion regarding economic integration among the policymakers of less open economies. It will aid the participating and non-participating nations to analyze their position vis-à-vis OBOR and channelize their resources and intellect towards a more profitable and sustainable future.</p> Hajra Manzoor, Parvez Ahmad Mir Copyright (c) 2021 Hajra Manzoor, Parvez Ahmad Mir https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1289 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 DISCLOSURE OF HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING PRACTICES: PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR COMPANIES IN INDIA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/731 <h2>Human resource accounting which is a comparatively nascent phenomenon in India has been reported less frequently in the annual reports of big companies. This paper is an attempt at investigating into human resource accounting disclosure of companies segregating private and public companies. Though most firms are seen to be applying Lev Schwarz model for human resource accounting it is also seen as a growing trend among public sector to increasingly to assess their human assets. The study additionally compares the human resource valuation and measurement practices of private and public undertakings. Secondary data collected from published annual reports of the firms are taken for the selected companies which already are adopting HRA practices. Data is analysed through specific software such as human resource information system and SPSS for descriptive statistics, factor analysis and t-test. The findings show that firms despite reluctance towards disclosure of valuation and measurement of human assets, have learnt from each other and have started doing so at a larger scale. It is found that some private firms do not give clarifications on model used for valuation where as others do not measure value per employee, still others do not evaluate the team work of employees periodically. There are many such gaps which have been found in the study. The study will have large implications for human resource accounting disclosure for companies. While management can learn to fill the gap in the disclosure practices, implications for academics lies in the adoption and development of models other than Lev Schwartz model application for valuation of human capital<em>. </em></h2> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Manaswini Patnaik Copyright (c) 2021 Manaswini Patnaik https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/731 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigating Vietnamese Culture through Communication and the art of Language https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/65 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>In recent times, with rapid economic development and close interaction between nations due to globalization, the national culture has become the centre stage for connected society research.&nbsp; In the current years, the Vietnamese Government’s policy realized and confirmed the importance of the culture in the human’s development index. Thus, pursuing the vision “to build an advanced culture deeply infused with national identity” for the Vietnamese. The current paper analyzes some special points of the Vietnamese cultural foundations to provide the readers an insight of the small, but beautiful country.</p> <p>The word “culture” has many meanings. In Vietnam, culture is used in a common sense to show the educational status and lifestyle; in a specialized sense to indicate the stage of development of the society. While broadly defined, culture encompasses everything, from sophisticated modern products to beliefs, customs, lifestyles, and kind of employment. With this broad understanding that culture is the real object of culture studies.</p> <p>Vietnamese society is the amalgamation of the following composites ―agricultural society is the back bone; preservation and restoration of ecology is a traditional way of life; family values based on emotions and respect for the women is the vietnamese second nature; lack of religious tension in Vitenam has led to Vietnamese to be more adaptive to change. These aspects make Vietnam a perfect destination for a tourism driven economy. At same time the influence of traditional way of life driven towards respect for nature can go a long way realizing the Sustainable development goals laid down by the UN.</p> <p>Vietnamese Language is the mirror that expresses the Vietnam's national identity and the culture, as well as daily behavior. The readers et al, may find some interesting points in the Vietnamese culture through reading and understanding. But it is vital to not to forget the fact that culture and civilization are two different concepts. Vietnam has been moving quickly towards the path of the preservation of its culture as well as civilization and integration with the global economy.</p> Thi Phi Nga Nguyen Copyright (c) 2021 Thi Phi Nga Nguyen https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/65 Sun, 18 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dasavatar of Lord Jagannath with respect to Management, Evolution and Feminism https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/117 <p>Lord Sri Jagannath is the presiding Lord of ‘Srikhetra Puri’. All the incarnations of Lord Vishnu emanate from Sri Jagannath. He is an Avataree, the absolute and supreme Divinity. The cultural and ritual panorama of Sri Jagannath is as pulsating, vibrant and colorful as the Lord Himself. His ‘dasavatar’ concept is the symbolism&nbsp;of the scientific account of evolution, management and feminism. In the changing socio-cultural environment, the dasavatar concept of Lord Jagannath is used as a resource base for the study of physical environment. Indian mythology is very vast and enriched with huge amount of knowledge pertaining to the ten incarnations of Jagannath. The essence of leadership and modern management skill are embedded in His avatar. &nbsp;The Lord came in different incarnations as a role manager or a leader based on different situations. Dasavatars are being referred to understand the leadership qualities required in the modern management techniques to overcome any kind of situation or problems. Lord Rama and Lord Krishna are the most towering leaders of any time.</p> <p>The Hindu mythological concept ’Dasavatar’ in many ways related to physical environment. Lord Vishnu or Sri Jagannath and His many forms are directly related to environmental concepts. Dasavatar concept adds a large number of fantastic developments to the theory of Evolution. Dasavatar is the epitomized representation of Evolution of life on Earth. Our Vedas made sense in this connection. They Had figured it out in the most prominent way. In ‘Matasya avatar’ life originated in water and fish is the first vertebrates. Secondly ‘Kurma’ avatar represents Amphibians that survive both on land and in sea. ‘Varaha’ avatar is the next milestone in evolution because wild boar is the complete transition from water to land. The next big things on the part of evolution are ‘Narasihma and Vaman’ incarnations. These concepts are synonymous of human species of Homo Sapiens. ‘Parasurama avatar’ refers to cave men or indigenous people who started using weapons. Rama is ‘Marjyadapurushottam’ who knows His limitations with developed skills, moving to civil societies. Lord Krishna , the 8<sup>th</sup>&nbsp;incarnation of Vishnu is more advanced, the greatest visionary with knowledge of democracy and diplomacy. Here theory of evolution is more focused on society added with complexity, manipulation and greed. Buddha or Jagannath avatar is more enlightened and more evolved form of human being: kind, compassionate and trying to answer within. ‘Kalki avatar’ is more revolutionary armored with modern technology and advanced to the level of self-destruction.</p> <p>Violence against women is a world-wide phenomenon as it is present in every country since time immemorial. It has been traced under the grab of cultural practices and norms. For instance, domestic violence is a common issue affecting the lives of women across the countries and cultures. Lord Rama and Lord Krishna have preserved women’s human rights. Actually, they have laid the foundation stone of feminism. According to Lord Krishna, violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms and that has to be abolished. In Indian culture women have been considered a symbol of Shakti or power. They have proved themselves to be many times better than men.</p> Deepanjali Mishra, Mr Copyright (c) 2021 Deepanjali Mishra, Mr https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/117 Mon, 23 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 To identify the areas of service quality gaps in services provided by cab aggregators https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2795 <p>The main objective of this research paper is to understand, study and compare the customer perception and expectations from customers using services of the cab aggregators within India to identify the areas of service quality gaps. Since customer perceptions and expectations affect the service quality, so this study helps to understand and identify the service quality gaps in services provided by cab aggregators to customers in India using Service Quality Gap Analysis between perception and expectation. The most important objective of service quality is retention of the customer to provide repeatability of services through customer satisfaction [1, 2].</p> Gaurav Dua, Amandeep Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Gaurav Dua, Amandeep Singh https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2795 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of Post Covid Indian Market for Online Meeting Software in Higher Education: A Case Study of Jalgaon Region https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2303 <p>COVID-19 has drawn its footprint on many aspects of our life. Many sectors got transformed<br>into new forms. The pandemic situation has forced people to find technology intervenes for their<br>day to day operations and business. Education sector has found its own way to educate the pupil<br>by following the rules of social distancing. The teachers have rejuvenated the pedagogy by<br>learning online meeting software for their lectures. This has brought a new paradigm in the<br>education sector. Hundreds of colleges, universities, schools, training centres and tutors have<br>moved to virtual classroom settings.<br>Though many institutions and public learning spaces are now reopening, hybrid forms of<br>teaching are likely to continue for a while yet. Virtual learning technology plays a fundamental<br>role in the processes of teaching students and the virtual teaching toolkit will largely depend on<br>the size of your student base and organization, your particular role and subject, and any<br>additional learning needs. Budget will also factor in, with larger institutions being able to pay for<br>more heavy-duty learning management systems.<br>This paper focuses on comparative study on access, use, and utility of different online meeting<br>software, used for higher education in different colleges of Jalgaon region. The study highlights<br>the similarity, differences in services, GUI, cost and popularity of these virtual meeting<br>platforms.</p> Ranjana S. Zinjore , Varsha Pathak Copyright (c) 2021 Ranjana S. Zinjore , Varsha Pathak https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2303 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of social media marketing on organizational performance- a case study of Amazon India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2965 <p>With the intention of identifying how social media marketing can improve organizational performance, this research has focused on Amazon India. Through secondary data, different social media marketing strategies of Amazon are hereby identified at first. Then primary data is collected by sharing a survey questionnaire with one hundred random consumers of Amazon. From their responses, it was found that Amazon is using different tactics in different social media channels such as following different topical festivals of India and creating emotional ads. These social media ads are helping the organization to engage with the consumers and draw them to their e-commerce site and almost ninety consumers stated that they buy something whenever they are re-directed to Amazon’s site through a social media ad.</p> V. S. Prasad Kandi, B. Sakthimala, G. Sivakumar, Vijayalakshmi N.S Copyright (c) 2021 V. S. Prasad Kandi, B. Sakthimala, G. Sivakumar, Vijayalakshmi N.S https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2965 Fri, 05 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Eco-Tourism In Making Chandigarh A Sustainable City https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2408 <p>The International Ecotourism Society (TIES), described ecotourism as travel responsible to natural areas and it conserves the environment, sustains the wellbeing of the local populace and involves quality application and education [1]. India is a fascinating tourism destination because of its rich cultures and traditions, physiography, ecosystems and unique flora and fauna.