SPAST Abstracts https://spast.org/techrep <p><strong>SPAST Abstracts </strong>publishes the extended abstracts of the papers presented in the First International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021</p> <p><strong>SPAST Abstracts </strong>are open access and provide the audience with the insights into the latest research trends in the field.</p> <p><strong>SPAST Abstracts </strong>is the part of the SPAST Open Access Research series and is google scholar indexed.</p> <p> </p> SPAST Foundation en-US SPAST Abstracts Assessing the Sacrality of Religious Historic Destinations: A case of Braj Mandal, India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3077 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>Religious historic places comprise both built up and natural heritage. The character of a place is studied by three elements of the urban environment namely physical setting, the meaning of place, and activity [1]. Distinctive tangible or physical attributes of religious destinations and intangible attributes contribute to its sacredness [2]. A religious site is a sacred landscape or a ‘faithscape’ that embodies not only the tangible but also the intangible elements that strengthen its sacrality [3]. The identification of associated heritage values or value assessment that contribute to its sacrality or to its cultural significance facilitates its urban conservation planning for future development [4]. Value assessment of cultural heritage sites has been taken up in detail by the Getty Conservation Institute wherein a culturally rich site is believed to have heritage values such as spiritual value, historical value, aesthetic value, economic value, etc.</p> <p>The religious cities are visited by pilgrims to get the benediction from the God and experience its sacred environment. The sacred environment at a religious site is an outcome of the interplay between its associated heritage values. Value Assessment of a religious heritage site is necessary to maintain its sacrality and devise measures for its future development and promote tourism. The current study has taken a case study approach to assess the sacrality of temple towns of Braj Mandal (religious land of Lord Krishna, the famous Hindu God) in India and analyse its heritage values. The associated tangible and intangible values make Braj Mandal, a unique example of a Sacred Landscape [5] . Approximately 130 million pilgrims visit the temple towns of Braj Mandal annually. The analysis of values has been done based on the cognitive perspective of its most important users-the pilgrims. The image and identity of any religious historic city is an outcome of human perception. When people experience and interact with a landscape, certain images/memories related to history are evoked and reinforced [6]. These emotions and experiences help tourists in choosing their travel destinations, and contribute to their recommend intention and revisit intention [7].</p> <p>Value assessment is an important process to determine the parameter/heritage value that must be given priority while formulating the strategies for maintaining the sacrality of religious historic towns. A mixed methodology has been used in this research. For the identification of significant parameters of the sacrality of Braj Mandal town, qualitative techniques such as interviews, direct observation, and participant observation have been used. The value assessment has been carried out primarily through the literature study (different heritage Charters, scholars and organisations) and public opinion survey of pilgrims and other stakeholders. Delphi technique and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) has been used for short listing important parameters of sacrality. The data collection has been done through a survey questionnaire using a five-point Likert scale whose analysis has been done with SmartPLS (statistical software). Four religious precincts of Braj Mandal were considered and the survey was conducted on a total of 350 respondents.</p> <p>In the assessment process, religious value, heritage value, and cultural value of the place came out to be the most significant parameters whereas the scientific value and recreational value took a back seat. On the basis of this, a conceptual model has been developed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The proposed model has helped to firstly, establish the relationship among latent parameters (cultural, heritage &amp; religious value) and their manifested variables (six indicators each for the corresponding parameter). Secondly, it explains the relationship between each parameter and the sacred value of Braj Mandal. The calculated weightages of parameters narrate the revisit intention of pilgrims, preference of Braj Mandal to other religious destinations, and recommendation intention. The model can be validated at similar sites and can be used as a base for all future researches. As per results obtained, the developmental policies should give importance to the heritage value of Braj Mandal which came out to be the most significant. This comprises of tangible values (built heritage) and intangible values (natural heritage &amp; cultural values). Maintaining the heritage significance will strengthen the faith of pilgrims, enhance sacrality and boost tourism. It is essential as there is a significant change in scale, character of buildings, streetscape over the past few decades due to new developments.</p> Sunanda Kapoor Vandana Sehgal Mayank Mathur Harveen Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Sunanda Kapoor, Vandana Sehgal, Mayank Mathur, Harveen Bhandari 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Behavior Changes: Role of Higher Education Institutes in Combating AMR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3109 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The discovery of antimicrobial drugs in the mid twentieth century revolutionized the treatment of infections in humans and animals. They are responsible for saving uncountable lives since their discovery by declining the mortality and morbidity due to infectious illnesses. However, the emergence of microorganisms resistant to antimicrobials is now posing a grave universal public health threat <a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1">[i]</a>. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a multifarious and complex problem affecting humans, animals, plants and the environment<a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2">[ii]</a>.</p> <p>It has considerable impact at local, national and global level. As per WHO 2019 report, approximately seven lakh people die per year as a result of drug-resistant illnesses. Every year in the United States, about twenty eight lakh humans get an antibiotic resistant contagion; however, greater than thirty five thousand succumb lives as a result of it <a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3">[iii]</a>. Resistant infections often require treatment with more toxic, costly drugs and with extended hospitalization. Resistant infections also have an outcome on animal health ensuing challenges in effective disease prevention and treatment choices<a href="#_edn4" name="_ednref4">[iv]</a>.</p> <p>Antimicrobial resistance is an occurrence which happens when microbes have a greater probability to stay alive and reproduce on exposure to usual anti-infective drugs. The important factors of AMR include the inappropriate usage of antibiotics, the transmission of healthcare associated infections to communities, non compliance to infection prevention and control procedures within health care agencies, microbial spread between animals and human beings via the food chain and environmental factors such as disposal of waste water from homes, hospital, manufacturing, or farm animals sites<a href="#_edn5" name="_ednref5">[v]</a><sup>, </sup><a href="#_edn6" name="_ednref6">[vi]</a><sup>,</sup><a href="#_edn7" name="_ednref7">[vii]</a> .</p> <p>There are many factors responsible for development of antimicrobial resistance. Four main areas are implicated in the evolution of antibiotic resistance: mankind treatment, animal production and agriculture, and the environmental section. The insufficient knowledge regarding action, correct dosing, adverse effects and concept of antibiotics as “wonder drugs” for any ailment leads to inappropriate and excessive usage among people which is facilitated by easy purchasibility even without any prescription. Use of antimicrobials for promoting growth, disease prevention &amp; treatment amongst food-producing animals and aquaculture is also a sizable contributor in the development of AMR<a href="#_edn8" name="_ednref8">[viii]</a> (Marshall, 2011).</p> <p>Considering the emerging reality of AMR, there is an urgent need for action to overcome the developing worldwide crisis. Because human, animal and environmental heaths are connected, it is essential to consider the emergence and spread of AMR from a One Health perspective. One Health is the joint effort of several disciplines and sectors recognizing the interconnection between people, animals, plants and our shared environment in the development of AMR <sup>4</sup>(CDC, 2019).</p> <p>Keeping in consideration the magnitude of the AMR and the impending awful outcomes on wellbeing &amp; economy, the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the “Global Action Plan (GAP)” in 2015 <a href="#_edn9" name="_ednref9">[ix]</a>(WHO, 2017).&nbsp; Subsequently, various nations then developed their own National action plans (NAPs). The “Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,” India also published its “National Action Plan” in April 2017. This five year NAP (2017–2021) highlights the main concerns and execution approaches for AMR control in India (NAP-AMR, 2019). In the year 2016, various pharmaceutical, biotechnology and diagnostics industries signed “Davos Declaration” on combating antimicrobial resistance<a href="#_edn10" name="_ednref10">[x]</a> (AMR Industry Declaration, 2016).</p> <p>Prevention and control of AMR is a multifarious, multi-stage process and requires a wide range of community partnerships and expertise beyond the traditional partners in public health. There is a need to engage a variety of key stakeholders to control, contain and mitigate the AMR.</p> <p>Higher education institutes (HEIs), the centers of creativity and innovation can serve an important role to influence the health and wellbeing of communities. HEIs are also a valuable community treasure with roles in education, training and research. They possess intellectual &amp; skilled expertise, the authority and the trustworthiness in developing, testing and disseminating knowledge, skills &amp; sustainable innovative solutions to facilitate behavior change amongst target audience. The accomplishment of the health promoting movement relies on the ability of HEIs to integrate a commitment to health within the policies and procedures.</p> <p>There is an unmet need to change the key drivers of AMR like erroneous culture of demand, availability, prescription and use of antimicrobials. Behavioural modifications through improved awareness &amp; sustainable solutions are a global public health priority against Antimicrobials resistance (AMR). The designing and evaluation of behaviour change interventions should incorporate the use of appropriate theory. <a href="#_edn11" name="_ednref11">[xi]</a><sup>, </sup><a href="#_edn12" name="_ednref12">[xii]</a>( Glanz &amp; Bishop,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175406/#bjhp12317-bib-0016">2010</a>; Noar, Benac, &amp; Harris,&nbsp;<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6175406/#bjhp12317-bib-0045">2007</a>).</p> <p>Different educational initiatives could actually reduce the antibiotics prescription and&nbsp; usage. Educational programs such as seminars<a href="#_edn13" name="_ednref13">[xiii]</a> (Corvoisier et al, 2013), campaigns<a href="#_edn14" name="_ednref14">[xiv]</a><sup>,</sup><a href="#_edn15" name="_ednref15">[xv]</a> (Santis et al, 1994; Monette et al, 2007), focused group education using evidence-based medicine and communication skills<a href="#_edn16" name="_ednref16">[xvi]</a><sup>, </sup><a href="#_edn17" name="_ednref17">[xvii]</a> (Cals et al, 2009, Finkelstein&nbsp; et al, 2001), educational outstation camps<a href="#_edn18" name="_ednref18">[xviii]</a><sup>,</sup><a href="#_edn19" name="_ednref19">[xix]</a> (Welschen et al, 2004; Altiner et al,2007), flyer or leaflets&nbsp; and a combination of any of these strategies<a href="#_edn20" name="_ednref20">[xx]</a> (Enriquez-Puga et al, 2009)&nbsp; are very effective and lead to reduction of 30-40% in usage of antibiotics. Along with usage, the prescription of antibiotics is also found to be reduced as an impact of educational programs.</p> <p>Besides awareness programs, other strategies like feedbacks, audits, decisive support system, clinical reminders, and financial and regulatory incentives were also been utilized as behavioural change programs. The mixed intervention programs are more effective in comparison with single program and found to be effectual for patient education<a href="#_edn21" name="_ednref21">[xxi]</a><strong><sup>, </sup></strong><a href="#_edn22" name="_ednref22"><strong>[xxii]</strong></a><strong>(</strong>Doyne et al 2004; Francis et al, 2009), delayed prescriptions <a href="#_edn23" name="_ednref23">[xxiii]</a>(Macfarlane et al, 1997) and decision support system<a href="#_edn24" name="_ednref24">[xxiv]</a> (Metlay et al, 2007). Combined/ mixed interventions are more effective in reducing the antibiotics prescription than the single intervention using educational measures only.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Few studies were identified in countries such as France, England and Czech Republic where &nbsp;innovative educational programs like &nbsp;“e-Bug teaching pack” were implemented among school children and &nbsp;found&nbsp; to be &nbsp;effective<a href="#_edn25" name="_ednref25">[xxv]</a>.</p> <p>Advisory Committee on “Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infection” (ARHAI) Education sub-Group agreed to an antimicrobial campaign in which posters were prepared helping public understand on how to handle an ailment like cold. Physicians are also being encouraged to share information with public on expected course of symptoms, self care, benefits and hazards of antibiotics usage. The “General Medical Council” in 2009 requested all HEIs’ Deans to make certain that prevention and control of contagion and prescription of antimicrobials should be taught in clinical settings to both undergraduate and postgraduate medical students<a href="#_edn26" name="_ednref26">[xxvi]</a> (McNulty, Cookson &amp; Lewis, 2012).</p> <p>HEIs can take up the responsibility of creating awareness among target audiences through different traditional and innovative tools. There are numerous strategies which can be employed by the HEIs to contribute towards prevention and control of AMR. Strategies towards promotion of behavioral modifications, development of innovative solutions and policies are a few that can help in achieving the goal. The priority audience for such strategies includes Public, Health care prescribers, Pharmacists and policy makers.</p> <p>To educate prescribers and public about prudent use of antibiotics, interventions based on their educational level needs to be developed and implemented. Till now most of the educational efforts were targeted to medical professionals and its success has reinforced the idea that educational programs to reduce antibiotic use should be prepared for other groups as well. It is crucial to develop appropriate curricula for teaching medical and nonmedical undergraduate students about microbial virulence, general medicine, antibiotic resistance, and cautious antibiotic prescribing<a href="#_edn27" name="_ednref27">[xxvii]</a> ( Lee et al, 2015).</p> <p>The following article discusses the impact of AMR, importance of Behavior change and Role of Higher educational institutions in developing, testing and disseminating knowledge, innovative solutions to facilitate behavior change amongst target audience.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Meenakshi Sood Vinay Kumari Bunty Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Meenakshi Sood, Vinay Kumari, Bunty Sharma 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Determinants of inappropriate selection in government sector organizations https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3142 <p>The rationale behind the current paper is to explore the aspects that drive selection based inappropriateness in government sector organizations. The study derives from existing literature and leverages the individual and job fit prospects as shaping the mismatch between individual trainee’s competencies and job requirements&nbsp; [1-4]. The study further ascertains the consequences for role engagement and resultant selection inappropriateness. The paper embeds the chronological approach as well as the contingent approach in interpreting the influences on selection based inappropriateness in selections across government sector based organizations[6]. The study harnesses the concepts from across contingency perspective, individual resources and dynamic capabilities approach and the human resource-based job fit prospects. The paper relies on the factor analysis approach to ascertain the representing factors and deploys multivariate structural equation modelling approach to ascertain the relationships across the constituent factors [5]. The Doctoral research would contribute towards widening the understanding of the factors that shape the section-based inappropriateness in the recruitment processes. The study observed direct impact of individual’s perceptions of over-qualification, attitudinal issues as well as job-person fit; as shaping the prospective mismatch between the individual and job. Under the contextual influence of psychological strain, the mismatch and role engagement were observed to cast impact on selection based errors.</p> Gaurav Tiwari Copyright (c) 2021 Gaurav Tiwari 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 AI Based Novel Approach to Detect Driver Drowsiness https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3178 <p>Vehicle accidents due to driver drowsiness are the biggest problem all over the world. It leads to millions of road accidents result in fatal and non-fatal accidents and huge financial losses not only for drivers but also for their victims and their families. According to various countries road accident reports, driver drowsiness represents up to 30% of all vehicle crashes [1]. This is the major concern for all the countries where huge accidents occur on the roads. To overcome vehicle accidents and provide safety to all commuters on the roads, a smart driver drowsiness detection system is required to detect the drowsy state of the driver in the early stage. Lots of research are going on in the field of driver drowsiness detection system by the researchers all over the world. Many techniques and methods proposed by various researchers. The three main measures that detect driver drowsiness: vehicle- based, physiological and behavioural [2]. Vehicle-based and physiological measures are traditional/conventional approaches that are used to detect driver drowsiness. But these approaches have number of limitations like road conditions, driver expertise and intrusiveness which is very difficult to implement in real driving conditions. The behavioural measure is the new way to detect driver drowsiness. It is based on the face recognition technique where major signs i.e. eye state, head movement and frequently yawning can be captured by the camera. Further, these images that are recorded by the camera can be analysed by AI or its subsets. i.e. machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL). ML and DL play a vital role to develop the visual-based driver drowsiness detection system. There are number of algorithms that are used to detect the drowsy state of the driver [3]. It is challenging to select the appropriate algorithms that detect drowsiness with high accuracy.