<br>Tourism serves as an important means for generating revenue for protected areas to offset the cost of conservation and maintenance [2] opined that in order to control the increasing environmental degradation and to establish the significance of the losing elements of environment and to ensure the notion of sustainable development, it is necessary to measure their value in monetary terms. The authors in [3] expressed similar sentiments about the Great Himalayan National Park (GHNP) situated in the Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. The park has been blessed with distinct biodiversity, flora &amp; fauna and is one of the best cotourism destinations in the state. The present work is undertaken to unearth the gaps in knowledge about present scenario and expected improvements in the status of ecotourism in the Chandigarh tricity region of north India. Aspects like positive impacts of ecotourism, doubts caused by the slow progression of ecotourism, measures to be used to rectify the challenges are to be looked into. The country does not have a well framed ecotourism policy which needs to be considered with all the stakeholders. It is thus important for financial sustainability of hospitality industry as well as well being of the locality of operation coupled with the growing public demand to reduce pollution and the industry’s ability to support social dimensions such as mitigation of poverty and promotion of cultural interaction. Research methods involve conceptual, qualitative and quantitative surveys and case studies. The earlier studies in India include principles of ecotourism like environmental conservation, cultural preservation, community participation, economic benefits, and empowerment of vulnerable groups. But no specific study related to this region could be noticed.<br>The social impacts observed in ecotourism studies include empowerment of vulnerable groups, especially women. Another social benefit attained through ecotourism is environmental awareness. Awareness of conservation and preservation of the natural environment by mitigating anthropogenic intervention is one of the important theme of ecotourism. For example, environmental awareness provided to local communities has changed their attitudes and behaviours as to depending on forest resources and protecting an endangered species ‒ the Indian Rhinoceros ‒ from poaching Conservation of flora and fauna in PAs is the major environmental impact of ecotourism. In another study, authors [4] evaluated the impacts of ecotourism on the natural environment, its contribution to the local economy and conservation, the extent of participation of the host community, and its capacity to educate the stakeholders. They studied the sustainability of nature tourism in three destinations in the Kufri-Chail-Naldehra area of Himachal Pradesh, India and concluded that in its present form, tourism in the study area does not meet the criteria for true ecotourism. In another study authors [5] agreed that tourism has resulted in heavy economic growth &amp; heritage significance of Shimla concomitant with consequential environmental losses. Similar feelings were displayed by [6] about prosperity and sustainability of tourism in Sikkim. The authors [7] considered ecotourism as a panacea around the world in their study on Community Based Ecotourism (CBET) in the Punjab state. She found multidimensional service quality to be a direct determinant of satisfaction.</p> Pranav Aggarwal, Deepika Puri, Sushil Kalra, Naveen Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Kaushal Copyright (c) 2021 Pranav Aggarwal, Deepika Puri, Sushil Kalra, Naveen Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Kaushal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2408 Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 FOCUS ON GOOD HEALTH AND WELL BEING TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN MEDICAL TOURISM https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2112 <p>Sustainable Indian Medical Tourism provides good health and well being for patients and visitors. It focuses on economic, social and environmental sustainable development and promotes the country’s development. Most of the countries prefers all the three parameters for the development. India should focus more on environmental and social sustainability for the betterment of promoting medical tourism and gain more profits to improve the economic stability of the country. Environmental and social sustainability creates a value chain and enhances the economic sustainability of the country. Patients and visitors from abroad countries will prefer the safe and friendly environment creates like qualified doctors, nursing services, right treatment and safe surgeries, good hygienic conditions like safe water, good sanitary conditions, proper food, good stay, safety for self and belongings, polluted free environment, more medical visas etc., Social sustainability promotes the medical tourism with the help of the eco tourism in terms of traditional values, culture, various tourist places, AYUSH(Indian Medicine)etc.,creates a lot of opportunities in terms of education, development and improvement of hospitality sector creates &nbsp;more employment &nbsp;for the future generation and improves the economic sustainability drastically. With the help of the economic, social and environmental sustainable development a good health, well being, more satisfaction will be &nbsp;created towards the patients and visitors from various abroad countries and improves the country’s economy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Index Terms</strong>: - Medical Tourism, Sustainability, Environmental, Economic, Social</p> R.J.T NIRMALRAJ Copyright (c) 2021 R.J.T NIRMALRAJ https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2112 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 EFFECTS OF DIGITALIZATION ON ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND PEOPLE RELATED ISSUES https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/136 <p>ABSTRACT</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Impacts of the data innovations (IT) or digitalization on associations have been examined since they started showing up in 1960'ies. From business associations point of view one of the key issues was if the speculations were supported. Is it accurate to say that we are getting our cash's worth while putting into IT? In the 1960's the impact was clear with the presentation of the centralized servers. Nonetheless, these inquiries got prominent measure of concentrates amid the nineties. Today digitalization has spread to for all intents and purposes each association – in reality it is difficult to envision a world or an association without advanced resources. As of late examinations have moved the inquiry from "does digitalization offer some benefit" to "how does digitalization offer some incentive" a portion of the interviewees in this exploration reverberated this view. Digitalization will give most productivity when the working propensities and procedures related are changed to oblige the enhanced effectiveness empowered by digitalization. Simply moving similar procedures from paper-based to computerized based doesn't really demonstrate the general effectiveness everything that much. A few fields, for example, music industry have just experienced gigantic changes because of digitalization.</p> Manika Mittal Copyright (c) 2021 Manika Mittal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/136 Wed, 08 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Environmental Threats: Exploring Waste Management in the Indian Aviation Sector https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2814 <p>Aviation is one of the world's largest people connectors that has fueled economic growth, promoting social development, and creating access to global tourism. In today’s world, there is unprecedented growth in tourism, and mobility is becoming an important aspect of people’s lives for both business and recreational reasons. This would not be possible without the faster growth of the air transport industry and related services. For such growth, it is important that aviation around the world is safe, comfortable, environmentally friendly, and incorporates universal principles of hygiene and sanitation.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>This study aims to eliminate the environmental impact in the aviation industry. The potentially significant environmental impacts of the aviation industry, especially airports, in terms of air quality, noise, and solid waste management, must be addressed through the development of more sustainable environmental practices, followed by their management and safe disposal. Waste management and disposal are now considered one of the most important environmental management problems in the global aviation industry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A review of the existing literature revealed gaps in the identification and impact of the ecosystem in the Indian aviation industry. This study seeks to take an important step in identifying problems and pointing towards their solutions, and the study briefly identifies different categories of waste generated by airlines and airports, and how such airport waste can be effectively treated to preserve sustainable ecosystems and surrounding areas. Finally, this study suggests strategic waste management plans to eliminate the environmental impact in the aviation industry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mr. Ravishankar B, Dr. Prabu B. Christopher Copyright (c) 2021 Mr. Ravishankar B, Dr. Prabu B. Christopher https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2814 Sun, 17 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 THE FUTURE OF BUSINESS REPORTING IN ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE: (LEARNING FROM THE COVID 19 PANDEMICS) https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2851 <p>This proposed research work aims in filling a gap in the literature by explaining how corporations' lack of understanding of non-financial activities, notably biodiversity, can lead to global economic crises like Covid-19. Work with established companies to improve the quality of their reporting by accounting for non-human components and making it more comprehensive for stakeholders. To back up our argument that nature contains both human and non-human components, we employ Actor Network Theory (ANT) and the Natural Inventory Model. Offering a theoretical framework for the consequences of businesses' non-financial reporting Based on our experiences of the Covid-19 problem and a review of the existing relevant literature on CSR, Covid-19, non-financial reporting, and integrated reports (IR), we developed (IR). Suggesting that businesses implement/adopt the Circular Economy idea as a long-term business model, as well as report on biodiversity and extinction accounting in a more organised and required manner by creating IR to produce value in the close, mid, and longer - term. This is the first research to look at the Covid-19 issue and make suggestions for future reporting. The discoveries will help both academia and society. Advances in information technology are expected to have a significant influence on the future of accounting and reporting. The majority of prior research has focused on technology as the most important factor impacting accounting and reporting in the future. This article integrates four components into a general framework for projecting the future of accounting and reporting: technical restrictions, accountant and accounting firm preparation, specific changes in accountants and accounting firms, and other variables. Although forecasting the future is difficult, the goal of this essay is to provide a course of action for accountants and accounting firms to take.</p> Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Mayakannan Selvaraju Copyright (c) 2021 Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Mayakannan Selvaraju https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2851 Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Intellectual Capital efficiency and its impact on sustainable development of Agri Business sector in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2221 <p>Intellectual Capital has a tendency to be a critical aid and a key contributor to the financial success, it is a cost advent in an enterprise and supports in achieving sustainable development. The company value is created not only from its monetary resources, but also from its Intellectual properties. Intellectual Capital in a commercial enterprise consists of the wealth of the thoughts and the cap potential for innovation which particularly determines the destiny of the company. Intellectual capital creates a completely unique aid for every business. Whether aware or not, the presence of the resource bestows to companies’ success and lets industries to become inimitable. Studying Intellectual Capital in Indian Agriculture industry context seems to be interesting and suitable, since global agroindustry is profoundly dependent on Intellectual Capital (IC). This Industry is only little explored in IC study. The agricultural region is a tremendous part of the Indian economic system in phrases of its GDP contribution. It is a foundation of employment for all most all of the nation's people. This sector has incredible development opportunities at the moment, with India already being one of the main agricultural manufacturers internationally.</p> <p>As businesses strive to meet customer demands, societal needs, and future requirements, the agriculture industry's long-term growth has become a critical concern. Sustainability is extremely central, particularly during times of financial chaos, and it will become much more so in the future. Corporate sustainable growth can be linked to a company's monetary, ecological, and societal initiatives aimed at ensuring the company's long-term viability. Intellectual capital can demonstrate a commitment to long-term performance sustainability.</p> <p>Very few studies have been done exploring the impact of Intellectual Capital on Agri Business Globally. No study has been done exploring the influence of IC on Agri Business in India. Therefore, in the present study an attempt is made to know the impact of intellectual capital efficiency on achievement of Sustainable growth of Indian Agri Business Sector. We are analysing top performing Indian Agriculture Companies (based on Market valuation) listed in NSE, BSE. Data were obtained from the Company’s Annual Reports. Tools and Techniques used for the Data Analysis are Confirmatory Factor analysis, Structural Equation modelling and Financial Ratios.</p> <p>Some of the previous research studies found that Value-Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (VAIC), which is a measure of Intellectual Capital does not have a positive impact on sustainability and market value. VAIC was only able to explain productivity and profitability of companies. But modern classifications highlight more Intellectual Capital components, such as Relational capital and Innovation Capital (Muhammad Nadeem,2019). Previous Studies did not exhibit a positive relationship between structural capital and Corporate Sustainable Growth (CSG).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The <strong>hypothesis</strong> of the study are as follows:</p> <p>H<sub>0</sub>:&nbsp; Modified Value-Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (M-VAIC) has a Significant impact on Corporate Sustainable Growth of Agriculture Companies in India.</p> <p>H<sub>1</sub>:&nbsp; Modified Value-Added Intellectual Capital Coefficient (M-VAIC) has no Significant impact on Corporate Sustainable Growth of Agriculture Companies in India.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Present study tries to overcome the challenges stated above, by including two other components - Relational Capital and Innovation Capital in the VAIC model. In Previous studies VAIC is unable to impact Market valuation and CSG of companies. Hence in this study an attempt is made to analyse whether the M-VAIC exhibit a significant positive impact on CSG and Market Value of companies. Since structural capital and CSG has insignificant correlation in previous studies, to overcome this challenge proxy variable has been introduced for measuring structural Capital, because structural capital efficiency in VAIC model neglects the company’s innovative capital. And also compare the results from both the models, MVAIC and EVA to have valuable conclusions.</p> <p>The <strong>Objectives </strong>of the study are as follows:</p> <p>The main aim of the study is to examine the impact of Intellectual Capital Components on Corporate Sustainable Development of Agri Business Companies through Modified Value-Added Intellectual Capital model(M-VAIC).</p> Vaishnavi Balaji Copyright (c) 2021 Vaishnavi Balaji https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2221 Sun, 03 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Academic Technology on Sustainable Academic Operations - A Review and Conceptualization https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1609 <p>This paper aims to assess the impacts of Academic Technology on sustainable academic operations, enhancing the previous literature reviews by extending the perception from what Academic Technology do in pursuit on academic operations to support faculty and students in higher education institutions and universities [3].</p> <p>The education is continuously on a transformation process, with the invasion and intervention of technology in the teaching learning pedagogy of HEI’s and Universities. The class room management is redefined with the integration of instructional technology with teaching methodology. Virtual learning has become part of mainstream in higher education. Online elements and digital content are now integral parts of college classes in all fields including Arts, Commerce, Science, Engineering Design, Simulations and Medical Sciences. Embracing online learning upon traditional Face-to-Face learning could be pumped in improving the efficiency of the existing technology of the online learning infrastructure. The world would begin witnessing universities adopting online methods entirely over traditional Face-to-Face learning leading to establishment of e-universities in near future [4].</p> <p>The pandemic caused unprecedented disruption to in-person learning options to the students. The challenges has become an opportunity to the administrators and the faculty to explore and to adopt technologies to experiment with their curriculum and pedagogy. This challenges has left the Institutions deliberating about how they can better use of academic technology to support faculty and students [3]. &nbsp;The other challenges are the capacity building of academic leaders and faculty in areas of new age technology and research.</p> <p>The study aims to overcome the challenges which have been multifaceted for the institutions and faculty pertaining in the altered pedagogy, strategy to adopt the newer technological interventions. The present trend in Education 4.0 is Knowledge revolution. The Time has come to educational institutions to embrace technology to nurture both faculty and students to develop digital intelligence and to support the class room management. Effective use of existing Academic Technologies and the design of particular technology solutions useful for sustainable academic operations during pandemic and other challenging situations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The proposed hypothesis is that there is a significant relationship between the academic technologies in usage across five academic imperatives: deliver remote instruction, delivery hybrid instruction, design curricula, support faculty work, support students and sustainable academic operations [3].</p> <p>The ‘new normal’ in the academic arena would be a judicious choice of blended, hybrid model that combines the power of technology with the right physical deliveries - a Phygital model (Digital and Face-to-Face), to serve the needs of all stakeholders.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The vision of this paper is to support the HEI’s and Universities on sustainable academic operations by using the current digital platforms with the enhanced and expanded on-going ICT-based educational initiatives to meet the current and future challenges in providing quality education for all. [1].</p> <p>The main objectives of this papers is (a) to study the influence of digital interventions on sustainable academic operations of HEIs and Universities. (b) to study the influence of blended learning as per the aspirations of National Education Policy 2020 and blended learning guidelines issued by the Government of India on the sustainable academic operations.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The impact to the society from this study is that the faculty will be empowered in using e-Learning resources and the power of technology in teaching learning process and embrace technology, action-based models and life-long learning.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Adoption of newer academic technologies helps the students to learn new skills, greater access to information, improved satisfaction and learning outcomes and also faculties to reskill in delivering the digital technologies effectively is the most important takeaway of this paper. [2].</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Academic Technology, Sustainable Academic operations, Blended Learning, e-University, Virtual Learning</p> <p><strong>References: </strong></p> <ol> <li>National Education Policy, Ministry of Education, Government of India [2020]</li> </ol> <p><a href="https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf">https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/NEP_Final_English_0.pdf</a></p> <ol start="2"> <li>Concept Note Blended Mode of Teaching and Learning, University Grants Commission, 2021</li> </ol> <p><a href="https://www.ugc.ac.in/pdfnews/6100340_Concept-Note-Blended-Mode-of-Teaching-and-Learning.pdf">https://www.ugc.ac.in/pdfnews/6100340_Concept-Note-Blended-Mode-of-Teaching-and-Learning.pdf</a></p> <ol start="3"> <li>EAB, Washington, DC, United States 2021</li> </ol> <p><a href="https://eab.com/research/infographic/academic-affairs/academic-technologies-successful-pandemic-operations/">https://eab.com/research/infographic/academic-affairs/academic-technologies-successful-pandemic-operations/</a></p> <ol start="4"> <li>E-Versity in Times of Adversity, QS I Gauge Indian College and University, 2020</li> </ol> <p><a href="https://www.igauge.in/admin/uploaded/report/files/QSIGAUGEEVersityReportApril2020_1606732152.pdf">https://www.igauge.in/admin/uploaded/report/files/QSIGAUGEEVersityReportApril2020_1606732152.pdf</a></p> S Savitha, C Nataraju , Dr. Balakrishna Copyright (c) 2021 S Savitha, C Nataraju , Dr. Balakrishna https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1609 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 HUMAN CAPITAL – AN IMPERATIVE ELEMENT FOR COMPANY’S VALUATION IN THE PANDEMIC ERA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2318 <p>Human Capital means “the skills, knowledge, and experience possessed by an individual or<br>population, viewed in terms of their value or cost to an organization or country”. In other<br>words, it is an economic value of employee skills and competence. Human Capital is most<br>ignored asset, though it plays a very imperative role to decide the fate of an organization and<br>has not found any place in company’s balance sheet. Covid 19 pandemic has compelled the<br>companies to change their perception towards importance of Human capital. With increasing<br>acknowledgement about the importance of Human Capital in pandemic era, many<br>organizations have tried to effectively and efficiently measure their Human Capital to<br>comprehend their present status and thereafter executed various ways to improve their<br>Human Capital. The present research aimed to investigate the attitude of top management<br>towards Human Capital Valuation and understand the various metrics used in Human Capital<br>Valuation. The current study has been conducted by taking into consideration the managerial<br>and executive level of employees from randomly picked Information Technology (IT)<br>companies located in Pune city. Primary data was obtained from a random sample of 100<br>respondents for statistical analysis who has sufficient commitment and hands on experience<br>in their domain area.<br>The result showed that the dynamic and ever changing business scenario due the pandemic<br>has changed the working nature of an organization. The employees, human capital, are the<br>revenue generators of the organization. The recent study shows that, companies do put lot of<br>emphasis on human capital valuation, because in pandemic era, intangible assets i.e human<br>capital have more impact on the firm’s value and long-term sustainability compared to<br>tangible assets. ROI (Total Profit/ Total Investment on Human Capital) is most preferred<br>method to measure human Capital. Result showed that achievement in key performance<br>indicator (KPI) , employee competence level, employee skill inventory, employees education<br>and employee experience, employee behavior and employees awards &amp; recognitions received<br>are used for HC valuation. The research also validated that the induction process, technical &amp;<br>behavioral training programs and learning opportunities given are helping companies to<br>improve HC valuation. Thus result verifies that competency based performance management<br>played significantly vital role in the valuation of human capital.