</p> <p>Fig 1. represents the DL and ML that is subsets of AI</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>ML is a subset of artificial intelligence that serves to provide the machines with the ability to automatically learn and act based on previous experience. DL, in its turn, is a subset of machine learning. DL is the machine learning method that allows computers to mimic the human brain to complete classification tasks on images or non-visual data sets. Deep learning uses the only algorithm-neural network similar to the human neural system to data mining and analyses various factors.</p> <p>In behavioural measures, the facial features are extracted by the computer vision algorithm i.e. landmark localization (LL), Histogram of orient gradient (HOG) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP). After extraction of various facial features, the ML or DL based algorithms are analysed the three states of the driver. i.e. eye state, yawning analyses and head position.&nbsp; Various algorithms for filtering the states of the driver i.e. SVM, CNN, HMM etc. ML-based and MTCNN, DSST, KCF+CNN etc. DL based algorithms that are used. Each algorithm used a different dataset to analyse the state of the driver and most of the datasets has a limited set of images and are unable to provide complete results [4]. A meta-analysis has been conducted on 20 papers that use ML and DL based algorithms to detect driver drowsiness. The analyse reveals that DL based algorithms perform better to detect the drowsy behaviour of the driver as compare to ML. In addition, modified CNN based algorithms have a high detection rate and less false detection.</p> Jaspreet Singh Bajaj Naveen Kumar Rajesh Kumar Kaushal Copyright (c) 2021 Jaspreet Singh Bajaj, Naveen Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Kaushal 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 A Review: Synthesis and Application of Biomolecule Derived Graphene Quantum-dots https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3215 <p>Among the carbon allotrope, graphene quantum-dots (GQD) have been attracted tremendous attention due to unique physicochemical properties, such as high surface area, excellent electrochemical properties, unique drag delivery capacity etc. The major source of GQD is graphite derived graphene and bio-resources. Interestingly, this review focus on synthesis of GQD from biomolecules. Basically, biomolecules consisted with multiple bonded carbon with oxygen, hydrogen and oxy-hydrogen moieties. By chemical reactions it will converted into GQD and applicable for many advance applications. The physicochemical properties are described according to its applications.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Gaytri Baljinder Kaur Meenakshi Dhiman Partha Khanra Copyright (c) 2021 Gaytri, Baljinder Kaur, Meenakshi Dhiman, Partha Khanra 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Gamification: A new approach to facilitate e-recruitment https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3247 <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>Gamification has been considered as the inclusion of game features into non-game context. With the advent of novel technologies, gamification has provided novel opportunities for recruiting talented professionals. In fact, gamification has made the recruitment process more interactive. The purpose of this research is thus to review the existing literature on gamification and its role in making recruitment interactive.</p> <p><strong>Literature review</strong></p> <p>Previous research studies have focussed upon the significance of gamification in attracting talented professionals [1-4]. These studies highlighted the significance of gamification in e-recruitment. The study by Fauziyah [1] confirmed that entwining work and play improves engagement and creativity. Gamification improves branding and increases the applicants’ interest in job [6]. Gamified environment motivates the activities of individuals and triggers substantial modifications in their behaviour [5]. The study thus tries to review several theoretical and empirical papers and will identify research propositions to facilitate e-recruitment through gamified activities. In this literature review, some of the important topics covered are: conceptualizing gamification, advantages of gamification over game-based learning, theoretical connections to gamification, connecting gamification to motivation and engagement, emotions and fun in gamification, and implementation guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong></p> <p>This research will contribute to the existing literature by identifying the role of gamification in e-recruitment by proposing a conceptual model on the basis of literature review. The modal could further be empirically validated to understand the impact of gamification in e-recruitment. The model emerging from the literature review will help to understand which elements of gamification. This research would be one of the initial studies in Indian context to study the impact of gamification on e-recruitment.</p> Aditya Pal Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Aditya Pal Singh 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 A Review paper on Machine Learning Applications, Advantages and Techniques https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3442 <p>With the enlightenment of knowledge and the inception of databases in large number, how to fetch the important information from the raw data is the major problem which is needed to be solved. Machine learning is a technique which is helpful in solving this issue with more accuracy and in a faster way. Machine learning is the branch of Artificial Intelligence which is helpful in various research areas and is the backbone of its success. Machine learning working process is to train the data and the algorithm develops some rules, based on that learning, evaluation is done with the test data to generate results without human intervention. This paper portrays the various application areas of machine learning along with its advantages and drawbacks[1-2]. This paper also describes the various supervised and unsupervised algorithms with their categories which are used to solve various problems. In this review, significant literature survey is done on various applications and techniques of Machine Learning. In addition, description about the various areas of machine learning is also well defined and categories are elaborated extensively. The main highlights of this paper are to describe the use of various supervised and unsupervised techniques with examples. As supervised techniques work better for smaller dataset whereas unsupervised for larger dataset. The study also stimulates that no technique can be outlined as perfect technique. Machine Learning can be used in various disciplines and the choice of algorithm used depends on the type of applications. This paper will help the researcher in finding various application areas of machine learning and also help the researcher in selection of particular techniques according to the situation. Moreover, the researcher can also learn the detailed knowledge about machine learning. This work can be extended further with comparison of machine learning and deep learning techniques[3-4]. Deep learning techniques can also be added and a comparative analysis is done to conclude the best approach. This area has vast scope and is helpful for the researcher in detection of various crop problems, Disease detection like cancer detection, skin problems etc</p> Neelam Dahiya Sheifali Gupta Sartajvir Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Neelam Dahiya, Sheifali Gupta, Sartajvir Singh 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Valuation of Growth Start-Up: A New Approach by Drawing Analogies and Variations Among Existing Methods https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3522 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>The valuation of a budding start-up is a complex task for researchers, academicians, and practitioners because of its inherent nature of high growth potential and high risk, uncertainty. These characteristics of the startup make traditional valuation methods inappropriate for startup valuation. Without comprehensive assimilation of business models and underlying value drivers at every stage, the process of valuation can become an unrealistic and difficult task. In this context, the current study elucidates various valuation methods and their appropriateness in start-ups with the help of a literature review. Different types of valuation methods of growing start-ups were compiled from established research literature and focus was given to valuation methods like DCF method, Venture Capital Method, Revenue multiple methods, Real options valuation method, binomial tree structure, and First Chicago method. Secondly, the possible methods of modifying the assumptions of these models are proposed in this study to improve the accuracy of valuation. Finally, this study also identifies the significance of the supplementary role of non-financial information in the valuation process. </em></p> Minnu F Pynadath Sam Thomas Copyright (c) 2021 Minnu F Pynadath, Sam Thomas 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Chronotherapeutic drug delivery Systems – an approach in the management of diseases based on circadian rhythm https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2993 <p>Chronotherapeutic systems are based completely on circadian needs and response of the body and the need of the drug to be in its maximum concentrations at a particular time of the day, the fact being supported by many of the ailments which produce the related symptoms at a particular time of the day.&nbsp;Here the approaches have been utilized to prepare a delivery system as per the rhythmic cycles of the human body. These rhythmic cycles run various body functions in human beings such as metabolic process, physiology of man, behavior, sleep patterns, hormone production. The people of diabetes mellitus are observed to have increased level of glucose in the blood, instantly after taking the food as compared to other timings during the day and night. The pulsatile response i.e. delivering the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) after a lag time so as to follow a complete and rapid drug release pattern. These approaches are also known as period scheduled systems since the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) which has been released is free of the surroundings [1-3]. These approaches are important for systems that have high first-pass effect and for the drugs which are best absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, going in small intestine; in colon, and in the situations where night dose is required. Drug delivery system which is orally controlled are often used in practice as they are more convenient dosage form. In this approach the release of the drug takes place within the absorption site for prolonged time state. Being having a response of passive process towards extraneous variations, the circadian cycles are controlled by endogenous biological clocks. For example, in animals, a pacemaker is the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) that observes various non-therapeutic processes lightening therapy, sleepiness and rhythmic therapy) and therapeutic processes of various diseases influences the circadian rhythms internally [4-6]. The patterns of circadian have been well observed. The final observation of different studies related top epidemiology depicts a danger of various conditions during the cycle of 1 day. Now treating various diseases with immediate action of drug is not possible if the disease is having symptoms which are prevalent in the night time or during day time, so an approach that is modified process of releasing the drug. To optimize an approach with regard to efficiency, patient compliance chronotherapeutic formulations have been practiced upon which are considered to be potential in delivering the drug with therapeutic levels. Chronotherapeutic diseases include asthma, diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer.&nbsp; Pharmacological aspects Chronotherapeutic systems are intended to be taken or administered at a specific time of the day typically bed time due to the symptom presentation of the conditions following rhythmic behavior (asthma, allergic rhinitis, rheumatoid arthritis, angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, and hypertension) being prominent in the middle of the night or in the morning hours[7]. There are also certain conditions such as osteoarthritis for which the painful symptoms worsen in the evening hours for which the development of such systems may not be necessary as an immediate release tablet would suffice. Inadvertently if a patient takes the medicine in the morning hours which is intended to be taken at bed time, then the purpose of formulating the dosage form for achieving the said objective becomes futile due to obvious reasons. What is meant by this is an ideal chronotherapeutic formulation should be such that it releases the drug in response to a change in the body conditions, that is, the drug release should trigger in response to the change in physiology of the body. For example, if a patient suffers high blood pressure in the morning hours, the increase in the blood surge should automatically trigger the drug release from a chronotherapeutic formulation already in the body [8-10]. Literature review has been done from database including pubmed, science direct scopus and elsevier using key words: chronotherapy, time released systems and chronopharmaceuticals. This review aims to discuss the need for chronotherapy in drug deliver, its pharmacological aspects along with some formulation technologies used in chrono pharmaceuticals. The expected outcome of the proposed review work is that it offer the way to administer the&nbsp; medication in comfortable, convenient and in noninvasive manner which offer the advantage of dose reduction, minimization of drug resistance and improved bioavailability over conventional, sustained and controlled- release products drug delivery system.</p> Shilpi Rajni Bala Copyright (c) 2021 Shilpi, Rajni Bala 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Spam Filtering using Deep Neural Network https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3036 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Email is considered as one of the safest ways to communicate electronically and send data or information over the internet. Meanwhile, several unwanted emails are produced in mass for financial gain and are referred to as spam. Spam is defined as an unsolicited e-mail transmitted at a huge amount without the recipient's permission. Spam is a big concern that not only enrages recipients but also takes their resources. Several Machine Learning and deep learning methods have attempted to differentiate between spam and ham emails. The paper focuses on deep learning based method utilized for spam filtering. This paper suggests an approach for detecting Spam and Ham email/message from three different datasets called SMS spam collection, SpamAssassin and Ling-spam dataset by using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN). The accuracy obtained for detection of spam on SMS spam, Ling-spam and SpamAssassin datasets is 98%, 99% and 97.89% respectively which is better, suggesting that the approach is effective.</p> <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Email is defined as a method that allows people to deliver messages over the internet in an electronic format. It provides an effective, low-cost, and real-time method of disseminating knowledge amongst people. The growth in prevalence and usage of emails for business dealing such as transactions has resulted in a spike in the number of spam messages being sent around the world. Email spam is known to send redundant, unsolicited and unwanted emails to multiple users [1]. Advertisement, marketing, and the transmission of backdoors or malware attacks are all targets of spam. One of the main motives for spammers is financial gain, it is estimated that spammers make around 3.5 million US dollar a year from spam [2]. The consequences of not detecting the spam include a persistent influx of spam that not only blocks systems or networks and negatively affects client inboxes, but also impacts valuable resources including bandwidth and computing space, and also causes the slow delivery of legit emails/messages. &nbsp;Even though the advancement of anti-spam filters and innovations, the amount of spam emails continues to rise at an alarming rate. To combat this increasing issue, each corporation must assess the resources accessible and identify the best way to eliminate spam in the specific context. Methods of machine learning and deep learning are utilized widely in artificial intelligence (AI) based techniques for spam filtering [3]. A lot of research has been carried out on email spam by using different traditional algorithms of machine learning such as Naive Bayes (NB), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Random Forest (RF), Decision Trees (DT), Bagging and Boosting methods. These traditional algorithms have proven to be very useful in dealing with spam. But these classifiers relied on handcrafted features derived from training data, which is considered as a challenging and repetitive process. The major work that has been carried out on traditional spam detection classifiers is addressed by [4].</p> Naina Nisar Megha Chhabra Nitin Rakesh Copyright (c) 2021 Naina Nisar, Megha Chhabra, Nitin Rakesh 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Hill Tourism and its Impact on Economy and Employment Generation: A Review of Almora District, Uttarakhand https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3092 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Travel and tourism are some of the most important economic industries in the world, contributing significantly to GDP, jobs, exports, and taxes. According to the World Travel &amp; Tourism Council (WTTC), tourism contributed about $6 trillion to the world economy in 2011, accounting for 9% of global GDP. In the case of India tourism is the 3rd highest net earning resource of foreign exchange as compared to other sectors. Tourism contributes roughly 2.78 percent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), according to research by the Central Ministry of Tourism. Tourism generates about 4.59 percent of direct jobs in the economy. India is a nation that has diversity in every aspect whether it is natural, linguistic, or cultural. Hill towns are popular tourist destinations as they are famous for their natural beauty and distinguishing cultural traditions. The Himalayan hilly belt is a major destination for tourists seeking adventure, spirituality, and peace. Jammu Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Assam, Sikkim, Meghalaya, and Arunachal Pradesh are the seven Indian states in the Himalayan region, which run from North Western to South Eastern direction [1]. Despite being major tourist attractions people from the upper hills tend to migrate from these upper hills to the urban areas in the plains majorly in the search of economic stability and employment opportunities.