</p> Sheena Abraham, Porinita Banerjee Copyright (c) 2021 Sheena Abraham, Porinita Banerjee https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2318 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Introspection of rural, urban and semi urban of young entrepreneurs in the context of India and bird's view of global scenario https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1866 <p>Entrepreneur is the person who set up the business or businesses. He/she will be <br>ready to get hold of financial risk in the anticipation of getting profit. India has a long heritage of <br>entrepreneurship naive of using technology. Many Indian entrepreneurs come from hard working <br>and humble beginning with inheritance of family business like pottery, carpentry, handicrafts <br>weaving etc, 70% of Indian population lives in rural areas they are fully dependent on agriculture <br>and its products. But, Indian agriculture is tagged with low productivity due to the impact of <br>natural calamities. Agricultural and cash crops , mismatch disparities in various public private <br>partnership an account of all this unfavorable conditions has demanded rural entrepreneur <br>migrate to urban areas. Urban entrepreneurs can thrive only based on their creativity, innovation <br>and business tactics. Opportunities are galore in urban areas. Semi urban areas are not thickly <br>populated hence it is very suitable for young entrepreneurs to set up start-ups. Global <br>entrepreneur must have hands on experience in notional and regional levels to venture into cross <br>borders. Global business Levis on heavy capital expenditure, imports, exports and global <br>knowledge of the markets and also varied customers which can be obtained by the market <br>researchers. Our Hon Prime Minister Modi announced the government schemes to ensure that <br>startup in India. Can see the light of the day by various beneficial schemes viz., MGS: Multiplier <br>grants scheme for IT research and developers. Credit guarantee for micro and small entrepreneurs. <br>Raw material assistance. Modified special incentive package scheme(M-SIPS). Small farmer <br>agricultural business consortium (SFAC). Atal Incubation Centers (AIC). Karnataka state also <br>encourage young entrepreneur by providing schemes like Rajiv Gandhi Entrepreneurship <br>encouragement scheme (RGEES). In global scenario the entrepreneurship place a critical role in <br>rural economic development such as improvement in the standard of living, creation of <br>employment opportunities, alleviation of poverty utilization of local resources and reduction of <br>rural urban migration. India requires young entrepreneur to enhance the GDP level and to counter <br>the economic growth. They are tuned to take up entrepreneurship. They lack motivation and <br>parental support. Bygone days to the era of ultra modern world the youth do not want to take up <br>risk. The main objective of the researcher is to it is an attempt to transfer India from developing <br>country to the developed country. Mission “Swabhiman India”. The major recommendation is that <br>rural entrepreneurship be encouraged and promoted through the provision of incentives to rural <br>entrepreneurs in the form of tax relief and concession for at least 10 years to encourage them to <br>plough back earnings for scaling expansion. Young urban entrepreneur should be given holiday <br>benefits to make our India a shining star in the dark clouds. Application of modern technology, <br>digitalization, E-markets, E-commerce, E-banking and door to door banking facilities can through <br>the rural and urban youth to take up entrepreneurship in the chosen field of their competitiveness.</p> C Vani Copyright (c) 2021 C Vani https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1866 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Contribution of Facebook Social Media platform towards Sustainability – A study of selected Private Universities in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2240 <p>Sustainability is being considered as the key to a well-balanced economy,<br>however, achieving this goal in the short run has been utter challenging for most of the<br>nations worldwide. A well-functioning economy is that which shifts its focus from rapid<br>development towards sustainable development, however developing such a system can be<br>a tedious task for nations. Of all the measures joining hands to achieve this tedious task,<br>Social Media platforms have shown a huge upsurge in the number of users as well as is<br>serving as means of business awareness for entrepreneurs, companies and global corporate<br>giants. This upsurge has complimented a need to switch from the traditional printing<br>advertisements to digital media and marketing techniques, which certainly has reduced the<br>need and dependency of businesses to rely on print media and paper mode of advertising.<br>This paper is intended to explore the extent of social media’s contribution to sustainable<br>development and how it is uniting like-minded people and driving them to take collective<br>action. The study aims to find the outcome of the increase use of social media marketing<br>towards the reduction in print media, further encompassing its focus on sustainability goals.<br>This research paper studies the increased visibility on the Facebook platform for marketing<br>campaigns done by Private Universities in India. The literature suggests that some<br>researchers believe that social media contributes positively towards achieving the<br>sustainable goals. At the same time, some studies suggest that social media marketing and<br>sustainable goals show little correlation over time. The research makes an effort to analyze<br>the increased efforts by Private Universities towards social media promotions and the<br>subsequent reduction on print media. This paper aims to stretch degrees to the literature of<br>social media marketing and sustainability by presenting the study of changes in the ratio of<br>print media with the introduction of social media marketing. The study is based on the data<br>comparison of increased visibility on Facebook for selected Private Universities for one year<br>(i.e., 2020- 21). The study uses the applicable research tools to achieve the results from the<br>study while maintaining the required quantum of accuracy.</p> Shivam Mandhane, Jayesh Jadhav Copyright (c) 2021 Shivam Mandhane, Jayesh Jadhav https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2240 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A LITERATURE STUDY ON ESG FUNDS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1587 <p class="p1"><span class="s1">Economies around the world have been facing numerous challenges right from climate change,poverty,unemployment ,gender equality which are listed in human development index.Out of the major risk ,climate change has emerged as one of the greatest threat for businesses.Figure<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp; </span>1 below shows rising ESG issues around the world.Sustainable investing is the need of the hour and across the globe the popularity of ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance )funds have grown rapidly.ESG funds invests in the companies that attempts to protect the environment and considerate to the society they operate in and comply with all regulations in all these matters. The investments made into such socially and environmentally responsible companies will help create a safer and better future for the coming generations.The aim of the study is to analyse the available literature study in this area and to understand the current challenges in the implementation of ESG Funds</span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/richa24/mceclip0.png"></span></p> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"> <em>Figure 1:ESG Issues in major countries around the world.</em></span></p> <p class="p2">&nbsp;</p> <p class="p3">&nbsp;</p> Richa Pathak Copyright (c) 2021 Richa Pathak https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1587 Fri, 08 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Work from Home Environment on Employees’ Psychological Well-Being https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2284 <p>In the context of sustainability, organizations are bound today to fulfil requirements to continue in business. Profit-making alone cannot be a yardstick anymore for companies to claim to be competitive. The Health and well-being of society and employees is one of the important sustainable goals that organizations are bound to abide by. In addition to these requirements, the livelihood of the society is badly affected by the existing Covid situation.&nbsp; Among many changes during pandemic conditions, work from home is one of the notable inclusions. More than 90% of the companies across the globe have implemented some form of work from home since the start of the pandemic in 2019. (Gartner Poll). Earlier publications hail this “virtual office” as an effective means to simultaneously reduce expenses and enhance productivity, morale, and work-life balance.</p> <p>Though this work from home practice helped to keep business operations running, it comes with disadvantages as well. There has been a report of increased stress levels of employees and increased harassment cases in industries. Chair Person of the National Commission for Women has reported a 5 times spike in online harassment. The Health and psychological well-being of the employees are affected due to economic, social and mental crises in the organizations. Studies in the past say that the flexibility of work from home is what employees are looking out for to balance the time for work and home responsibilities. In contrast, some studies say that work from home is having the prospective to distort the boundaries between work and home life. Work from home employees in the past was found to have exhibited characteristics of a workaholic as the result of lack of separation between work and life. Altogether, the work from home/virtual work environment adds a new level of complication as employees attempt to deal with flexibility. Work from home may also result in dissatisfaction in both workplaces and in family life.</p> <p>Reduced overhead charges are making many service organizations think about extending or continuing with the work from conditions. Now, they have to overcome the challenges faced by employees during this virtual employment scenario. This research has been carried to identify the association existing between the employees’ perception towards virtual work environment and their psychological well-being.</p> <p><strong>Purpose and Research Questions</strong></p> <p>Unlike western countries, India has got seen or experienced more of work from home scenario. Covid situation has initiated this culture and there is a need for exploration. The purpose of this paper is to begin to fill the existing void in understanding the relationship between employees’ perception towards work from home environment and psychological well-being. Because so little is known at this point, this study is framed by posing the following research questions:</p> <ol> <li>What is the effect of a perceived virtual work environment productivity on psychological well-being?</li> <li>What is the effect of perceived virtual work environment teamwork on psychological well-being?</li> <li>What is the effect of perceived virtual work environment morale on psychological well-being?</li> <li>What is the effect of perceived virtual work environment flexibility of work on psychological well-being?</li> <li>What is the effect of perceived virtual work environment work/life balance on psychological well-being?</li> </ol> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Research Design:</strong></p> <p>Descriptive research design has been deployed to collect data from employees of IT firms through well-structured questionnaires, which are reliable and valid.</p> <p><strong>Research Objective:</strong></p> <p>To identify the impact of employees’ perception towards virtual work environment and its impact on their psychological well-being.</p> <p><strong>Hypothesis:</strong></p> <p>H1: Virtual work environment is likely to affect purpose in life component of psychological well being</p> <p>H2: Virtual work environment is likely to affect the self-acceptance component of psychological well being</p> <p>H3: Virtual work environment is likely to affect autonomy component of psychological well being</p> <p>H4: Virtual work environment is likely to affect personal growth component of psychological well being</p> <p>H5: Virtual work environment is likely to affect environmental mastery component of psychological well being</p> <p>H6: Virtual work environment is likely to affect the positive relationship with other components of psychological well being</p> <p><strong>The novelty of this Study:</strong></p> <p>Although prior studies show both positive and negative effects on the interaction between work from home and psychological well-being, conclusions are limited by the way virtual environment, psychological well-being, and work-family interaction have been modelled. This research presents a framework that defines psychological well-being as a multidimensional phenomenon and identifies the effects of the work from the environment from those of distance from the organization.