&nbsp; One such state is Uttarakhand which is the youngest among the Himalayan hilly states. Since the formation of the Uttarakhand state there has been political instability with each government not meeting the expectations, thus forcing people to out migrate in search of easier employment opportunities and leaving the struggle and challenges of the hilly life behind. Several literature were stressed on to validate the identified factors that can have a potential significance on the tourist footfall of a destination. The creation of new visitor profiles is a continuous process that results from the dynamics of societal change [2]. Several researchers have also talked about the role of infrastructure in developing tourism. Tourism development is linked to the development of tourism infrastructure and recreational facilities [3]. Another most important factor was policymaking, Vision and foresight are required to guarantee that every sector or industry sails in the correct direction, ready to confront the future with optimism while being pragmatic [4]. Researchers have also focused that the policies should be inclusive. The success of policies in reaching targeted outcomes is dependent on close collaboration between various government agencies and top-level institutional support [5]. The role of sustainable tourism holds its firm place as tourism uses natural resources and it can threaten the ecology. Assessing the environmental implications of a given economic sector can provide a more detailed picture of how economic activities affect a country's environmental performance [6]. Sustainability is viewed as a critical component of tourism competitiveness [7].&nbsp; Branding and promotion play a vital role in the outreach of the assets. People's perceptions of a tourism location are reflected in the tourism brand, which represents both their expectations and the destination's marketing promise [8]. The methodology includes a review of all existing literature to find out the significant indicators that influence tourism practices. A conceptual framework was formed on the given variables keeping tourist footfall as the inverse variable which has a direct impact on employment and economic generation. The state of Uttarakhand is divided into two regions i.e Kumaon and Garhwal. This paper takes up the case of the Almora district which lie in the Kumaon region and has seen high outmigration patterns in recent years. The paper aims to study the tourism potential and explore its associated challenges in the Almora district to derive some key indicators.&nbsp;&nbsp; It attempts to analyse whether the identified indicators have any direct influence on creating employment opportunities and revenue generation. This study will prove to be a good roadmap for the planners and other agencies who are consistently working for the betterment of hill people as it will create employment opportunities and contribute to revenue generation thereby stopping/decreasing outmigration in the hill states. Conclusively, despite having high tourism potential some of the Himalayan hill states face high outmigration patterns. The state of Uttarakhand is one such example where the outmigration from the hills has been high majorly due to employment opportunities in the plain areas. Several researchers have pressed on the role of various factors which directly or indirectly influence the success of tourism and add to employment opportunities and generate revenues for the state. The key factors identified such as tourist profile, tourism typologies and facilities, tourism policies, environmental sustainability and tourism branding and promotion can act as the major driving force for improving tourism. The findings indicate that the tourism practices in Almora district lack in some or the another way. Despite many efforts made by the Uttarakhand Government to increase tourism, more research is needed to develop an effective framework to deal with this and boost tourism for increased employment and economic generation.</p> Prateek Dhasmana Harveen Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Prateek Dhasmana, Harveen Bhandari 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Comparison of Different Mobile Wireless Technology (From 0G to 6G) https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3124 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>It's been over 100 years since Guglielmo Marconi first demonstrated the ability of radio to stay in touch with ships using it [1]. In a short period, mobile wireless has advanced significantly. Mobile wireless technology has evolved from Zero Generation (0G) through the first, second, and third-generation systems during the last several decades to increase Quality of Service (QoS), efficiency, and performance [2]. There is now a shift to fourth-generation (4G) systems being implemented. Shortly, mobile devices will have access to 4G and 5G networks. 1G technology made mass mobile wireless communication possible. Since analog technology was superseded by digital in the 1990s, two-generation (2G) wireless communication has evolved tremendously. New converged networks that handle both voice and data transmission simultaneously are emerging as a result of 3G technology's focus on voice communication [3]. 5G research is looking at the expansion of the WWW, dynamic ad hoc wireless networks, and more. From one generation to the next, people have been involved in the Mobile Wireless Generation. Mobile wireless communication makes tremendous development every time a new version is released to the realm of technology [4].</p> Reeya Agrawal Copyright (c) 2021 Reeya Agrawal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Binocular vision anomalies and stereopsis: A mini review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3159 <p>Binocular vision is the process of combining information from both eyes into a single binocular percept. The proper functioning of binocular vision is dependent on visual apparatus anatomy, motor and sensory system. Any anomaly in these three systems makes binocular vision difficult or impossible to utilize. Binocular vision anomalies may be strabismic and nonstrabismic. Accommodative and vergence binocular vision anomalies are the two types of nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. Accommodative insufficiency, accommodative infacility (accommodative inertia), and accommodative excess (accommodative spasm) are the three basic types of accommodative abnormalities. Convergence insufficiency, convergence excess, divergence insufficiency, divergence excess, basic esophoria, basic exophoria, and fusional vergence dysfunction are seven different types of vergence anomalies. Stereopsis (depth perception) is the visual ability to perceive the environment in three dimensions (3D) - length, width, and depth - which allows a person to judge the distance between him and an object. Depth perception is influenced by a number of visual inputs known as depth cues.3D pictures can be perceived with normal binocular vision and motor and sensory integration. Mean stereoacuity is more likely to be lowered in situations with refractive errors, accommodative or vergence anomalies than in cases without such anomalies. Stereoacuity was much lower in people with refractive errors or accommodative anomalies than in people with vergence anomalies. Patients with aberrant binocular vision (ABV), such as strabismus, amblyopia, and anisometropia, may have a range of fusional ability that varies and Binocular functions can be improved with the right visual training. The aim of this mini review is to focus on the effect of different binocular vision anomalies on stereopsis.</p> Shankar Dass Bunty Sharma Digvijay Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Shankar Dass, Bunty Sharma, Digvijay Singh 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Role of Glucokinase Enzyme in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3196 <p>Type 2 diabetes is distinguished by increased amount of glucose in blood. It may be caused by inappropriate pancreatic β-cell secretion associated with insulin resistance, which is most evident in the liver and skeletal muscle [1]. Because diabetes has a polygenic base and several genes (over 20 according to the most recent count) are implicated in its aetiology, western lifestyles characterised by little exercise and a high caloric intake are key contributing factors to the global diabetes epidemic(T2D) [2]. Current therapies, like as dietary adjustments and pharmacological therapy such as insulin, appear to be ineffective in reversing the trend. As a result, novel techniques, such as the development of new chemical entities with unique modes of action, are required. The glucose phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase (GK) has been recognised as an excellent drug target for designing and developing antidiabetic drugs due to its glucose sensor function in pancreatic cells and as a rate-controlling enzyme for clearance of liver carbohydrate and synthesis of glycogen, all of which are inhibited in diabetic patients (T2D) [3]. GK is a critical regulator of glucose-dependent insulin release in pancreatic beta cells, as well as a significant player in blood glucose regulation. It increases glycogen synthesis in hepatic cells and is a crucial actor in blood glucose regulation [4-5]. Variants in the GK gene, such as nonsense, missense, and other mutations, can cause a variety of diabetes. GK mutation-related diabetes is included in the maturity onset diabetes (MODY) category with the label MODY2. In comparison to the general population, patients with MODY2 exhibited reduced hepatic glycogen generation after three meals, and their hyperglycaemia had a weak inhibitory influence on liver glucose performance [6-8]. In the early twenty-first century, La Roche's creation of allosteric GK activators was a watershed moment. It provided pharmaceutical advice for the GK glucose sensor model, as well as a possible experimental approach and hope for a novel diabetes cure. Since then, both academia and industry have conducted substantial research into GK activators [9-11].</p> <p>GK acts as a "glucose sensor" in pancreatic cells, triggering insulin secretion in response to glucose, and as a "glucose gate-keeper" in hepatic cells, enabling glucose absorption as well as glycogen synthesis and storage. GK's intended substrate glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate (with magnesium adenosine triphosphate) as it is active (G6P). G6P is a glycogen synthase activator as well as a substrate for glycogen synthesis [12-15].When glucose levels are beyond the physiological range, GK activity is restricted by its poor affinity for glucose (Km<sub>0.5</sub> of 7-8 mmol/L), so both biochemical properties and kinetics play a dual function. GK is not blocked by G6P and it has a non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics and an inflection point of 4-5 mmol/L, which is comparable to the insulin secretion threshold. This guarantees a graded response to changes in glucose levels, and GK activity enters a plateau period when glucose levels are near to the physiological limit for insulin secretion caused by glucose (5 mM) [16-17].Below 10 mM concentration of glucose, this enzyme present in the liver is retained as an idle complex in association with endogenous inhibitor, the glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), which confers much lower affinity for its substrate [18-19]. GKRP acts as a competitive glucose regulator in the hepatic cell, sequestering GK when blood glucose levels are low and detaching from enzyme GK when blood glucose levels are high [20]. As a result of the foregoing GK-mediated mechanisms, blood glucose levels are reduced in both direct and indirect ways. As a result, it seems reasonable to suggest that controlling GK activity could be a novel way to interfere with glucose homeostasis, given that GK activation lowers glucose levels and GK activity is low in T2DM patients [21].</p> <p>The chemical composition of these small compounds (GKAs) can be used to categorize them (carbon-, urea-, 1,2,4-substitutedaryl-, 1,3,5-substituted aryl- centred or other) [22-24]. Enantioselective GKAs that accomplish their activity in hepatic cells with or without causing disruption in the inhibitory complex, i.e., GK-GKRP interaction, are another alternative for categorization [25-26]. GKAs also improve glucose elimination and decrease hepatic glucose synthesis. Every GKA can cause a different conformation of the active form of the allosteric site of GK, and the resulting complexes can have different enzymatic kinetic profiles [27].Insulin release is controlled by glucose and its metabolism, with glucose phosphorylation being the rate-limiting step. Glucose induces ATP or raises the ratio of ATP/ADP in pancreatic cells via glycolysis or tricarboxylic acid cycle, which leads to the closure of ATP-dependent K<sup>+</sup> channels and depolarization of pancreatic cell membranes. This process promotes the activation of voltage-gated Ca<sup>2+</sup> channels and extracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx, which enhances insulin production. In previous investigations, several small molecule GKAs were discovered to promote insulin production from pancreatic cells via a Ca<sup>2+</sup>-dependent route [28-29].In hepatic cells, GKRP regulates GK function. GK is concentrated in the nucleus at low glucose concentrations and forms an inactive GK-GKRP complex with GKRP. When blood glucose levels rise, it separates from the complex and goes to the cytoplasm, where it is metabolised. GKAs can directly activate GK and help dissociate the GK/GKRP complex, which activates GK and increases glycolysis and glycogen production [30]. Over the past years, several GKAs have been discovered. Small molecules like PF 04937319, TMG-123, R1511 or GK3HMS5552, TTP3999, Dorzagliatin, and PF-04937319 have all been demonstrated to effectively manage blood glucose levels in the clinical trials. Other drugs in clinical investigation include R1440 GKA2, GKA 50, YH GKA, PSN 010, MK-0941, ZYGK1, Ro-28-1675. AZD6370, Piragliatin, DS-7309, and ARRY-403 were also withdrawn from the clinical investigations due to their toxicity and loss of efficacy after continuous use [30-34].</p> <p>The most notable problems with GKAs include hypoglycaemias, the onset of fatty liver, hepatic cell lipidosis, and reduced efficacy over time. In actuality, hypoglycaemia and dyslipidaemia as a result of the overstimulating effects of pancreatic and hepatic GK, respectively, were regarded as potential concerns during the early phases of GKA expansion [35-36]. Piragliatin and MK-0941 were found to be more likely to produce hypoglycaemia episodes. To mitigate this risk, partial activators with a higher glucose requirement were developed to lower the probability of activation at low glucose levels [37]. According to the research, this is the first stage of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which can range from basic steatosis to its more complex version, steatohepatitis [38]. While a spike in fatty acid levels of less than 20% is not as substantial as that generated by a high-glycaemic low-fat diet, it is nonetheless undesirable in the T2D patients with dyslipidaemia, NAFLD, and high blood pressure [39-40].</p> <p>In T2D patients, small compounds that activate GK give an alternate option for restoring/improving glycaemic homeostasis. GKAs increase insulin secretion and glycogen synthesis, which reduces hepatic glucose generation. Despite a series of failures in its development, GKAs has reawakened interest, particularly since introduction of dorzagliatin, a novel dual-acting GKA, and TTP399, a hepato-selective GKA.</p> Prateek Sharma Ajmer Singh Grewal Neelam Sharma Sukhbir Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Prateek Sharma, Ajmer Singh Grewal, Neelam Sharma, Sukhbir Singh 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Impact of Aesthetics in Innovative Product Development on Consumer Perception and Acceptance https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3230 <p>Design aesthetics, which have received increasing attention from researchers in fields, such as ergonomics, neuroscience, and marketing can attract consumers to a product and persuade them to buy it. The aesthetic process is rapid and implicit and can result in sensory pleasure and delight [1]. Today’s world is the ever changing and developing fast because of ever changing and renewed technology. In this era of consumers, consumers are very demanding and choosy so all vital players in the market keep updating their existing product along with launching of new products. In this growing competition focus is on innovative product development and new approaches to draw customer’s attention towards their products [3].&nbsp; Aesthetics is a core design principle that defines a design’s pleasing qualities. Aesthetics are one of the most important for customer acceptance in almost all the Fast moving goods categories. Aesthetics of products creates value for consumers. Aesthetics create significant value of product and makes it more valuable. Consumers are ready to pay more if the product is more unique and prestigious. This study aims to investigate the impact of aesthetics in innovative product development and consumers’ perception and acceptability as importance of aesthetics is not being explored by researchers. Designers use aesthetics to complement their designs’ usability, and so enhance functionality with attractive layouts. The perspective of aesthetics as an objective property have developed many aesthetics design rules, such as Gestalt principles, which attribute beauty to symmetry, proximity, similarity, continuance, repetition, and closure[2] Firms use aesthetics to strategically position and enhance brand recognition however, consumer acceptance is crucial to the development of successful new products.</p> <p>The methodology study is involved using survey form method from 150 respondents from Pune, India. The results revealed that aesthetics of products like color, pattern, balance, proportion etc. has positive impact on customer’s perception and their acceptance of the product. Iteration and prototyping follow end-user input as part of the approach. Through this paper, designer and customer can help in identifying the importance of aesthetics practices. Questionnaire method is used for data collection using online platform to have consumer preference about their acceptance of new product on the basis of aesthetics. This study describes a holistic approach towards consumer perception &amp; their purchase preference citing how the aesthetics is more important for buying products. This research paper's study is intended to promote knowledge about relevance of aesthetics and its role in buying behaviour of consumers.</p> <p>Innovative Product development and aesthetics research is still in its infancy even though it has periodically received attention. This paper examines the place of product design, design process and aesthetics research in consumer study. An improved aesthetic design can boost sales by 30% or more [5]. The paper aims for discussing design and aesthetics and provides some background concerning the study of these topics. The efforts of consumer researchers in these areas and the unique suitability of the discipline of consumer research for studying design and aesthetics are then discussed. High design aesthetics increase people’s trust in a product and increase the value of the product. Second, design aesthetics is a potential source of pleasure that increases the product value. Studies have reported that product aesthetics have a significant influence on the preferences of the consumers [6]. The aesthetic response of the consumers positively influences their judgments regarding a product. Therefore, high design aesthetics increase the product value, whereas low design aesthetics cause consumers to perceive a product as not being worth its listed price.