</p> <p><strong>Implications of the Study:</strong></p> <p>This study result will help organizations to focus on areas in virtual setup to improve the psychological well-being of their employees. Organizations can take a cue from this study for framing work from home policies for their employees in the new normal.</p> Sakeerthi S, Dr. M. Ramesh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Sakeerthi S, Dr. M. Ramesh Kumar https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2284 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 E-Tailing in Odisha: Its expansion, Problems, Opportunities and Development https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/943 <p>The Indian retail industry is undergoing a transformation. The current web-based e-tailing models are in their infancy, heralding a period of rapid transformation, challenge, and opportunity in Indian retail. E-commerce and e-marketing are two key concepts in the new internet-based realm. E-commerce is a method of doing business in which organisations and customers execute electronic transactions through the internet. E-marketing, also known as internet marketing, web marketing, and online marketing, is the promotion of products or services via the internet, whereas e-tailing is the sale of items and services via the internet. The term "e-tailing" refers to retailing that takes place through the internet. This paper discusses the current scenarios of e-tailing potential, its market, viabilities and trends, and so on.</p> DEEPTI RANJAN SABAT Copyright (c) 2021 DEEPTI RANJAN SABAT https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/943 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mental Health Of Doctors During Covid-19 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2301 <p>Since its emergence, the COVID – 19 viruses has become a global threat. It was declared as a<br>global pandemic by the World Health Organization in January 2020. The mutation of the COVID<br>virus has raised concerns for all the health care professionals and decision makers. These have<br>led the disease burden to rise in unexpected ways. Therefore, there will be an increased mental<br>burden on the health care workers, especially the doctors. By the time they got familiar and<br>understood the nature of the virus and were able to treat the COVID patients the second wave of<br>COVID has aroused in India. This has led to the need to study the mental health of the Doctors.<br>COVID -19 has brought many challenges for the doctors across the globe. In India the second<br>wave of COVID was deadly. Many challenges were encountered by the doctors during the last 6<br>months. Through literature review it is found that COVID-19 certainly has an impact on the<br>Health care workers across the globe. Hence, drawing inferences from the same premise, this<br>study is investigating the mental health of Doctors during COVID 19 in Pune city. This study<br>hence focuses on first to analyze the feelings, thoughts and well-being of Doctors, second to<br>identify the practical adjustments made by Doctors in COVID times. Further the study aims to<br>analyze the overall mental health of doctors while at work and outside their work. Based on the<br>objectives the researcher has statistically tested the hypothesis using correlation analysis. Apart<br>from the hypotheses there were other relationships which are were also identified through<br>correlation analysis. This study has clearly identified that the doctors of Pune city have done<br>various structural transformations in their practice methods to avoid the spread of virus which<br>has a relation with their feelings and thoughts especially in the second wave that came in India in<br>2021. The descriptive statistics are presented in the form of bar graphs. The study is descriptive<br>in nature. Data has been collected from both primary sources and secondary sources. The<br>sampling method used for this study was stratified random sampling. Since the respondents were<br>doctors, it was difficult for the researcher to make the respondents answer the Google form.<br>Hence the sample size was 46; this was the limitation of the study. Hence it is concluded by the<br>researcher that COVID has undoubtedly affected the mental health of doctors. These health care<br>workers have brought many adjustments in their practice to fight this pandemic and are<br>continuing to do so.</p> Anjum Usama Sayyad Copyright (c) 2021 Anjum Usama Sayyad https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2301 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 BUSINESS FINANCE SITUATIONS DUE TO THE COVID 19 EPIDEMIC CRISIS: CASE STUDY OF UAE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2849 <p>The COVID-19 corona virus epidemic has caused havoc on the world economy and is now expanding globally. The disease's progression and financial effects are largely unknown, making it more difficult for authorities to create an adequate macroeconomic policy response. The ongoing pandemic has triggered an extraordinary catastrophe that has disrupted the UAE's economy and lab our market. For example, entire or partial lockdown has resulted in the closure of businesses, resulting in the loss of jobs for a variety of people. The study gathered scholarly resources from a variety of academics who expressed their viewpoints on how the COVID-19 outbreak has affected the UAE's economy and labour prices (UAE). Purposive sampling techniques were employed to investigate the elements that contributed to the rise in labour costs and project costs. The primary goal of the purposive sampling technique was to investigate how the elements were altered and their influence on the UAE economy. COVID-19's impacts on the UAE's employed and non-employed&nbsp;residents were also debunked through random online interviews. The majority of businesses have remained closed, according to the data, while the few that have remained open have established workplace flexibility such as remote working and reducing employee numbers. The study did, however, have certain shortcomings. First and foremost, it was restricted to chosen commercial entities and construction projects. Furthermore, the material presented was sparse and lacking in detail. After doing the investigation, the analyst will need to use a qualitative research strategy for the future study. The method will provide full details on how COVID-19's effects on the economy are seen by contractors and businessmen. Even a contained outbreak, according to the possibilities outlined in this study, might have a significant short-term effect on the economy. These simulations demonstrate the scale of costs that could be averted by boosting public health system expenditure in all nations, but particularly in less developed countries with poor medical systems and dense population.</p> Dr. Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Dr. Priyanka Verma, Mayakannan Selvaraju Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Eugin Prakash Pathrose, Dr. Priyanka Verma, Mayakannan Selvaraju https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2849 Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Temperature Excursion Management in Cold Supply Chain of Pharmaceutical Products https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2219 <p>India’s cold chain industry is currently estimated to be worth8 million which is composed of a combination of refrigerated transportation and surface storage mechanism. Managing the quality of pharmaceutical product during cold supply chain and the distribution process is a complex challenge for the pharmaceutical industry. The Indian cold chain market is anticipated to be more organized in setting up the cold chain facilities across India in coming years. There is a need of special handling and monitoring of the refrigerated product to ensure the proper packaging configuration and transit methods meet the predetermined cold chain criteria. Improper handling might deteriorate the quality of the product thereby lowering the therapeutic properties. The study focuses on a system-based quality management in pharmaceutical operations, quality assurance and enhancement, concerted efforts, concepts, consequences and handling mechanism to ensure product quality.</p> Shruti Srivastava, Arun Bhadauria, Sunil Dhaneshwar, Suneel Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Shruti Srivastava, Arun Bhadauria, Sunil Dhaneshwar, Suneel Gupta https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2219 Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY OF COVID-19 IMPACT ON LARGE SCALE INDUSTRIES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SECTOR OF PUNE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2316 <p>Coivd-19 was initiated from November 2019 in the world and then initiated in India on<br>30th January 2020 and 9<br>th march 2020 in Pune. Prevention of community spread and<br>further critical infectious situation, Government of India and Maharashtra State<br>Government declared Lockdown. Globally it is implanted much before than India.<br>Lockdown procedure makes an impact on all sectors of the economy and lives. IT<br>industries also impacted, but the IT sector has a chance of survival because the usage of<br>IT applications is increased due to the Covid-19 impact. But this situation is also<br>unexpected to everyone. IT industries selected location wise from Pune and studied for<br>their domain of work, working tenure of the CEO of the industry also crosschecked, age<br>of the industry also verified. Revenue and profit of organization is a vital parameter of<br>the study which is crosschecked with the three previous year’s performance. The growth<br>total revenue performance of selected Industries tallies with previous year revenue<br>performance, which indicated that total 16.6% of industries having negative revenue<br>performance in 2019 which increased to 33.3% in the year 2020. Thirteen industries<br>having more than 10% (54.1%) in 2019, but in the year 2020 number of industries<br>reduced to eight (33.3%) for 10 % profit margin.</p> Hemant More, Milind A Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2021 Hemant More, Milind A Kulkarni https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2316 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Covid 19 Impact: Blended Learning for Sustainable Management Education the New Normal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/575 <p>Following the emergence of the COVID-19 in December 2019, the Government of india decided to restrict people's interaction and implement a lockdown in order to contain the virus's spread. To facilitate social distance, universities, schools, and a variety of other sectors with a high population density were closed on March 16th, 2020, and staff, students, and other personnel were advised work from home (Annexure MHA 2020). This shift upended nearly everyone's living system, especially those associated with educational institutions.</p> <p>It precipitated a dramatic change away from traditional brick and mortar education toward emergency remote instruction, which was the only option to assure continued education during the epidemic. Business Schools responded quickly; they moved instruction from offline to online form. Educators were compelled to adapt and quickly modify their teaching techniques in order to offer the rest course material online. Covid 19 has changed the way of management education too, technology mediated learning has become an integral part of management education&nbsp; and the way ahead in our new normal. However there is much more to management education than imparting the course, sustainable management education is what the business schools have been striving for sustainable management education&nbsp; is&nbsp; coalescing around 2030 agenda and the Sustainable Development Goals as introduced in new mission statement UN PRME's (2016). As the pandemic develops, academia will need to be trained in new forms of operation. Higher education Institutes are encouraged to develop and implement Blended Learning (BL) policies (Anthony Jnr, 2021).Merely “slapping” technology on what is actually taking place in traditional courses is insufficient for the desired outcomes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Study examines how distant emergency learning has emerged during the COVID-19 epidemic and BL as a way forward for sustainable management education. The study uses the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework Garrison et al. (2001) to investigate predictors, their significance, acceptance and suggestions in BL framework.&nbsp; The study investigates various literatures through numerous research propositions around BL to establish the presence and shortcomings of the three elements of CoI framework in BL approach. Further a qualitative&nbsp;case study methodology is adapted to investigate the perception of&nbsp;five professors who educate in a BL&nbsp;setting within the paradigm of&nbsp; CoI Framework. All five professors have experience&nbsp;in teaching management courses in a BL&nbsp;setting,&nbsp;each professor is&nbsp;treated as a case or unit for data.The study also tries to understand the behavioural intent of educators towards BL in management education. The study was conducted between July and August 2021.</p> <p>There have been studies to understand the perception and behaviour intent of students towards BL; however this study attempts to study the CoI framework in BL in the management education context and study the perception and behaviour intent of the management program educators towards BL.</p> <p>There is a positive correlation between CoI elements and BL. Earlier theory and prior research indicate that both teaching and social presence would influence student assessments of cognitive presence. Teaching presence in Blended learning in turn helps creating social and cognitive presence. The teaching, cognitive, and social presence categories are all significant determinants of students' perceptions of and acceptance of BL. The qualitative case study methodology further confirms the same. The study also reflects on the perception of MBA educators and their behavioural intention towards BL.</p> <p>Pandemic enforced this model of education without any preparations, thereby there have been problems and challenges faced by all the stakeholders of management education. It has been more than one academic year since this pedagogical shift happened.&nbsp; An assessment and insight into the perceptions of educators who are at the centre stage of BL will help us to plan better and incorporate the tools of BL better for the coming academic semesters. After implementing a blended course, it is critical to evaluate at the conclusion of an academic year under pandemic&nbsp;what went well and what may be improved. Continuously seeking fresh inputs&nbsp;and resources should be a priority for anybody who teaches blended courses. This study attempts to provide a comprehensive review of the best practises for designing academic programmes in management education through BL. The majority of programs will have to be updated to incorporate BL best practises.</p> Nidhi Shukla, Dr Copyright (c) 2021 Nidhi Shukla, Dr https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/575 Sun, 19 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A CONSEQUENCE OF TOXIC LEADERSHIP ON EMPLOYEES’ BEHAVIOUR: AN INDEPTH LITERATURE REVIEW https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2678 <p>Leadership has a crucial impact on employees’ behavior, attitude towards work-life. The role of a leader is not to make employees follow them but to empower and lead the team. A leader is a person who acts as a lead to the group and by encourage, guide, direct employees, and influences the behavior of people. The working environment of every organization is different from each other.&nbsp; This literature review looks at the cause-and-effect relationship of Toxic Leadership and Employee behavior. Toxic leaders always think about a leader’s perspective and never consider employees' ideas and thoughts. It can affect employees’ workplace performance and output. To reduce the negative energy spreading due to toxic leaders on other employees and to increases overall work performance.</p> <p>This paper aims to understand the consequences of toxic leadership. Identifying that, toxic attitude of a leader will impact on employees' behavior, mainly the performance and intention of employees to stay due to Toxic Leadership.&nbsp; This study is based on secondary data analysis This research paper, reviewed Leadership, Toxic Leadership, Employees Behaviour, and workplace Behaviour published between 2001 to 2020. So, it is very necessary to keep the workplace positive is an important factor in the modern scenario. To provide resources to employees and ensure that they had emotional and mental resources to face the situation and coping up with the organization to create a positive outlook.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong> Leadership, Toxic Leadership, Employees Behaviour, and workplace Behaviour, Management behavior&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> EMILY MARIA K JOSE Copyright (c) 2021 EMILY MARIA K JOSE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2678 Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Application Application of Artificial Intelligence in implementing Engagement and Progression Loops for effective Consumer Involvement. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/802 <p>Consumers have evolved to such a stage where they are not only looking for an overall shopping experience but also want their say into the complete purchase cycle. It is now imperative for any organization that intends to sell its products or services to involve their prospective customers into the product development as well as sales process. Consumer involvement has become the top priority for all marketing managers across spectrums. This research intends to investigate the evolution of engagement and progression loops through the integration of artificial intelligence for effective consumer involvement. Consumers do not realize the subtle elements that affect their subconscious mind while they are making a purchase decision. Marketeers need to understand the various elements of progression and engagement loops combined with the dexterity off artificial intelligence to make an effective marketing campaign. The field of engagement loops being governed by artificial intelligence is largely untouched by most of the researchers because the gamification of the complete purchase cycle of the consumers is still not very widely accepted in most of the organizations. Marketeers are mostly concentrating on creating an experience for the consumers while they are making a purchase but, what they need to understand is, that most of the consumers have evolved to a stage where they don't just want an experience but also are looking to be involved actively in the complete process of product development and sales. The main problem that we intended to address in this research is to make the marketeers as well as the consumers realize the profound impact of subtle stimuli that affects their purchase decisions.</p> <p>With the influx off artificial intelligence assistants like Alexa into the daily lifestyle of most of the consumers, the marketeers are facing challenges that they never perceived, like most of the marketeers must integrate their marketing campaigns according to the lifestyle of people who are dependent upon the choices provided to them by their artificial intelligence assistants for making their purchase decisions.</p> <p>This research will determine the role of artificial intelligence assistants in shaping the decision-making process of consumers through integrating the offline sales data as well as online purchase behavior on various platforms. People who are using these artificial intelligence assistants in their daily lifestyle will be a part of this research and the impact of these assistance on their purchase decisions is going to be assessed.</p> <p>This research will primarily be done from the perspective of marketeers to gain a better understanding of how the customers are engaging with their artificial intelligence assistants in day-to-day routine and how these customers can be integrated into the marketing process so that they are not only purchasing the product but are also involved in the other value addition steps that are implemented in making the product.</p> <p>This research is unique because we are going to focus specifically on the effect of the evolutionary technology that is being implemented in the artificial intelligence assistants like Alexa and Google dot etc. on the decision-making process of people who have included these artificial intelligence assistants in their daily lifestyle. The concept of engagement and progression loops is not new and has been here since a decade, but it has really involved with the disruption of artificial intelligence and now marketeers must come up with novel ideas to keep the customer engaged in their brand and make them feel that they are benefiting by progressing through using that brand.</p> <p>Gamification of marketing efforts have yielded exemplary results in the past and involvement of artificial intelligence in the concept of engagement and progression loops has raised the bar for all the industries that are involved with products that people tend to take decisions through some amount of involvement. Involving a customer in the preliminary stages of developing the product as well as the marketing campaigns of the product not only makes the customer feel attached to the product but also makes the customer feel important enough to purchase the product and refer it to their social circles.</p> <p>Gamification marketing is so deeply integrated into the lifestyles all consumers that it is very hard for the average consumer to determine the subtle stimuli that affect their thought process and simultaneously their purchase decisions. A good understanding of the basic elements of engagement and progression loops which are an integral part of the gamification marketing spectrum will yield very useful results for the marketing manager. These elements are implemented universally across all product categories and have been researched upon extensively to produce good results.</p> <p>The marketing efforts of almost all organizations are now going digital and digital marketing efforts are not only good for the environment but are also sustainable in terms that digital footprints are very hard to remove hence once a marketeer masters the use of engagement and progression loops to keep the prospective customers involved with the brand, they are going to have a good presence of loyal customers in the market.</p> <p>This research will be the steppingstone to understand the impact of artificial intelligence on consumer purchase behavior. The marketeers will get a better idea of how they can implement the concepts of engagement and progression loops in synchronization with the evolutionary artificial intelligence technology to effectively involve their consumers with the brand.</p> Fawad Ali Khan Fawad Ali Khan, Prof. (Dr.) Nagendra Yadav, Mohd. Azharuddin Mussayib Copyright (c) 2021 Fawad Ali Khan Fawad Ali Khan, Prof. (Dr.) Nagendra Yadav, Mohd. Azharuddin Mussayib https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/802 Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Green Orientation and Customer-Based Brand Equity in FMCG Industry in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/311 <p>In the recent years, the idea of green-oriented approach and policies have gained traction in both academic research as well as corporate research. Companies are now able to identify the long-term benefits of being responsible towards the environment and keep a check on their actions.</p> <p>This paper attempted to understand the relationship between green-orientation of a brand, antecedents of customer based brand equity namely Brand Awareness, Perceived Brand Quality, Brand Loyalty and Brand Association, and Customer-Based Brand Equity with respect to the FMCG Industry in India. It was done to check the validity of the concept that a green-oriented brand image would lead to an increased or better customer-based brand equity.</p> <p>Data was collected from 207 FMCG product consumers from all over India who were above the age of 18 years. It was done by the way of questionnaires on a five point Likert’s scale. The constructs of the questionnaire were based on the variables of the study.</p> <p>Cronbach’s Alpha was calculated for all the constructs which came out to be more than 0.7 for all of them which signified reliable responses. Person’s correlation coefficient was calculated to ascertain the relationship between green orientation and the antecedents of CBBE. All the antecedents had a significantly positive relationship with Green Orientation. Brand Awareness and Brand Loyalty had the most positive relationship with Green Orientation. Multiple Linear Regression was calculated to establish the influence of antecedents of CBBE on CBBE. It was found that Brand Loyalty was the most significant influence on CBBE whereas Brand Association was the least.</p> <p>The results of the study show the contribution of green-oriented approach of brands in enhancing the customer-based brand equity of the brands under study. It was observed that the brands which were more aggressive and active in their activities towards the environment, garnered a more loyal customer base and that the consumers were more aware of these FMCG brands. The results of this research would be helpful for the brands to take decisions accordingly as it may act as an incentive to be more innovative towards sustainable ways of operating.