</p> <p>Setting up clear and realistic targets for new products provides the vision of what a product must achieve to be successful. The most important targets are those demanded or whished by customers [4]. Every day we interact with thousands of consumer products. We not only expect them to perform their functions safely, reliably, and efficiently, but also to do it so seamlessly that we don’t even think about it. With the many factors involved in consumer product design from the application of human factors to design aesthetics [7]. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse how products are developed that have aesthetics as an important dimension. The paper describes and analyses: how the dimension of aesthetics affects the characteristics of the new product development process; how aesthetics is one of the major criteria while selection by consumer for newly launched product.</p> Reena Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Reena Pandey 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Mapping the Pattern and Development of Printmaking Art: Its Sociological Impacts https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3265 <p>A world without printed matter is hard to envision. We see printed material surrounding us in books, magazines, papers, prints of renowned artworks, and ordinary things, for example, theatre programs, official handouts, schedules, journals, ads, and film banners. Printed text, pictures, news, and public discussion all influence our lives on paper. And remembering that we oftentimes neglect to recall that there was a period before printed material, our universe of print is everywhere. There is no question that print is a set of experiences that has molded our advanced world. The question may raise about this set of experiences; the emergence of printed writing and how it could assist the forming our contemporary world. We will analyze the improvement of print in this part, beginning with its initiation in East Asia and afterward investigating its development to Europe and India, and the effect of the spread of innovation on the way of life and social connection of mankind [1].</p> <p>The fifteenth-century denoted the start of printing exercises in Europe as Johannes Gutenberg of Germany licensed Press, a tough moving typeface, in 1450, establishing the framework for Europe's first printing industry. In 1452 Gutenberg presented the 42-line Gutenberg Bible, which is broadly seen as the main occasion of the cutting edge time. He designed mechanical versatile sort printing, the impetus for the Printing Revolution in Europe (Miller). (Johannes Gutenberg) Later, wood-slice prints likewise began to be printed, and different strategies appreciated significant achievement. In India, printmaking began as a creative medium in the early 20th century, but there were few printing activities among artists until the 1950s Woodblock printing was, however, an ancient use in India, where it was used as a state stamp. Christian missionaries established the first printing press in Goa around 1556. Among the first to print on paper for spreading Christian ideology in India, they are credited with this development. The printing press and movable type were imported from Lisbon and their first book was printed the same year. The only languages printed there were Italian and Portuguese. Some religious books were later printed from engraved blocks of wood imported with the press and other printing supplies [2].</p> <p>Printmaking is unique techniques of expression like Painting &amp; Sculpture. Printmaking is the method involved with making craftsmanship’s by printing, ordinarily on paper, yet in addition on texture, wood, metal, and different surfaces. Prints are created by various techniques by transferring ink from the matrix to a sheet of paper or other material. Common types of matrices include: metal etching plates, usually copper or zinc, or polymer plates, and other thick plastic sheets for engraving or carving; Stone, aluminum or polymer for lithography; Wood blocks for wood cutting and wood carving; And linoleum for linoleum. Curtains made of silk or synthetic fabrics are used for the screen printing process.</p> <p>Important of Research work &amp; Impacts on society: These different techniques were introduced by various Artists all over the world. The Present Study is based on an observation of the Indian printmaker &amp; painter Raja Ravi Varma and some of his Prints their Impacts. The purpose of the printmaker's work is a critical analysis of theoretical and practical principles of print techniques, analysis, and their impact on society.</p> <p>Objectives of this work: 1. To investigate the new genres of Printmaking art that emerged as a result. 2. To examine the possible fate of printmaking art and its pertinence and relationship to the contemporary art scene. The method of this research highlighting a major find for the groups of printmaker’s artists in new literature sources. Descriptive method and Secondary data were mostly being evaluated in the process of fact-finding. The theoretical approach and arguments, different factors have been used as a frame for generating results. The sources of Secondary data were collected from the Library references, Catalogue, symposium, Conference paper, published and unpublished data. The aim of this paper is to achieve a different as well as a unique way of Expression in print called oleographs.</p> <p>H1: Life before the Printing Press [3].</p> <p>H2: Impacts of the Gutenberg Printing Press [3].</p> <p>H3: The invention of the printing press and its effects [4].</p> <p>H4: Raja Ravi Varma's print legacy and his oleograph print and its effects.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Prasad Sunil Nikumbh Nikumbh Saroj K Sarkar Sarkar Copyright (c) 2021 Prasad Sunil Nikumbh Nikumbh , Saroj K Sarkar Sarkar 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Comparative Study of Design Elements of English Dailies in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3423 <p>Every newspaper tries to attract its readers on the basis of good layout, placing news stories, photos and advertisements in a way that is appealing, worth reading and viewing. This study aims to provide an overview of design elements of front page in English newspapers in India. Three leading dailies (as per IRS Survey2019 Q4) have been selected for the study. The study assesses the design elements of selected newspapers. It compares on various parameters like Photo, Info graphics, White Space, Layout Type and space given for advertisements.</p> <p>It is well accepted that the front page of any publication pulls the possible readers the most and every designer displays various elements in such a way that the stories and photographs can be placed as per news value, sequence and preference wise. The three dailies namely Times of India, Hindustan Times and The Hindu are taken for study and their front page of three months have been analyzed on various parameters. The study finds that the Hindu has used maximum number of photos, whereas Hindustan Times is ahead in using info graphics. Hindustan Times has published more advertisements (Space wise) where as the Times of India and The Hindu stood second and third in this aspect. The Hindu has used frame Layout and Times of India has experimented with vertical and horizontal placement of stories as second priority. On its first page The Hindu has given on an average more white space followed by Hindustan Times and Times of India.</p> Ranjit Singh Chopra Ashutosh Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Ranjit Singh Chopra, Ashutosh Mishra 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Impact of IT on TQM Performance In Manufacturing Industries of Uttarakhand https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2975 <p>The IT implementation has been hot topic with industry 4.0 in picture and firms are heavily investing on IT on shopfloor. The growing economies like India have increasing trend in IT implementation in manufacturing industries in assumption to improve the firm performance. This research is aimed to study the level of Information Technology (IT) used in Total Quality Management and what is its impact over Total Quality management (TQM) performance. TQM has been quite old strategy to improve overall effectiveness of the quality management and functioning of organization however information technology is new addition in operations and specially in improving deferent aspects of TQM in the organization. In last decades use of information technology has increased in manufacturing industries and so is investment on IT. With increasing use of IT and investments in this area it is of immense importance for organizations to understand the relationship between use of IT and performance of Total Quality management. IT enabled Total Quality Management is assumed to be impacting overall effectiveness of TQM and this research is aimed to validate this assumption in manufacturing industries of Uttarakhand India. Use of information technology for different applications in manufacturing and other industries. The Information technology is widely deployed along with TQM. Number of studies on the relationship of Total quality Management and information technology similarly on the effect of both on firm’s performance. Based on literature review done we can conclude that Information technology has positive impact over TQM and company results. The null hypothesis developed was that there is no significant relationship between IT and TQM performance. This is research is of very much importance specially a growing economy like India where organizations are heavily investing on IT set-up to in assumption to improve the performance of Total quality management as well as the firm over all performance[1-4]. Most of the studies have been done in west and very less research took place in this area in Indian industries. The manufacturing sector is being highly digitalized due to factory 4.0 concept and this research is focused on manufacturing industries which is of importance in current age. The objective of the research is to understand the level of IT and TQM implementation with level of IT enabled TQM implementation and impact of IT on TQM performance. The area chosen for study is Uttarakhand, with a sample size of 339 manufacturing industries and s structured questionnaire with 5-point Likert scale was shared with email to the sample companies for there feedback. The feedback was taken on level of IT implementation in TQM and its impact on TQM performance, which letter analyzed by using statistical methods like, means, standard deviations, pervasion co-relation and ‘p’ value was analyzed by using ‘z’ statistics [4]. The research outcome will help managers to take better decision on IT investments in TQM, it will also help understand the relationship of IT and TQM performance[5=6]. After this research the managers will be better placed to formulate there IT implementation policy on shopfloor, also they will understand the overall status in this regard in other manufacturing industries of Uttarakhand.</p> Mahesh Singh Adarsh Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 Mahesh Singh, Adarsh Aggarwal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Blended Learning Program Effectiveness- A Study of High Potential Employees in the Manufacturing Industry https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3054 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study aims to assess how the demographic features and styles of learners, educational design, and motivation of learning and commitment affect HIPOs' learning in a combination of learning. Innovative, timesaving, travel saving and cost-effective methodologies in learning and development is the big expectation of management from the HR and training department[1-2]. Fast and smart, learning on the go solutions learning model is very much in demand.&nbsp; Engaging, developing, and retaining HIPOs with such innovative learning solutions have a bigger impact on organization sustainability[3]. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Importance of study</strong></p> <p>To see the uncertain time, volatile business situation, pandemic, change in learning methodologies is much needed these days. Major objectives of the study are:</p> <ol> <li>How can we utilize a blended training approach for the High potential employee process in the manufacturing industry?</li> <li>What will be the effect of blended methodology?</li> <li>What is the impact on their learning engagement?</li> <li>How will it help to achieve the objectives of the HIPOs intervention etc?</li> </ol> <p><strong>Research gaps</strong></p> <p>Space on learning effectiveness for digital learning methodologies in undergraduate and higher education students only not for HIPOs employees</p> <p>Very limited work has been done on learning effectiveness for the employees on digital learning or blended learning. Most of the result of Blended learning program effectiveness evolves around regular employees of the organization, not with HIPOS employees.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology of the study </strong></p> <p>Data will be collected using a cross sectional survey among high potential employees across manufacturing Industry.</p> Rajiv Saini Shuchi Dawra Copyright (c) 2021 Rajiv Saini, Shuchi Dawra 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Does interdisciplinary curriculum improve creativity? - A model proposed for health sciences education https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3107 <p><strong>&nbsp;Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>A creative idea leads to innovation. Innovation brings new solutions to real-life problems. If it solves significant problems in people's life it generates revenue. Hence the innovation is a key to a country's economic growth. Our education system gives much importance to marks. Both teaching and learning are only oriented towards the examination. Our systems are authoritarian with rigid rules which gives less importance to personal creativity and student development. The reformation in the education system is very important to trigger student’s creativity.Studies say that creativity may not be an innate trait and it can be triggered with well-defined pedagogical approaches. One such method is integrating curriculums. The interdisciplinary method of education is widely studied in various countries. It has been said that interdisciplinary education triggers the creativity of a&nbsp; student.[1]–[4].The aim of this paper is the literature review of case studies of various innovators' lives. This paper reviews the method of integrating the curriculum. We propose a model for integrating the curriculum for health science students with technological advancements which can lead them to innovation.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Method of curriculum integration</strong></p> <ul> <li>Select a topic or concept.</li> <li>This topic should cut across two or more disciplines.</li> <li>The teachers of different disciplines should meet and brainstorm about the set of curriculum elements to be included in the new curriculum. They have to together sketch the potential workable instructional sequence.</li> <li>The development team should be convinced that an integrated approach makes sense for this discipline.</li> </ul> <p>Is the topic relevant to the school or grade or the year in which the curriculum is planned?</p> <ul> <li>Are the disciplinary topics related to each other? Or will the new curriculum solve a common problem?</li> <li>Will it be valid beyond disciplines?</li> </ul> <p>I.e., Will the new curriculum connections illuminate ideas that are beyond the disciplines?</p> <ul> <li>Will it bring a broader outcome?</li> </ul> <p>Will this integration shape the learner's overall approach to knowledge? In other words, will it make the learner more skilled and flexible in thinking?</p> <ul> <li>They should also work on other considerations such as time, budget, and schedule.</li> </ul> <p>The literature shows that such courses are mostly based on active learning where the instructor poses a question, or template of things to investigate and the students will actively investigate these areas.</p> <p>For example, in a humanities course, the students were given the topics like hero, myth, space, and creation where they have to investigate parallels globally. [5]</p> <p>The interdisciplinary teaching process included case discussions, discoveries, and the Socratic method of inquiry. The Socratic method was defined as the open-ended question-answer format that encourages students to think independently. [6]</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>The proposed model</strong></p> <p>The students should be exposed with interdisciplinary education. The questionnaire should be administered before and after the course. The curriculum contains the status of our nation in innovation, benefits of interdisciplinary education, newly developed curriculum, connecting questions and example innovations.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The model is proposed for health sciences students. Such models can be developed for other disciplines also. The above model should be implemented in educational institutions and change in students' attitudes and their innovative thinking should be measured in future studies.&nbsp;</p> Maheswari Srinivasan Parul Sood Copyright (c) 2021 Maheswari Srinivasan , Parul Sood 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Ellipse Shaped Antenna for Super-Wide Band Applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3140 <p>In this paper, a cross-elliptical microstrip patch antenna is proposed for Super-wideband (SWB) applications. The antenna comprises of merged two ellipses, placed orthogonally to form the radiating patch and rectangular slotted partial ground. The proposed antenna is simulated by using RF simulator and Rogers RT Duroid 5870 substrate having thickness of 0.787mm with relative permittivity of 2.2 is used in this design. As the antenna exhibits SWB characteristics, so it can be used in S, C, X, Ku, K, ISM, WiFi, WLAN, WiMAX wireless communications [1].</p> Parminder Kaur Lovish Matta Manish Sharma Shivani Malhotra Copyright (c) 2021 Parminder Kaur, Lovish Matta, Manish Sharma, Shivani Malhotra 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Machine Learning Techniques for Precision Agriculture using Wireless Sensor Networks https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3176 <p>In India, approximately 70% of the total population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood; hence, it is essential to pay attention to agriculture to increase crop quality and quantity, thus increasing the overall cultivation yield. The traditional methods used to require a lot of farmer’s effort and hard work, which results in delayed crop cultivation [1-2]. Moreover, it’s challenging to predict the environmental conditions and detect the particular area where there is a weed, insects, etc., which requires immediate treatments, thus affecting overall crop production. So, there is a need to make it automated, and this can be done by adopting advanced techniques of precision agriculture (PA) or intelligent agriculture. Precision Agriculture is one of the fields in which wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are widely adopted, which consists of a large number of sensors placed in the field to monitor and measure the various environmental parameters such as humidity, temperature, soil moisture, soil PH value, precipitation, water-level, etc., for enhancing the productivity, profitability, quantity, and quality of crops. The machine learning techniques can be applied to precision agriculture to increase crop growth, manage the process of crop cultivation, and create a perfect environment for the crops to increase productivity with less human effort [3-4]. This paper provides an insight into various machine learning techniques used for precision agriculture using wireless sensor networks.