</p> Japneet Kaur Purba, Fezeena Khadir Copyright (c) 2021 Japneet Kaur Purba, Fezeena Khadir https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/311 Tue, 14 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of effective and non-effective change management on organizational performance, a comparative study between Nokia and Samsung https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2961 <p>This research paper focused on the concept of change management from two perspectives. One, where Nokia failed to implement change effectively and two where Samsung did everything right while implementing change. This research identified how failing to understand and implement just three steps of Kotter’s change management can cause catastrophic failure that happed with Nokia. Therefore, from this research paper it can be conclude that if implemented properly change management can improve performance of an organization such as Samsung. On the other hand, if it is not implemented properly, it can hamper performance of an organization such as Nokia.</p> Jaswinder Kaur, Supriya Agrawal, B.Parimala Devi, Niraj Chaudhari Copyright (c) 2021 Jaswinder Kaur, Supriya Agrawal, B.Parimala Devi, Niraj Chaudhari https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2961 Fri, 05 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Measuring Brand Awareness and Brand Perception with reference to Nonstick Cookware in Maharashtra https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2331 <p>Brand Awareness and Brand Perception focus on branding towards products and services. Today’s<br>branding play the important role of engaging customer. Brand equity become a part of brand<br>management. Branding is endorsing products and services. What brand did? The study is examine the<br>dimensions of brand awareness, brand perception and customer purchase intensions on buying<br>behaviour. Brand awareness occurs in consumer memory and adds value to the customer like, brand<br>identify, risk reducer, sign of quality, and trust. How manufacture did? It became sales increase, get<br>more profit, legal protection, loyalty and symbol of quality. A brand strength of competitive position<br>to increase market share.<br>Brand Awareness means ability of a customer can recognize and recall. Brand recall means when<br>customer see a product, recall name and brand recognition means customer ability to identify a brand.<br>Brand image mean how customer perceived value. Brand awareness have been depth and width. The<br>brand depth means how customer recall or identify easily? And width, when customer purchase a<br>product, a brand name will come to their minds. Moreover brand name is most significance elements<br>of the brand.<br>Brand image is customer have been tangible and intangible perceptions, inferences and belief about<br>the brand. Brand image depends in brand association held in customer mind. Brand image had a past<br>total experience period of time. It mean brand attributes of the brand and memory and recall while<br>consume. Brand image have been favourable and unfavourable image depends on brand loyalty.<br>Brand perception towards the customer are individual interprets stimuli received and form of picture<br>on the mind. It customer way to perceive. Brand quality has materials and services, Brand price have<br>been affordable and value for money, Brand experience have been comfortable and performance.<br>Brand likability consists of attractive, reliability and accessibility, and perceived risk become how<br>brand are familiar and unfamiliar.</p> Sachin Shankarrao Hatole, Vishal Gaikwad, D.S. Vilasani Copyright (c) 2021 Sachin Shankarrao Hatole, Vishal Gaikwad, D.S. Vilasani https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2331 Thu, 07 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Negative Impact of Food Neophobia on the People of Chandigarh Tri-City, India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2403 <p>Food neophobia (FN) is the person’s fear to try eating new or unfamiliar foods. Food neophobia is directly attached with low quality of diet in adults; thus, the understanding of the relationship between FN and food consumption in more depth appears to be a key issue [1]. There are various factors that influence this eating behaviour of a person such as fear, taste, unwillingness, bad experience and lack of knowledge etc. The level of food neophobia generally decreases with late childhood to adult and increases with adult to old age.</p> <p>Through the demographical influences or the inherited properties of the individual food neophobia can be displaced.&nbsp; At some point of time in our life we all have said no to some particular food item because of our liking or disliking. Sometimes we do not eat some food due to the fear of trying a new food. A bad experience with a particular food may become the reason with some people not trying new food; similarly, lack of knowledge about different foods has been a factor that many people avoid trying a new food. There may be many other reasons for people to avoid or not trying new food. These eating behaviours of people leave them from getting proper nutrition that they need. Because they have restricted them to limited types of food, they may not be eating enough vitamins or nutrients. It’s been observed that neophobia can not only lead to malnutrition, but it also refrain the individual from social abilities. Food neophobia also restricts the individual from taking the healthier alternative of the food and also restricts in trying the new or traditional food items [2] [3].</p> <p>The aim of the study was to access the relationship between food neophobia with demographic factors, and education in adults living in urban versus rural areas. This research has been conducted in the Tri-city, Punjab India. Primary data was collected from urban, suburban and rural areas through Google forms, print questionnaires and personal interviews. The questionnaire used in the study indicates the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), the gender based choices, questions regarding food choice based on demographic factors like gender, age and income, questions on eating behavior and the different eating habits in relation to urban and rural. Data were collected via questionnaire. Total 600 people of age groups (30-45 years &amp; 46 – 60 years) among diversified population of tri-city, Chandigarh, Panchkula &amp; Mohali were given the questionnaires to fill-up.&nbsp; 441 useful responses were received which includes 246 responses from females and 195 responses from males.</p> <p>The questionnaire was designed in such manner that it captures data regarding age and gender under demography, and education among people residing in rural as well as urban areas of the tri-city.</p> <p>This research will give a insight about the malnutrition due to food neophobia specially in females, we found that geographical location plays an important role and the type of food preferred by urban and rural and the outcomes due to eating habits. This study will give an insight about the eating habits in relation to income and expenditure. We found that food neophobia strongly influence the variables selected for the study. Overall, the results suggest that food neophobia is an important barrier to dietary change and addressing diet-related health problems.&nbsp; Actions focusing on alternate food choices may help to reduce the neophobia in adults thus increase the chances of maintaining the nutritious diet. Certain theoretical and practical implications in relation to food consumption and food neophobia are offered. Further research is recommended to confirm the observed relationships under different socio-cultural conditions.</p> Sushil Kalra, Sachin Bhogal, Kuldeep Kumar, Naveen Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Kaushal Copyright (c) 2021 Sushil Kalra, Sachin Bhogal, Kuldeep Kumar, Naveen Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Kaushal https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2403 Mon, 11 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Designing sustainable business models https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1120 <p>Sustainable Business Modelling is an emerging field of research and has started finding cross-linkages in the literature of sustainable economic development. The idea of building sustainability at the core of a business model is fast becoming a necessity instead of a uniqueness. Although the concept of sustainability is still abstract and evolving, however, when sustainability is coupled with business, the desired outcome is the realization of the triple bottom line. This paper is an attempt to validate the theory of Sustainable Business Models through case study analysis. The paper's tone is explanatory and explores the phenomenon of sustainability in business models through the lens of the tourism industry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Sustainable economic development is both the goal and a challenge for many developing economies. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UNSDGs) also encourage sustainable and equitable growth for the economies.&nbsp; SDG 9 calls explicitly for building resilient infrastructure, promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and fostering innovation (UNDP, 2021). Among the several indicators for SDG 9. The corresponding targets to achieve these goals include developing sustainable, resilient, and inclusive infrastructure and promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialization. Achieving these targets would mean creating employment opportunities, including marginalized populations in the workforce, and ensuring a peaceful co-existence with nature, ecology, and the environment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Sustainable development is a broad term and links to environmental and socio-economic paradigms. Economic stress, poverty, social justice, climate change, and energy crisis are some of the factors that have led the world to question the meaning of sustainable development and reconsider the underlying policies and mechanisms&nbsp;(Elliott, 2012). The transformation to a more sustainable economic system is becoming increasingly desirable because of growing inequality and deteriorating livelihoods.&nbsp;(MartinGeissdoerfer, 2018). Private companies play an essential role in realizing this transition. However, to meet the evolving criterion for sustainability, innovation needs to be sought at a business model level to push sustainable economic growth.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>According to a Brundtland Report published in 1988, the notion of sustainable development bears a strong correlation with sustainable tourism. Although tourism does not feature much in sustainable development literature, sustainable development is consistently featured in tourism literature since the late 1980s.&nbsp;(Lawton D. W.). The report presents a range of indicators for sustainable tourism grouped in the following categories – Environmental, Social, Economic, and Cultural.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The primary consumers and beneficiaries of the sustainable business models are humans. Human beings are gratified by consuming the travel experience, and at the same time, it is another set of humans who benefit economically from this consumption. It does make sense to design business models keeping the human interest in mind. However, tourism consumes natural resources like other industries. Therefore, to keep the sustainability quotient intact, it's imperative to keep human desires balanced while designing sustainable business models.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This paper examined tourism-based business models from the lens of sustainability. We scrutinized the world's tallest statue for the sustainable tourism indicators and the triple bottom line. The 182-meter tall Statue of Unity at Kevadia, Gujarat, was built in memory of Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel, a prominent freedom fighter and the first Deputy PM of India. The authors traveled to the location, surveyed the site for the sustainable tourism indicators, and attempted to assess the sustainability quotient at the level of business models.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This paper attempts to determine the practicality of achieving the triple bottom line in the business models by reducing the design implementations gaps. We also go a step further to recommend that the idea of sustainable business models is non-linear and needs consistent efforts to keep it alive.