</p> Swati Goel Kalpna Guleria Surya Narayan Panda Copyright (c) 2021 Swati Goel, Kalpna Guleria, Surya Narayan Panda 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 DIVIDEND ANALYSIS OF DOW JONES EUROPE SELECT DIVIDEND 30 INDEX https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3213 <p>The relationship of Dow Jones Europe Select Dividend 30 Index with five European market indices namely Austria (ATX), Belgium (BEL20), France (CAC40), Germany (GDAXI) and Switzerland (SSMI) has been examined in this research. Numerical parameters like coefficient of correlation and coefficient of determination have been computed and analyzed to explain the pattern of variance of the Dow Jones Europe Select Dividend 30 Index with the aforesaid five independent indices. Firstly, data reduction has been performed on these indices in order to extract a principal component that best describes the variance in the dataset. The next step includes carrying out a robust analysis which is performed by two methods. Both the analysis techniques give same results authenticating the reliability of the analysis. The results show that Dow Jones Europe Select Dividend 30 Index is moderately positively correlated with the principal component (that represents ATX, BEL 20, CAC 40, GDAXI and SSMI). More than fifty percent of the variation Dow Jones Europe Select Dividend 30 Index has been explained by the principal component.</p> Saurabh Gandhi Sandhir Sharma Manu Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Saurabh Gandhi, Sandhir Sharma, Manu Sharma 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Formulation and Characterization of phytophospholipid complex of Andrographis paniculata extract https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3245 <p>Active constituents extracted from various parts of the plants have wide therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases. Number of these compounds obtained elicits positive <em>in vitro</em> pharmacological effect; however poor in <em>vivo </em>absorption of polyphenolic compounds limited the widespread applicability. One of the novel strategies to improve the bioavailability and thereby oral absorption of these compounds is the use of phytophospholipid complexes. These complexes are formed by combining phyto constituent in definite molar ratio with phospholipids under certain specific conditions. This approach has overcome the obstacle of poor oral bioavailability of numbers of active constituents most of which are polyphenolic compounds (1). Some of the biologically active polyphenolic constituents of plants show affinity for the aqueous phase and cannot pass through biological membranes, such as <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/hesperidin">hesperidin</a>. By contrast, others have high lipophilic properties and cannot dissolve in aqueous gastrointestinal fluids, such as <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/curcumin">curcumin</a> and <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/rutin">rutin</a>. Phyto-phospholipid complexes can not only improve the solubility of lipophilic polyphenols in aqueous phase but also improves the membrane penetrability of hydrophilic compounds from aqueous phase. Furthermore, the production of complexes can protect polyphenols from destruction by external forces, such as hydrolysis, photolysis, and oxidation therefore this novel technique has received much attention in recent years (2). Nandhani S (2021) developed and optimized Vasaka-loaded phytosomes by thin-layer hydration technique using systematic quality by design approach. Box-Behnken design (3<sup>2</sup> factorial designs) using Design-Expert software was employed to optimize phytosome wherein phosphatidylcholine concentration (X<sub>1</sub>), stirring temperature (X<sub>2</sub>), and stirring time (X<sub>3</sub>) were selected as independent variables. Yield (%), particle size (nm), and entrapment efficiency (%) were evaluated as responses. The optimized phytosome was characterized by studying the surface morphology such as FE-SEM and TEM analysis, thermal characteristics by thermal gravimetric analysis and spectral and diffraction studies by FTIR and XRD analysis and studying the dissolution behaviour of phytosome by <em>in vitro</em> release study(3). Cheng Chi et al (2020) developed a phytosome-nanosuspensions for silybin-phospholipid complex loading, termed SPCs-NPs, for hepatoprotection efficacy. This formulation has shown an increased dissolution rate and more potent hepatoprotective effects in pharmacodynamic assessments (4). David Pastorelli et al (2018) developed Phytosome complex of curcumin as complementary therapy of advanced pancreatic cancer (PC). Experimental data suggested that curcumin in complexed form with <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/phospholipid">phospholipids</a> can be used in the treatment of PC as a complementary therapy to Gemcitabin (5). Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) is a medicinal plant found in southern part of India traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial herb. It exhibits diverse pharmacological activities, including <strong>anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-diabetes, Hepatoprotective and other activities</strong>. Oral administration of A. paniculata (100-200mg/kg) showed significant dose dependent hepatoprotective effect assessed in terms of biochemical and histopathological parameters.&nbsp; The principal constituent of Andrographis paniculata is andrographolid it is a diterpenoid lacton present in leaves, poor bioavailability, short biological half life and inappropriate tissue distribution limited its therapeutic applications (6). The present work is aimed to formulate and characterize phytophospholipid complex of methanolic extract of leaves of <em>Andrographis paniculata </em>by anti-solvent precipitation technique. <em>Andrographis paniculata Burm. F. Nees</em> aerial parts (stems and leaves) of phytosomes were prepared by using anti solvent evaporation method. <em>Andrographis </em>powder was placed in a round bottom flask. The phytosomal formulations were prepared (F1-F4) in different molar ratios of (plant extract: soy lecithin) 1: 0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5, 1:2. Exact quantity of plant extract and soy lecithin was kept in 100 ml round bottom flask and then refluxed with 20 ml of dichloromethane at 60˚C for 2hours. The mixture was concentrated to 5 ml. Hexane was added carefully to get mixture precipitated which was filtered, collected and stored in a vaccum dessicator. The dried precipitate was crushed in a pestle mortar. The prepared phytosomes were than characterised. The characterization of prepared phytosomes was done by using particle size analysis PDI (Polydispersity index), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), XRD<strong> (</strong>X-Ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning electron microscope) method, Entrapment efficiency (EE) and&nbsp;<em>in-vitro</em>&nbsp;drug release studies were done to evaluate the parameters of phytosome complexes. The formulation F4 possesses good particle size with PDI 0.567 and zeta potential was in range of -31.57±0.2. This indicates that phytosomal formulation possess good stability. <em>In vitro</em> drug released studies carried out for the period of 6 hrs indicated that the formulation F4 gives 88% drug release which was found to be sustained. Surface morphology studies indicated drug extract particles associated with phospholipids were uniform and spherical in shape. Phytosomes of <strong><em>Andrographis paniculata</em> </strong>extract have got ability, that can be used to enhances solubility and stability studies and hence oral bioavailability for which elaborative <em>in vivo</em> studies need to be carried out so that a novel formulation having improved pharmacological activity can be developed.</p> Vandana Saini Rajni Bala Sandeep Arora Copyright (c) 2021 Vandana Saini , Rajni Bala, Sandeep Arora 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 The Exploration of Neo-Tantrism in the Paintings of Prfulla Mohanti https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3440 <p>The time period 'Neo Tantra' turned into coined via way of means of an Artist&nbsp; to explain the paintings who stated the sacred geometry of Tantra as an concept for his or her visible language. Neo Tantrism emerged with inside in the 1960’s like the paintings of K. C.S. Paniker, Biren De, G.R. Santosh, P. T. Reddy etc. Pannikar’s works profoundly 'Words and Symbols,' wherein the artist integrated astrological elements, calligraphic paperwork stimulated via way of means of Tamil script and two-dimensional tantric diagrams to expound the idea of team spirit thru imagery associated with mantras or cosmic vibrations and sounds. This movement has inspired several artists. Prafulla Mohanti is one of them who have explored the nuances of Neo-Tantrism in his paintings.This study investigates and explores the aspects of Neo-Tantrism in his artist output. Via adopting content analysis and a review based approach this paper open up his artistic journey in an exploratory manner.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Tantra is a frame of ideals and practices that permits people to conjoin with tons. It provides tools that facilitate transcendence are omnipresent for folks that are attuned: rituals, drawings, maps, sculptures, and chants, to call only a few [1]. Brought into the sector in 1936 in Odisha, Prafulla Mohanti completed his commencement from Bombay University, and in a while were given a Diploma round Planning from Leeds University with inside the UK, wherein he moreover had his first unbiased show of works of artwork in pretty a while. The effect of his foundation and young people encounters may be visible evidently in his craft. It is the rehashed exercise of creating circles with dust chalk at the floor that has delicate his capabilities and now no longer completely to attract remarkable pictures, but moreover incredible his penmanship, for the contents of the two Odia and English. The vermillion spot of his mom's forehead were given meditated in his growing and sunset, preventing darkish purple tone with inside the sky, and the circle converted into the universe or brahmanda. The theoretical variations of his arts cape comprise the <em>Bindu</em> or <em>Speck</em>, implying <em>Shunya</em>, skimming blue mists, and the blue sea. The craftsman has had some shows in lots of areas of the planet which includes Europe, America, Japan and India. His creative creations were vital for some global voyaging shows coordinated through National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi. His works are with inside the collection of The British Museum at London, Leeds City Art Gallery, Wakefield City Art Gallery, Brighton Art Gallery, University of Leeds, University of Sussex, University of Kent, Museum of Modern Art at Berkeley, Academy of Fine Arts at Kolkata, Air India, First National City Bank at Manila, Indian Council for Cultural Relations, the National Gallery of Modern Art and Lalit Kala Academy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In this study procedure, the researcher goes to evaluate the Style and Content of the Tantric Art Form as an Artist. The overall approach of this study is qualitative. The research tools of Formalism and content analysis have been utilized to explore the artistic notion of Prafulla Mohanti.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The term 'Neo Tantra' became coined with the aid of using the idea to explain the paintings of artists who recounted the sacred different geometrical forms of Tantra as an idea for his or her visible language. Neo Tantrism emerged modern Tantra indicates a way to exercise the historic Pagan religious machine of Tantra for extra freedom, health, and happiness [2]. Encouraging growth, experimentation, and private evolution via physical activities and meditations, Modern Tantra is a brand new have a take observe a time-venerated religious path. Mr. Mohanti became a part of the Neo-Tantra group. He has made artwork for the reason that age of three: his portray is rooted in his village culture, that's prompted with the aid of using yoga and Tantra. Art is part of each day's existence. The lotus is the primary symbol. The lotus of my formative years has passed through modifications via abstraction, from a circle to a point. Absolute abstraction makes it disappear [3]. From this nothingness, existence starts off evolved once more and turns into everything, the full universe.’</p> <p>The term 'Neo Tantra' became coined with the aid of using the idea to explain the paintings of artists with sacred geometrical forms. And it becomes a language of artistic expression. 1960s to '70s was very crucial for Indian artists. These decades have been noticed as the heavy dominance of western art movements. So, Indigenous art movement emerged in India to counter western influence on Indian art [4]. Tantra and Neo-Tantrism were one of them. With the help of this theoretical framework, artists have tried to explore the indigenous notion in their artworks. Prafulla Mohanti has also adopted this ideal framework to express his inner-self. Through this, he has tried to connect and transcend indigenous cultural fragrance. His paintings are geometrical and simplified which contents color symbolism. His paintings also explore the aspects of formalism and significant form.</p> Sonia Kashyap Arjun Kumar Singh Ranjan Kumar Mallik Copyright (c) 2021 Sonia Kashyap , Arjun Kumar Singh , Ranjan Kumar Mallik 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Academic Performance, Parenting Styles and Gender Differences in Psychological https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3520 <p><em>The Gender stereotype is a prevalent fact in every society. Besides visible bodily differences certain characteristics are attributed to men while some other traits are attributed to women. The present study's goal was to look at the gender gap. among Poumai college students in different components of psychological wellbeing as elaborated by Carol Ryff. It also examined the relationship between the students’ academic achievement and Diana Baumrind’s three different parenting styles. A total of 122 students (male=58, female=64) from four colleges of Senapati district, Manipur took part in the study with age ranging from 19-22 years. Parental Authority Questionnaires of Buri, J. as well as Ryff’s Scale of PWB were used. T-test was used for the analysis. The findings were analyzed and discussed further. The limitations of the results and the implications for future scope and directions were also discussed.</em></p> K. Mahemei G. Palamattathil Copyright (c) 2021 K. Mahemei, G. Palamattathil 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Impact of Social Media Influencers on Conversion towards Veganism https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2991 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Over the years, there has been a revolutionary and steep gain in the interest of veganism. Social Media these days has turned out to be a daily aspect of people’s lives. Users are spending more time on such platforms. Considering the strong impact of social media influencers on consumers and their impact on eating habits, its impact is attempted to be assessed on converting consumers to veganism. This work evaluates the behaviour of online users in connection with their social media followings, measured through hashtag followings, and eventually compared through a community analysis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Introduction </strong></p> <p>Social media can undoubtedly be considered as a part of many individuals’ everyday lives. Food is a part and necessity of every person’s daily life [1]. One way to obtain these types of information about the food is through social media analysis [2]. At the ever-growing level, users are spending more time on the social media platforms, hence curating an active as well as a passive digital impression through the interactions which they do with other social media users [3]. The data points generated have a strong potential for the research in multitude of domain areas, especially keeping an eye on the fact that understanding communication made by people on social media is all the more essential for understanding the attitudes, behaviours, experiences, and values.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Review of Literature and Theoretical Framework </strong></p> <p>Many studies have underlined the association between obesity and health problems, such as cardiovascular disease [4], cancer, metabolic diseases, and a higher risk of severe COVID-19 [5]. Although obesity is being importantly considered as primarily a problem in Western countries, urbanisation has set a concrete stage for an obesity problem not just in Asia [6], but also in certain African countries, namely Sudan, and also in India [7].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Theoretical Framework</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>The theoretical framework was inspired by the Knowledge Discovery in Database process [8]. The data analysis process consisted of four steps, as follows:</p> <ol> <li><strong>Data from Social Media:</strong> Primarily, Social Media API has been leveraged in order to obtain the required messages on the social media platforms.</li> <li><strong>Data filtration: </strong>Since this analysis was majorly confined to hashtags, the set of words that did not include the hashtag symbol was omitted.</li> <li><strong>Data transformation: </strong>Following this, a super-set of letters were checked, and duplicates were removed. The case-sensitivity was thus omitted.</li> <li><strong>Data mining: </strong>Data mining is an important technique that was carried out on licensed Microsoft tools, and Power Bi was used for visualisation.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Findings and Conclusion </strong></p> <p>Primarily analysis of the usage frequency of hashtags in the year 2021 disclosed the fact that the hashtag #healthyfood and #healthylifestyle were used with the maximum affinity. Analysing the characteristics of the public in general and their opinions with respect to understanding public health, generally mentioned on the social media platform, mentioned as tweets, and portrays a correlation between obesity and diet [9].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Community Analysis </strong></p> <p>A community analysis was extrapolated among these five communities as mentioned: (1) Active lifestyle, (2) Influencer, (3) Diets, (4) Recipes, and (5) Health problems. “Active lifestyle” is the biggest community which was focused on. The community comprised hashtags that were associated among the spheres such as fitness, healthy living, healthy eating, nutrition, and wellness. The next biggest community observed here was the “Influencer” community, where our research is mainly focused, where the people shared foods that they understand to be healthy. The remaining three communities were relatively smaller in size.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The “Influencer” community notably came out as the second biggest community in our study. Influencer marketing stands on building trust between influencer and follower, to whom the influencer passes on their knowledge, experience, attitudes, opinions, and values via social media [2]. This is a pertinent finding as this indicates the way in which social media users draw a perception about healthy food.</p> Sumeet Singh Lamba Reena Malik Copyright (c) 2021 Sumeet Singh Lamba, Reena Malik 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Influence of Social Media on Brand Trust during Covid-19 through Corporate Social Responsibility communication https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3034 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Social Media Marketing has gained immense benefit in the digital world. Consumers, all over the world are getting the services, through this type of platform, under one roof. The main aim of the paper is to find out the influence of social media on brand trust during Covid-19 through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Major medium the organization chooses for social media communication is Twitter and Facebook. The term corporate communication in social media is also called content marketing. The research tries to highlight whether, during this pandemic situation, there is any change in the brand trust and how the marketers can have an upper edge in the digital competitive market, by adopting different CSR practices. For the present study, 403 respondents across India were chosen as a sample frame. The findings of the study reveal the fact that the responsible communication about CSR activities with the help of social media marketing, in particular will likely influence brand trust among the consumers of FMCG companies in India.</p> Menaga. A Dr.S.Vasantha Copyright (c) 2021 Menaga. A, Dr.S.Vasantha 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Discursive Narration of the Collective Self in Strategically Important Speeches: the Baltic Approach to Rhetoric in International Assemblies from 1991 through 2021 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3075 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>It has come to be accepted as a general truth that national identities are fluid and artificial rather than natural and static concepts. Since the end of the twentieth century, numerous scholars have emphasized that national identities are constantly negotiated through discourse as a type of social practice [1-12]. Thus, not only can discourse shape the narratives of national identity, but also various elements of these national identities and multiple other co-existing identities such as individual, sub-group, supra-national and global identities may shape the discourse of particular actors leading to a never-ending circular process of national identity construction. Moreover, this process differs across various nation-states, across time and across particular&nbsp; representatives of political elites to address the masses and represent the state internationally. Burner (2002) notes that ‘tensions prompted by changes in economic conditions, state authority, real or imagined domestic and international threats, and/or significant changes in cultural markers of national belonging continually cause new groups to become alienated from dominant characterisations of collective belonging, preventing the process of national identity construction from being ever completed’ [1].</p> <p>The current study applies a corpus-based approach to the critical discourse analysis of 150 international speeches given by the presidents of the Baltic States since 1991 until 2021. The goal of the study is to substantiate the link between the frequencies of self-presentation and the use of discursive strategies to construct the national identities of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania across time. It is hypothesized that the discursive narration of the collective self in the rhetoric of the presidents of the Baltic States is paralleled with the simultaneous reconstruction of the common political past as the main element of both common Baltic identity and individual national identities of these states. The narration of the collective past&nbsp; illustrates&nbsp; the tragic struggle for freedom of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and their way to democracy that simultaneously invites the feeling of guilt on the part of the powerful elites and narrates the courageous, rapidly developing and inclusive ‘self’ of the nations that builds a link between the states and the existing cooperation between the nations of the ‘old Europe’ and the established supra-national identities of the international democratic communities. The research employs an inquiry of keywords and word frequency lists exploring the lexical tendencies in the selected corpus, followed by analysis of concordances and collocation of particular lexical items displaying the referencing and characterisation of the collective self, and concluding with a critical analysis of the use of discursive strategies and linguistic techniques used for the purpose of the narration of the collective self.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results of the study show that the history of the Baltic States is indeed used as an argument in various discursive strategies that aim to construct the national self by justifying and by arguing for particular decisions on the part of the international organisations. It is observed that the justification strategies that aim to support the decisions on minority integration and language policy are used in the speeches by the presidents at international assemblies of global political leaders in the early years of the restored independence leading to the admission to the EU and NATO of the Baltic States particularly Estonia and Latvia, where multiple linguistic means such as metaphors, rhetorical questions and hyperboles are applied. In the&nbsp; period from 2008 and more intensively from 2015,&nbsp; the common history is emphasized together with the construction of the common other as a potential threat to the security of the Baltic States, which is&nbsp; a direct response to the military conflicts between Russia and the former members of the Soviet Union – Georgia, Ukraine and recently also Belarus. In synergy with the discursive construction of the common threat and endangered national identity and territorial integrity of the Baltic States (topos of history, topos of threat, topos of responsibility, topos of comparison), the presidents also construct a narrative of rapidly developing economies, inclusive society and digitally advanced members of the modern family of global democracies. It is observed that the presidents of Estonia use a wider range of linguistic means or rhetorical techniques of persuasion and even manipulation and defend their individual character as a nation more explicitly that the representatives of the other Baltic States. Nevertheless, when accessing the rhetoric of individual presidents of the Baltic States, it is also concluded that female presidents seem to apply a more diverse portfolio of linguistic means and rhetorical techniques, including a more frequent use of family metaphors and inclusive pronominal refences. Moreover, it is also concluded that the period from 1991-2004 is marked by a more diverse combination of various discursive strategies and linguistic means, displaying the strategic importance of the speeches during the time of the negotiation and accession of the Baltic States&nbsp; to the EU and NATO. Figures 1 and 2 below display the occurrences of state name and pronominal references to the ‘we-group’ that substitutes the reference to the state name and creates a more personal and emotional linguistic effect.</p> Līga Romāne Kalniņa Copyright (c) 2021 Līga Romāne Kalniņa 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT IN THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC: PERSPECTIVES FROM HOSPITALITY SECTOR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3090 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>Covid-19 is not only a global pandemic but also a public health crisis that has severely affected the global economy. It has left indelible impact on the global economy. With the sporadic spread of virus, the case count escalated bringing in unparallel challenges for the governments worldwide. Among the worst affected were Europe, North America, and Asia (UNWTO,2020). Among various sectors hit by this virus hospitality sector worldwide remains adversely impacted.&nbsp; It was observed that sea and air travel led to rapid transmission of the virus Strategies to limit the spread of virus like lockdown, social distancing, travel restrictions have resulted in the temporary closure of businesses in the hospitality sector. It is believed that Covid-19 has created such conditions where direct impact or changes will be visible on the behavioral, economic, and political aspects of the society. In the hospitality and tourism sector, impact can directly be monitored by decline in tourism rates[2-3]. In the wake of the current situation, this paper throws light on how employee engagement is impacted due to the ongoing Covid-19 crisis. Kahn (1990) referred to engagement as a situation where people can express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during work role performance. Many scholars have examined the antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement in various contexts and with several constructs. In this paper, we have conducted an extensive literature review to gain a deeper understanding how engagement is affected in the hospitality sector due to the Covid-19 pandemic[2]. Our extensive review indicates that the landscape of hospitality could change forever and in order to stay relevant, it is imperative to find novel and creative ways for existence. Many studies have indicated that employee engagement can be enhanced if employees receive right amount of support from their employers, the engagement levels can be augmented, and productivity can also be elevated [1-5] Research suggests that top management should create such work environments in which employees can perform their job without being pressurised[4]. Flat hierarchy should be maintained so that during these challenging times so that employees can express their concerns without any hesitation. Future studies can examine engagement in the Covid-19 context with different constructs and how it has impacted hospitality sector several ways.</p> Pavit Kaur Raina Raminder Sira Copyright (c) 2021 Pavit Kaur Raina , Raminder Sira 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Computational Approach for Transient Behavior of Finite Source Retrial Model with Multiple Vacation and Negative Arrival https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3122 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Our aim is to analyze the transient behaviour of finite source Retrial queueing system with multiple vacations and negative arrival by new computational approach in which the primary arrival rate &nbsp;which follows a Poisson distribution and the service time &nbsp;follows an exponential distribution. We have assumed that the finite calling population size F<sub>s</sub>. The vacation time follows an exponential distribution with parameter α. All transitions are assembled by using an infinitesimal generator matrix. Cayley Hamilton Method is used to obtain the Time dependent and Steady state solutions. Computational studies have been done for analysis of Time dependent solutions of mean number of customers in the orbit and probabilities of server free/busy/vacation for various values of. An effective algorithm is used to obtain transient probabilities and time dependent system performance measures. All Numerical Values are done by using SCILAB. Retrial queues and its studies have been found in Miller (1983) [6], Falin (1990) [2] and Artalejo (2009, 2010) [1]. Considerable attention on finite source queues studies from various researchers such as <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10479-019-03359-z#auth-Velika_I_-Dragieva">Velika I. Dragieva</a>&nbsp;&amp;<a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10479-019-03359-z#auth-Tuan-Phung_Duc">Tuan Phung-Duc</a>(2020)[8],A finite-source M/G/1 retrial queue with outgoing calls. Also, Indhumathi, Muthu Ganapathi Subramanian, Gopal Sekar (2021) [4] have analyzed Computational Approach for Transient Behaviour of Finite Source Retrial Queueing Model with Exhaustive Type Single Vacation, Loss and Feedback”. Negative Arrival and transient analysis works from <a href="https://www.semanticscholar.org/author/P.-HannahRevathy./1409493359">Hannah Revathy,</a>&nbsp;<a href="https://www.semanticscholar.org/author/Muthu-Ganapathi-Subramanian/47483526">Muthu Ganapathi Subramanian</a>(2013)[3], Two Server (s, S) Inventory System with Positive Service Time, Positive Lead Time, Retrial Customers and Negative Arrivals, also from <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X12002363#!">Ioannis Dimitriou</a> (2013)[5], A mixed priority retrial queue with negative arrivals, unreliable server and multiple vacations.Vijayashree &amp; Jananai, (2016) [9] have analyzed Transient analysis of an M/M/c queue subject to multiple exponential vacation, Sudhesh, Azhagappan, &amp; Dharmaraja (2017) [7] have analyzed Transient analysis of M/M/1 queue with working vacation, heterogeneous service and customers impatience.</p> Indhumathi Muthu Ganapathi Subramanian Gopal Sekar Copyright (c) 2021 Indhumathi, Muthu Ganapathi Subramanian, Gopal Sekar 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 A Revisit to Research on Corporate Governance using Systematic Literature Review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3156 <p>The purpose of this paper is to systematically review the emergence and structure of corporate governance in Indian context. Accounting scandals like Enron, Waste management scandal, Worldcom scandal, tyco scandal, Satyam scandal etc. have shaken the investors’ confidence. The need of the hour is to have corporate governance regulations to be practically applicable according to the country specific situations. India is not the first country in the world to experience corporate scandals and introduction of corporate governance regulations. The development of Corporate Governance in India is almost at the similar period as USA and UK developed their regulations for Corporate Governance (Shikha, N., &amp; Mishra, R., 2019). Separation of Ownership and control is the prime reason for the development of this concept of Corporate Governance as such separation, many a times, develop a tendency amongst the persons who are involved in managing the business to get involved in fraudulent reporting for the purpose of fulfilling their own interests (Dabor, E. L., &amp; Adeyemi, S. B., 2009). Such practices are termed as Occupational frauds which involve highest losses to the organisations leaving behind the other two types of fraud i.e Asset Misappropriation and Corruption (ACFE,2020). The term “Corporate Governance” is specifically related with ensuring protection to the shareholders (principles) against the activities of the directors (agents) who were appointed to apply their skill for the purpose of running the business on behalf of shareholders. (Srivastava, V., Das, N., &amp; Pattanayak, J. K., 2019). The prime factor that gets the most attention is the disturbance in the financial performance of a firm or earnings management due to these activities by the insiders. The decisions taken by the investors depend largely of the information quality in terms of financial and non-financial information that is provided to them through the audited financial statements by the directors (Dabor, E. L., &amp; Adeyemi, S. B., 2009).</p> <p>The emergence of CG in India was based on the series of recommendations of Cadbury Committee and India too realized the importance of good governance practices.&nbsp; The debate on this concept in India gained momentum around the period of Liberalisation of Indian Economy which strongly developed the need of good governance practices to be followed by it. The majority of principles were framed based on the recommendations as per Anglo- Saxon Model (Shikha, N., &amp; Mishra, R., 2019). But these regulations were imposed without keeping in view the country specific characteristics of the Economy. &nbsp;The focus of Anglo- Saxon model was primarily based on independent directors. Although, majority of businesses in India are promotor dominated firms which are family run (Shikha, N., &amp; Mishra, R., 2019). Regulations were imposed but Indian landscape is quite dissimilar to that of USA and UK.</p> <p>The first attempt to apply CG practices in India was taken by CII (Confederation of Indian Industry) which released “Desirable Corporate Governance: A Code” in the year 1998 to be applied on listed companies which detailed its provisions into various sections and specifically insisted on providing Annual reports of the companies that abide with the CG code should contain a chapter to disclose specific CG practices followed by the company mainly focussing on the board of directors, their composition, Independence, meetings, attendance etc. But, being desirable in nature did not produce the expected results. Moreover, various regulations regarding corporate governance were recommended but the problem was that most of the regulations have been on paper only. Their practical implementation needed something more than being in the nature of desirable codes.&nbsp;</p> <p>Thereafter, various mandatory provisions were introduced by SEBI time and again to meet the changing requirements of the economy in the years 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2013 and 2017 and Companies Act, 2013 specifies those mandatory provisions. For this purpose, India is the valid choice amongst the emerging economies as it is continuously into efforts to upgrade its corporate laws time and again (Srivastava, V., Das, N., &amp; Pattanayak, J. K., 2019). But the question arises here is that in spite of these hard-core regulations and practices, what still makes possible to have financial statement frauds and failure of practices of Corporate Governance? The study has utilized 106 published articles to find out the reasons behind the failure of corporate governance practices in firms.</p> <p>The motivation behind this study is that according to World Bank, 2012 India has fourth rank in terms of purchasing power in the world and has impressive pattern in terms of growth but the literature on the concept of Corporate Governance is comparatively less as compared to the academic work that is published for other developing countries of the world (Abraham, S. et al.,2015). The present study is going to examine the relationship between the elements of board composition on the financial health of a firm which may provide useful insights into the factors that may be taken into consideration. The paper will help the regulators, policymakers, stakeholders and the academicians in this direction and provide a future scope of action.