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>*&nbsp;‘We acknowledge that this case study 'Designing Sustainable Business Models' was developed as a part of the Workshop on Developing Teaching Cases with focus on Responsible Management and UN Sustainable Development Goals facilitated by Professor Radha R Sharma, Dean, Research, New Delhi Institute of Management, New Delhi during June -July 2021'</p> ARVIND DESHMUKH, Dr. Neelam Saxena Copyright (c) 2021 ARVIND DESHMUKH, Dr. Neelam Saxena https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1120 Tue, 21 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Skepticism towards green advertising: A review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/480 <p>Green marketing is no more in nascent stage and companies are really doing great to go green like green labeling, packaging but as far as green advertising communications are concern it is still less explored and there is shortage of literature as well <strong>(Haytko &amp; Matulich, 2008)</strong><strong>;</strong> (<strong>Do Paço &amp; Reis, 2012)</strong><strong>. </strong><strong>(Banerjee et al., 1995)</strong> argued that green advertising is a link between the product and the environment and encourage the people for green and sustainable life style and thereof improve the image of the organization socially. It is a tool for creating awareness between the consumers for the environment and stimulate&nbsp; them to buy the green products and services <strong>(Carlson et al., 1993)</strong><strong>. </strong>Environmental claims must be honest and within the legality of government rules and regulations <strong>Pranee, C. (2010)</strong> and whatever advertising claims have made not only made on final product but also the raw material used, packaging, labelling <strong>(Awad, 2011)</strong><strong>. </strong>In the future if the prospect of green advertising has increased then it will also raise the question of environmental claim because sometimes whatever claims made by the companies are not true and it leads to skepticism and shorten the effectiveness of green advertising communication. Thus, in order to maintain the effectiveness, it is necessary for the companies to design better communication strategies of green advertising <strong>(Mohr et al., 1998)</strong><strong>.</strong> The purpose of this study is to find out the factors which influences consumer’s scepticism towards green advertising and following factors are considered for study environmentally concerned consumer (ECC), conservative behaviour (CB), green buying behaviour (GBB) and the last one is gender (G). Consumers sometimes reflect their disbelief towards green advertising campaigns and in general the consumers who care about the environment doesn’t take green advertising convincing and but exaggerated and suggests that green advertising must be true and ethical and must communicate the environmental aspect of products offered <strong>(Souza &amp; Taghian, 2011)</strong><strong>. </strong>It is seen that more the consumers concerned about the environment the less he cares about the green advertising campaigns and believe that green advertising is false and misleading &nbsp;but it is also suggests that the degree of environmental concerned have a effect on the degree of deception perceive by the consumers in an advertising campaigns <strong>(Newell et al., 1998)</strong>. It is evident from the previous studies that higher degree of scepticism has seen in the consumers if there are any environment claims are depicted on product’s packaging and labelling which in turn decline the consumer’s conservative behaviour towards environment (recycling, energy saving etc) and all this has happened because of false information given by the organizations <strong>(Mohr et al., 1998)</strong>. Those consumers who are interested in buying the green products are generally sceptical towards green advertising claims in general <strong>(Shrum et al., 1995)</strong><strong>. </strong>It is also seen that to avoid the risk of purchasing the green products consumers form a sceptical attitude towards green advertisements <strong>(Laroche et al., 2001)</strong>. The last factor is gender and from the previous study it is believe that women are more conscious regarding environment and more positively inclined towards green product purchase decision and green advertising <strong>(Haytko &amp; Matulich, 2008)</strong>. From the above discussions it is clear that in order to make green advertising communication effective the advertisers/practitioner in the market must segment the consumers on the ground of psychography and demography and provide the truthful and credible green advertising claims accordance with the rules and regulation of government which create a positive attitude.</p> PRAVIN CHANDRA SINGH Copyright (c) 2021 PRAVIN CHANDRA SINGH https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/480 Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Building inclusive societies through Emotional Intelligence based Education systems: Indian perspective to achieve Sustainable Development Goals https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1300 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>UNDESA World Social Report since 1997 to 2021, stresses on Social Development through Social Inclusion. Inclusive societies foster Social Inclusion (United Nations, 1996)which is a multidimensional, cross-sectional concept and also a process to achieve sustainable development goals. In developing countries like India major categorical types of social exclusion are caste and untouchability based, who are termed to be Scheduled Caste(as Dalits) and Scheduled Tribes(as Adivasis)(Ghatak, 2011) . Despite of government policies and schemes being framed since the formation of Constitution of India addressing social inclusion and social justice still remains a challenge. However to build such inclusive societies by transforming individuals to achieve Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), education is the means and the end (Freston, 2019). As such education systems for sustainable development must be an holistic approach that caters emotional factors or dimensions along with physical, psychological, linguistic, social factors that would mainly address the SDG4,Quality Education(<em>Unlocking Your Emotions to Achieve the SDGs | United Nations</em>, n.d.). Leveraging Emotional Intelligence competencies in education systems is the ‘ new normal’ (Wamsler et al., 2020; Warrier et al., 2021). EI based teaching competencies along with core competencies makes up efficient teacher(Kaur et al., 2019; Warrier et al., 2021). Effective teaching builds efficient teaching learning process across multiple educational systems. With the concept of Ashram schools (as household of the teachers)(Wijesinghe, 1987), its presumed that educators are with high level of emotional intelligence to cater to the requirements of sensitive indigenous group but it just remains an assumption and there is a need for emotional intelligent educators to address the challenges faced by ashram school systems. The study aims at developing a conceptual model on Ashram school education systems backed with high EI educators that would contribute to achieve quality education and build inclusive societies. The study relies on secondary data collected through literature review by systematic review of literature. Conceptual model (Figure 1.) developed is grounded on Mixed Model of EI and path-goal theory of leadership. The authors imply that such models of education systems set an example of successful inclusive education systems that guides in improving the literacy rate of a region, motivates even the government, private schools and other ashram schools to relook to involve educators with EI, design a curriculum that enhances the overall wellbeing of an individual and finally to address the issues that are still pertinent in tribal education, despite of inculcating improvement measures. Thus, such education systems would definitely help build inclusive societies whose moto would be to live with peace, justice, equality and pro-environmental mindset. This paper would add knowledge to the existing literature on inclusive education for sustainable development, where not much studies have been carried out on EI based Ashram schools. The first section of the paper deals with the introductory part that briefs on the key constructs selected for the study and explains the importance of EI based ashram schools for achieving quality education. The second section of the paper delineates on the literature review followed by theories used for the study and development of conceptual model that signifies the need for the study and the research gap. Last section of the paper details study implications, conclusion, limitations and scope for future research.<img src="https://spast.org/public/site/images/harshitha_narayana21/conceptualmodel3.drawio.png" alt="Conceptual Model" width="781" height="498"></p> Harshitha N, Dr. Uma Warrier Copyright (c) 2021 Harshitha N, Dr. Uma Warrier https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/1300 Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Vernacular architecture of Kerala in modern world: A way to sustainable development https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/856 <p>Kerala is a land of diverse cultures, traditions and art forms. Each art form has its own significance that represents the style of the specific region and culture. Many of the traditional art forms are going unappreciated and are declining. The revival of these art forms demands an infrastructure that creates an atmosphere reminiscent of Kerala’s traditional spaces, which helps to provide better awareness and visual experience for the spectator.</p> <p>As an impact of globalisation, Kerala was influenced by various cultures around the world, which brought in changes to the traditional architecture of Kerala that had evolved over years. The changes in the build structures led to climatic changes and issues like global warming. It was not solely about the climatic and environmental issues, but also about the loss of the culture and identity of the state. These issues need to be addressed at the earliest, and this calls for the revival of traditional Kerala architecture in the modern world. The traditional Kerala architecture is unique, here the buildings are shaped by the region. These climate responsive buildings that evolved over time needs to be studied to understand how sustainability was the basic guideline for design process. The traditional way of planning spaces created healthier environment, people and community.</p> <p>The proposed cultural performance centre in Kerala aims to bring back the traditional Kerala architecture for addressing various sustainability issues faced by the current era. The integration of these structures with the native Kerala landscape creates good quality outdoor and indoor environment.</p> <p>Through the case study, the research focuses on sustainability potential of vernacular architecture of Kerala, and how the principles and strategies for sustainable development could be drawn from vernacular heritage and be integrated into structures of the present society. The research examines how the sustainable development goals were contained in the vernacular structures in Kerala and how the globalisation brought in changes to the architectural styles which in turn affected the environment, socio economic, and socio-cultural characters of the society.</p> <p>The integration of traditional architectural principles and techniques of designing could be solutions to many sustainable development goals that include good health and well-being (SDG3), affordable energy by using passive methods (SDG 7), climate action (SDG 13) and create sustainable cities and communities (SDG11). The revival of the traditional architecture could make a change in the way of addressing sustainability issues that emerged as the result of globalisation over the years and it could help in creating sustainable and healthy communities.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> lidiya thomas Copyright (c) 2021 lidiya thomas https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/856 Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Managing business in COVID-19 era: Opportunities in E-commerce and Teleworking sector https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2846 <p>Covid19 has had a major impact on how people work, socialize, and plan for the future. This societal split has a significant negative effect on industries, causing not just economic disruption but also instability and disorientation. Simultaneously, as in any major disaster, fresh ways to reinvent the industry in a new light and with a new wind will arise. As a result, the Special Issue's subject is distinctive and original, as the crisis is now occurring; as a result, we seek to accompany, capture, and investigate developments as they arise. It calls undoubtedly for the era of Ecommerce and Teleworking. The business opportunities are expanding remotely today. All organizations must adapt to the new normal which is the Global operating system of businesses. Besides that, the situation that businesses are facing with Covid19 is unique, and it will have a long-term effect on their industry. Many management tactics, business strategies, and procedures that have succeeded in the past would almost certainly fail in the future. Scholars must not only provide new analytical models and structures to understand such shifts, but also new manager