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Deepika Arora Madaan Kiran Mehta Renuka Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Deepika Arora Madaan , Kiran Mehta , Renuka Sharma 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Jyoti Bhatt’s Diaries: Conscious and Subconscious depiction of his Artistic Journey https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3194 <p>Why are you doing this research work?</p> <p>Jyoti Bhatt a Padam shri Awardees, Versatile of India started documenting Traditional Indian Craft and Design through lens; during this journey he started maintaining diaries where he consciously or subconsciously drew thoughts in the forms of Doodling and Scribbling. Author tries to trace the various borrowing, appropriations, emulations and idioms and contextualize them in brief.</p> <p>Why is it important?</p> <p>The authors are extremely hopeful with regards to the scholarly capability of this work of art. Instructive ramifications inborn in this kind of expression are obviously rich and multidimensional</p> <p>What are the challenges or problems?</p> <p>In this study Qualitative method of research will be used to interpret Jyoti Bhatt’s Doodling and Scribbling practice in their Notebook. The information gathering technique utilized in the research will be Interview. But, in this time of COVID protocol can be restrict author to get data from resource person.</p> <p>Which challenge you are trying to overcome?</p> <p>Perception and Prejudices,</p> <p>Your proposed hypothesis</p> <p>Relationship between the form or text and the significance of the doodles would help the examination track down the genuine importance of the doodles in artistic exploration.</p> <p>What is new here?</p> <p>Author goes at the heart of an artist’s oeuvre, for all its complexity and protean diversity, often lays the kernel of a single idea or an even more singular sensibility. It provides force and direction to his themes and carries importance and intelligence to the proper component he utilizes. It is through this core that the individual and the psychological energies of an artist break into his art.</p> <p>What is the bigger picture/vision of this work?</p> <p>Author having hope that the study could contribute to semiotic analysis in general and in particular to the fields of fine arts, new media art and contemporary art.</p> <p>What are the main objectives of this work?&nbsp;</p> <p>Study the role and Importance of Doodling &amp; Scribbling as a visual self-expression in Jyoti bhatt’s travelling diaries.</p> <p>Comprehend the situation, context and content behind doodling &amp; scribbling practices of Jyoti Bhatt</p> <p>Social context/ sustainability/ how it impacts society.</p> <p>It can be beneficial for future researcher and society at large. His undertaking to record the diverse parts of folk art &amp; culture, custom, ceremonies and particular types of weaving and wall murals has made a boundlessly rich file of marginalized people of India.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saroj Kuma Das Vinit Bihari Ritesh Ranjan Copyright (c) 2021 Saroj Kuma Das, Vinit Bihari, Ritesh Ranjan 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Experimental Study on Efficacy of Intervention on New Media Advertisement Literacy among Adolescents in Salem https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3228 <p>The advancement in technology has led to new media development. There is a mass shift in the way the media delivers content to the audience.&nbsp; Today’s children have very good access to all forms of media including the traditional and modern media with the widespread use of the internet by almost all the people in the world and that almost all the children in their Adolescents have their own electronic devices like mobile phones or laptops. All these platforms promote many advertisements which are customized towards the interest of the browsers based on their search history. It is now common that all the children get access to the advertisements either knowingly or unknowingly. They keep absorbing the advertisement content in the way it is presented. The difficulty here is that the children are unable to differentiate the advertisement from the media content. Here comes the need for advertisement literacy for the children, which enables them to differentiate the advertisement content form the media content. This helps them to realize that they are being persuaded towards a product and intend them to buy them even if the product is a needed one or not. The focus of this study is to find out whether some form of interventions could make any impact on the advertisement literacy of the children. Children can be better equipped with a defending mechanism and ability to decode the contents. Especially in the current form of new world advertisements, in which the advertisement content is fully integrated with the media content, there is an urgent need for interventions on the children’s advertisement literacy to improve their critical thinking. As the reach and access of media is increasing day by day, this study is significant in a way that it tries to put light on the media and information literacy (MIL), which is a topic of hype in the mass media research. Determining the interaction of the children with the media content and their ability to read between the lines and to understand the subtext becomes the need of the hour. This study is made to analyze the impact of interventions on the advertisement literacy among the children from various schools of the district Salem. The study uses a quantitative approach to examine the advertisement literacy among the Adolescents. “One group Pretest- Posttest design”, has been used in the study as the methodological framework. This is a Quasi Experimental Research Design without the involvement of a Control group. Here, only the selected samples are grouped into one experimental group and are tested twice, one before and after the intervention. The results of these two tests are then compared to determine the effect of the intervention on this single group. A well-structured Questionnaire was administered as a tool to meet the research objectives to gain statistics and data in numbers for easy analysis. The study was conducted in one among the major growing cites of Tamilnadu, Salem. 400 samples are selected from different backgrounds so as to identify the impact of the sample’s cultural and social impact on their advertisement literacy. The sample selection is done using a non random convenience sampling method. Children of ages 13 to 18 who fulfill the criteria of being the active users of new media and internet are assembled in their schools as appropriate for this study to gain insights into the topic under investigation. The various dimensions and the underlying components are evaluated to determine their advertisement literacy. The result shows that age of the participants have significant influence on participants in New Media advertisement Literacy, whereas the other factors like gender, type of school and mode of access to new media does not have significant influence. It is found that the Media Literacy Intervention increases the level of New Media Advertisement Literacy among the select Adolescents. The study is helpful to explore the knowledge, understanding, evaluation and application of the advertisements by the children. The results of the study depict the present scenario of children on their media participation which can be used to interfere with the level of advertisement literacy among the children, through which their vulnerability towards advertisement and cultural social impacts can be determined. This helps to further identify their awareness towards the risks connected to new advertisement formats targeting children. Based on the result, some future proposals are made in order to empower children as an active and informed media participant. This also helps in new policy formulation for the advertisement content creators in the future.</p> Subashini K Jone Antony Raja J Copyright (c) 2021 Subashini K, Jone Antony Raja J 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Interaction of ionic liquid with drug procaine hydrochloride: a conductivity study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3262 <p>This paper outlines the influence of drug procaine hydrochloride on the micellar properties of long chain imidazolium based ionic liquid[C<sub>15</sub>mim] [Br]. Significant physicochemical properties like critical micelle concentration and other thermodynamic parameters are evaluated to detect the change in micellar properties of ionic liquid with the addition of varied concentrations of drug. The conductometric titrations were done for ionic liquid in aqueous solution and aqueous solution of drug in a varied temperature range (298.15 - 308.15 K). Experimental data obtained via conductometric study were utilized for determination of CMC value and various thermodynamic parameters. The decrement is observed in CMC value of ionic liquid with increasing drug concentration and also with decreasing temperature. These ionic liquid drug mixtures have applications in various fields and can be helpful for other investigators for better in development medicinal chemistry.</p> Pooja Sharma Harsh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Pooja Sharma, Harsh Kumar 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Dosimetric Verification of Different Volumetric Arcs of Total Body Irradiation https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3421 <p>Main aim of this study is to find the difference between calculated and measured doses in volumetric arc radiation therapy (VMAT) of total body irradiation (TBI) technique and to find the uniformity of doses delivered at the junction region of adjacent arcs using Gafchromic films and silicon diodes<strong>. </strong>The study contains twenty (20 no.) VMAT TBI patients treated between Mar,2014 to Feb,2020 on Varian Trilogy for retrospective dosimetric analysis and verification. The clinically deliverable plans using pair of arcs (CW&amp;CCW) at each iso-center along the length of body from cranial to caudal direction uptomid thigh were made using eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) from varian. The verification plans for each isocenter were made and delivered on arc phantom. The pre-treatment verification of plans is done using PTW octavious phantom Fig:1a&amp;b) Arc Phantom with EDP-15 p-type Diode and gafchromic film using large virtual CT images of phantom. The verification of surface doses (In-vivo dosimetry) at different arc junctions were measured using silicon diodes, gafchromic films. The Gaf-chromic films of 4cm in longitudinal direction (more than junction overlapping region 3cm) are used for dose measurement while doses measured by diode as per the arrangement in fig 1a and point doses using 0.6cc FC65G (Sr No. 2757 from Rosalina). Films were scanned using EPSON 1100 flat bed scanner and corresponding values were noted. The Gamma analysis and average dose difference at the skin surface between TPS calculated and measured with different dosimeters were found. TBI using VMAT is a new approach to our center for the patients who undergo BMT. In order to cover whole body from cranial to caudal height of patient up to mid-thigh, multiple successive isocenters just like cranio spinal irradiation. The position of anterior posterior and right left coordinates is same for all isocenters and change is only in longitudinal shifts.</p> Reena Sharma Pankaj Kumar Budhi Singh Yadav Copyright (c) 2021 Reena Sharma, Pankaj Kumar, Budhi Singh Yadav 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 A Review Based Study on Transformational Leadership and its future prospects https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2973 <p>Purpose: The objective of this review was to systematically retrieve and review the key literatures pertinent to the concepts and aspects of Transformational Leadership [1].</p> <p>Methodology: As the literature appraisal was the crucial module of this research, identifying relevant studies had to be a systematic as well as significant process. To retrieve as many pertinent published articles as possible, this study referred the different database and search engines and various pre-synthesized keywords including Transformational leadership style, Transformational leadership behaviour, leadership, and Transformational leadership in industry. “Transformational leadership” and “transformational leadership in industry” were used as the main keywords and phrases which retrieved enormous amounts of original peer-reviewed studies [2-6].</p> <p>Findings: The literature search identified many published articles indicative of the significance of the Transformational leadership. The subject of operative leadership in organisations had been indicated by recent many studies. Leadership skills were considered in the selection, promotion and performance appraisals of employees. In credit of its standing, organisations stereotypically assisted and encouraged the development of employees' leadership skills as evident [7-12].</p> <p>Implications for theory and practice: The review provided a comprehensive assessment of different transformational leadership scales and suggested MLQ as a short scale that was found to be easy to administer and score.</p> <p>Originality and value: The evidence indicated that it had acceptable reliability and construct validity.</p> Nidhi Malhotra Copyright (c) 2021 Nidhi Malhotra 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 An Analysis of viewers changing pattern from Traditional Television to Over-the-Top (OTT) platforms: A special reference to Dehradun region https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3016 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>With the speedy up gradation and advancement in technology and increasing internet facility, the consumption pattern of the consumers is also changing. With the incorporation of Over-the-Top platforms, the services of media in order to deliver the content has also changed. OTT platforms are such platform which gives freedoms to its consumers to watch the web series, movies and TV series according to their own choice and preference. With the modern advertising techniques used by OTT platforms such as first episode free, nominal subscription charges compared to the television, along with various benefits, a majority of shift has been seen towards OTT platform in comparison to TV. Also in comparison to TV the OTT platforms has less breaks and advertisement. Also the content in OTT platforms has given a great opportunity to Indian for better admittance to international content. This research paper aims to understand the factors that influences the viewers to change their consumption pattern from traditional TV to Over the Top platforms in Dehradun region.</p> Vidushi Negi Ms. Himani Binjola Subhash Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Vidushi Negi, Ms. Himani Binjola, Subhash Gupta 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Secured Data Transaction of IoT Sensors with Storage Optimization https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3051 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Owing to the strategies and development towards smart things dimensions, the Internet of Things (IoT) has acquired significant interest. This paper introduces layered architecture for compression techniques that lowers the volume of IoT data until it is uploaded to the cloud. With a growing number of Internet-connected devices and sensors, enormous quantities of data are produced at every second, requiring amounts of extra storage to be processed. Compression algorithms technologies will, therefore, minimize the complexity of the input and the need for capacity by more effectively compacting the information. We implemented a secured compression system for IoT connected devices in this paper that limits the quantity of data by preserving the minimal error margin and preventing network bandwidth wastage. In our suggested compression algorithms system, we obtained 50% compression ratio with secured data that can be stored onto the cloud after using secured hash algorithms. We further demonstrated that even after decompression, the deviation ranged from the source information by less than 1%. This paper also illustrates the blockchain-based approaches may be better than the existing IoT paradigm, that relies primarily on centralized cloud storage, in several ways. By using Secured hash algorithm after compression, the data is further compressed as well as secured by using AES (SHA-256 Instance) to get the 256 bytes of data after encryption, hardly matter the input size, it will always give 256 bytes of data. Also, this work highlights the various IoT security threats at each architectural level and its possible blockchain solution is also presented. The main contributions of this work are as follows:</p> <ul> <li>First, we surveyed the existing storage optimization of IoT applications and understanding the use of blockchain for IoT applications.</li> <li>We presented the security critical applications areas of IoT architectural levels.</li> <li>We presented the importance of security in IoT frameworks which are focused on blockchain.</li> <li>Finally, we proposed a secured and storage optimized framework for IoT applications with normalized error rate.</li> </ul> <p>The framework is built specifically to compact data from IoT devices from the sensors. This implementation of compression techniques is subdivided into three parts. Firstly, in the nodes, the data taken from sensor readings is compressed. Secondly, using AES and SHA-256 instances, the compressed data is encrypted and it will be sent to the cloud after storing the data on the blockchain. Finally, the compressed data is decompressed using a private key at the receiving end. For compression and security, we have taken six sensors that are air quality index, dust concentration, humidity sensor, temperature sensor, voltage sensor, and water level sensor that are interfaced with Node MCU and data is being taken for simultaneously three days and analysis is done on the ThingSpeak. After analyzing data on the cloud, the samples are taken in the excel files. For the error rate, we have taken 100 samples values each from six sensor units. Storage Optimization is done in two steps i.e. Storage Optimization by Compression and Secured Data Transaction using Secured Hashing. Also, the blockchain is integrated with IoT and implemented to secure the system as well as to optimize the storage of IoT applications.</p> Monika Parmar Harsimran Jit Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Parmar, Harsimran Jit Kaur 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Machine Learning: A Review on Supervised Classification Algorithms and their Applications to Optical Character Recognition in Indic Scripts https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3105 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>Machine learning is one of the major applications of artificial intelligence (AI), which provides the ability for machines to learn automatically from data and improve with experience without being explicitly programmed and without human involvement. Its algorithms make predictions or bring about suggestions based on large amounts of data. Supervised learning is one of two broad areas of machine learning that deal with the task of learning a function for a current model based on past data training on input-output pairs of examples. This function enables the model to predict future outcomes for new inputs. Regression and classification are two supervised machine learning problems whose outputs are continuous and categorical in nature. Supervised classification is one of the tasks that so-called intelligent systems perform most often [1]. This review describes the supervised classification algorithm’s working and its applications to optical character recognition in Indic script. Devanagari and Gurumukhi scripts are chosen for this attempt. Various challenges in the optical character recognition process are also discussed at the end of the article [2-4]. The detailed study presented in this article will be helpful to researchers working in the field of optical character recognition to understand where to use which machine learning algorithm for best results.</p> Tajinder Pal Singh Sheifali Gupta Meenu Garg Copyright (c) 2021 Tajinder Pal Singh, Sheifali Gupta, Meenu Garg 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Educational Applications of Immersive Technology https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3138 <p>The technology which is revolutionizing the present and future as well is known as extended/immersive reality technology. It means either creating or extending the reality; this is done via immersion of user into digital environment. Applications of extended reality can be found out in different domains like healthcare, transportation construction, gaming, education etc. Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR) and Mixed Reality (MR) are amongst the fastest growing and fascinating immersive technologies of today’s era [1]. In 1989, Jaron Lanier had coined the termed Virtual Reality. He had presented his vision of Ultimate Display that mimics the real world in a conference at Sutherland. Generally, headsets are used in VR technology to immerse the user into digital environment [2]. In last few decades, VR technology is developing at exponential speed specifically in the fields of entertainment and training. Almost on weekly or daily basis, new applications or systems based on this domain are coming. In VR technology, users are totally immersed in the virtual world whereas in AR technology, being present in the real world users visualize or add some objects virtually. Moreover, it can also remove some object from real environment. Recently, researchers are focusing mostly on adding object virtually on the real environment. Graphic overlay technique is used to hide or remove some objects from real environment. Even sound, videos and animation can also blend in AR technology. Interactive AR applications are gaining more popularity in the field of education [3]. Likewise, MR too provides fresh ideas for innovative and creative learning. It supports the combining of virtual and real worlds to provide novel visualizations and environments where digital and physical objects co-exist and act together in real time. The MR combines AR and VR, whereby AR blends the virtual and the real world, while VR allows learners to be completely immersed in the virtual world. The combination of real and virtual worlds may differ according to the application requirements [4]. This article surveys the research on traditional and VR/AR/MR based educational applications and reviews their trends and patterns covering publications from 2018 to 2021. The motive of the paper is to explore the potentials of VR, AR and MR in imparting impactful education; learning and teaching. There are prospects in improving the teaching techniques of computer science and mathematics through these applications [5-6]. Different types of traditional and modern teaching and learning methods, techniques and applications are explored to find out the research gaps in the field of education. A comparison is drawn amongst all the available methods, techniques and applications. A new methodology based on AR, VR and MR for teaching and learning is proposed in this paper.</p> Priyanka Datta Amanpreet Kaur Archana Mantri Copyright (c) 2021 Priyanka Datta, Amanpreet Kaur, Archana Mantri 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Influence of Socio Demographic Factors on NPS Subscription – Enrollment based analysis https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3174 <p>India is currently enjoying high demographic dividend advantages. Existing young workforce in India may turn in to a major socioeconim problem once they reach retirment age if they have not planned and saved enogh for their nest egg ages. Understanding early enrollment trends to dedicated pension and retirment products will help policy makers to take currective actions wherever necessary.</p> <p>More than 80% of the workers in India are employed in Private sector or informal sector. Increasing mobility because of the workplace and changed nuclear family structures are creating problems to old age people and they may not be able to rely on next generation any more. Life expectancy, health care costs and inflation are increasing very rapidly in India. Informal sector workers who are not covered under pension plans may have to consider voluntary pension schemes seriously to keep them out from any major financial distress in their old ages.</p> <p>National Pension System popularly known as NPS was launched in India by the Government to increase pension coverage, particularly to the informal sector. Initially NPS was introduced to government employees and later it was extended to corporates and to all citizens of India including informal sector employees. India’s vast informal sector needs a social security and an ambitious NPS was introduced to provide voluntary contributory pensions to all citizens on India.</p> <p>NPS All citizen mode is relativly new defined contribution product introduced by governement to attract and encourage saving for pension. As of now enrollement to NPS All citizen mode is not very appealing but showing a study growth. This study is aimed at understanding and analysing impacts of socio demographic parameters on NPS enrollment.</p> <p>Last 5 years NPS All Citizens model subscriptions data from NPS trust will be used for the current study. Sociodemographic factors like Gender, Age group, Educational Qualification, Occupation, Income range and Location will be considerd for this study. Descriptive statistics will be used for analysing and interpriting data. Study will focus on establishing association among paramaters and to identify strenght of the relationship.</p> <p>Study outcomes will help us to understand NPS enorolment trends and patterns. Descriptive study will help us to understand the data distribution in a better way and we can take necessary strategic decision wherever necessary. Policy makers can compare this with some established benchmarks that in turn will help them to take some informed decision and can change the policies to encourage the enrollments</p> Vishweshwar Mensumane Krishna Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Vishweshwar Mensumane, Krishna Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Validation of Simulated Darkroom Retinoscopy goggles in Normal Subjects https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3211 <p><strong>: </strong>Retinoscopy is performed with retinoscope to determine the refractive status of the human eye. It’s a dark room procedure. Most of the eye care practitioners find it difficult to perform retinoscopy in the camp screening places. Due to bright illumination conditions curtains, screens, blinds etc have to be used to create a dark room atmosphere for performing retinoscopy. Room lights have to be switched off. Extra space is inevitable for retinoscopy procedure. Children usually panic for the dark room procedures and are often unco-operative. Publication No. US8919960 relates to the providing of medical ocular assistance and examination. The present invention is directed toward an ocular inspection technique and apparatus. Thus, in order to overcome one or more drawbacks associated, present invention aims to provide a simulated dark room retinoscopy goggle to successfully perform retinoscopy even with room lights on in camp screening places, school screening places,out-patient department etc. The present invention relates to the field of retinoscopy. The present invention in particular relates to a simulated dark room retinoscopy goggle (<strong>SDRG)</strong>.</p> <p>The principal object of the present invention is to provide a simulated dark room retinoscopy goggle. Another object of the present invention is to provide a simple and user friendly goggle to successfully perform retinoscopy even with room lights on in camp screening places, school screening places etc. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide light weight, economical, portable retinoscopy goggle with a movable flap in the front which is used to perform retinoscopy in bright illumination conditions. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kalla Sailaja Maheswari Srinivasan Monica Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2021 Kalla Sailaja, Maheswari Srinivasan, Monica Chaudhry 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Detection of metabolites in latent fingerprints through green nanoparticles for both forensic investigations and medical purposes https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3243 <p>Forensic science is a field of great interest to the investigators, as it links the techniques and methods of the basic sciences as an application to the legal issues. This science is integrated with a schematically linked protocol of recognition, identification, characterization and evaluation of evidence in any physical, chemical or biological form gathered from the site of crime or suspected area [1]. The evidence collected for resolving the case is taken as a sample for further research and investigation. The limitations to forensic science begin with the need of justice to be provided sometimes on the basis of the sample that is too low to be detected. There had been a huge demand in the forensic industry to produce the methodology that can overcome the problem of small sample size or more specificity and sensitivity.</p> <p>The nanotechnology has shown its significant merits in improvising the methodology utilized to detect even traces of samples without compromising its specificity and sensitivity. Generally, the nanotechnology is appreciated because of synthesis and utilization of the particles which range from 1 nm to 100 nm at an atomic scale [1].</p> <p>One of the most areas of forensic being explored after blood, nails, hair, visible or impressed fingerprints is latent fingerprints. The link to nanotechnology is its small size of nanoparticles detecting the invisible fingerprints with great sensitivity. In a usual scenario at the crime site, there is a less quantity of latent fingerprints found. This increases the demand of the methodology which is highly effective. The nanoparticles being very small in size have high surface to volume ratio which means that the reactivity is increased at the surface of the material or chemical. The wide variety of nanoparticles can be used to benefit the detection of medical diagnosis using latent fingerprints which not only will benefit the legal cases but also could be moulded towards the non-invasive biosensors fabrication for the analysis of certain diseases.</p> <p>Metal nanoparticles show a wide range of it biological applications like analytical sensors, drug delivery, therapeutics, etc. Initially being synthetically synthesized, although these nanoparticles contribute in various applications, it also consist demerits of the toxic by-products produced during the synthesis and expensiveness. The new approach of green nanoparticles synthesis overcomes the drawbacks of chemical synthesis of nanoparticles. The green nanoparticles are non-toxic, cost effective, reliable, biocompatible and eco-friendly [2].&nbsp;</p> <p>The synthesis of green nanoparticles like with fluorescence, phosphorescence or magnetic properties can be conducted by the bottom-up methods like co-precipitation processes [3].</p> <p>The detection of the metabolite can be done through the techniques like brightfield and fluorescent microscopy [4], Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)[5]<em>,</em> Raman spectroscopy (RS), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) [6], surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) [7], etc.</p> <p>The importance and unexplored potentials of the detection of metabolites in the latent fingerprints for the estimation of the health of human beings needs to be stressed. The major focus of research till date had been on visualization of the latent fingerprints rather than the detection and identification of biomolecules present in the latent fingerprints [8].</p> <p>The applications of metal containing nanoparticles and nano-structured particles are observed in the detection of latent fingerprints. Further studies and research are required for future improvement and development of nanotechnology based fingerprint detection methods for metabolites which can have significant application in medical diagnostics for its non-invasive diagnosis [9].</p> Pallavi Aggarwal Mansi Chitkara Copyright (c) 2021 Pallavi Aggarwal, Mansi Chitkara 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Dosimetric Comparison of Photon Beams Using CIRS Thorax Phantom to Evaluate Monaco Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3279 <p>In three inhomogeneous mediums, the performance of different algorithms for Flattening Filter Free (FFF) photon beams and flattening filter (FF) photon beams was evaluated in this research work. The performance of the algorithms used for dose calculations is constantly being investigated, as an incorrect dose calculation could result in radiation dosage delivery uncertainty. Algorithms for any newer technology radiation generating equipment, such as the Linear Accelerator (LINAC), must be verified to be sure enough about the real amount of dose delivered. As radiotherapy consists of several processes, the most important of which are imaging, contouring, planning, verification, delivery, and follow-up.</p> <p>&nbsp;Algorithms contribute to one of the potential sources of radiation delivery uncertainty [1]. For the various aspects relevant to proper dose calculation, these algorithms fundamentally take care of the various anatomical and compositional variations (i.e. inhomogeneity) of individual patients. The importance of precise dose estimations may be seen in the fact that the data for these algorithms is taken from a homogenous static water phantom, which is not reflective of the true patient composition [2]. In the presence of inhomogeneity such as tissue bone junction, air cavity, and air soft tissue border/junction, the factor of uncertainty in dose calculation in flattened beam taking care of scattered and leakage radiation becomes larger compared to homogeneous static water phantom setup used in extraction of commissioning data for the Treatment Planning System (TPS). Due to their obvious features, such as higher dose rate of the LINAC, which reduces treatment time, recently released flattening filter free linear accelerators are become popular. The treatment site, such as lung cancer, is constantly changed by breathing and other actions, which might lead to dose delivery uncertainty [3]. Due to the high dose rate, the FFF beam technology reduces treatment time and helps in dose delivery with greater precision and accuracy. Despite their popularity, FFF beams have raised concerns about dose calculation accuracy, particularly in inhomogeneous media and body structures. FFF beams have been studied in a limited span compared to FF beams for performance evaluation in various media and densities [4]. As a result, the goal of this research was to compare the performance of various algorithms for flattening filter free photon beams and filter beams in inhomogeneities [4].</p> <p>The CIRS phantom (Model 002LFC, computerised imaging reference Systems Inc., Norfolk, Virginia) was employed in this study to assess algorithm performance and dose delivery accuracy. Dose assessments in three density locations, namely bone, lung, and tissue, were performed using interchangeable solid water inserts to assess the calculation accuracy of different algorithms. In this present study ionization chambers was employed for the point dose measurements. The sensitive volume of chamber is 0.6 cc (TM30013) (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) connected to PC electrometer (Sun Nuclear Corporation). The chamber is designed for the absolute and depth dose measurements suitable for the energy range from Co-60 to 50 MV photons and 6 to 50 MeV electrons.</p> <p>&nbsp;In the present study, authors attempted to sought some performance assessment of the popular TPS algorithms keep the prime attention specially for FFF beams which are lashed with the unique advantages in terms of high dose rate helping in minimisation of the deteriorating impact of motion on radiotherapy delivery and its outcomes. Both the, FF and FFF photon, beams were analysed for their accuracy in dose calculation in different mediums. For both FF and FFF photon beams, the accuracy of dose calculation algorithms was tested in a variety of materials covering practically the entire density spectrum, including lung, water, and bone. In lung, water, and bone mediums, both FF and FFF beams functioned differently. The evaluation of algorithms was carried out using an anthropomorphic phantom that represented the average human thorax; thus, these findings may assist in the selection of an appropriate algorithm for specific clinical settings in terms of beam energy type (FF or FFF) and radiation delivery site tumour. The findings could also suggest the need for stress to be invested in daily QA procedures, depending on the location of the tumour and the photon beam(s) employed in radiotherapy. It may also be concluded that radiation distribution in the lung and other low-density clinical situations is complicated and difficult, especially with FFF beams. As a result, one must find a compromise between radiation delivery speed and motion management and precision.</p> Amit Saini Avtar Singh V P Pandey Pankaj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Amit Saini, Avtar Singh, V P Pandey, Pankaj Kumar 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 A Framework of Smart Dispensing Unit for Optimizing Sanitizer Quantity using IoT schematics https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3438 <p>Nowadays, technology is helping everyone to cover their basic hygiene needs. During the COVID'19 pandemic, every person has started taking precautions such as hand sanitization, wearing of masks and social distancing [1-2]. In this paper, the authors are focusing on hand sanitization. Latest sanitizer machines dispense sanitizer automatically because of touchless technology, but excessive use of sanitizer is harmful to the human skin. To address this issue, a smart sanitizer dispenser based on the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine Learning (ML) has been proposed to fight against COVID'19 [3-4]. The proposed solution captures the image of hands and based on the size of hands and the number of germs present on the hands, the machine will dispense the sanitizer. In this way, the damage to human skin caused due to the excessive use of sanitizer can be reduced and the amount of sanitizer can also be saved.</p> Mudita Harsha Chauhan Deepali Gupta Jayant Uppal Copyright (c) 2021 Mudita, Harsha Chauhan, Deepali Gupta, Jayant Uppal 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Expediency of Investments in Real Estate Sector https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3518 <p><em>In India, with the liberalisation of the economy, the real estate industry has grown in prominence. As a result of the increasing business possibilities and labour migration, demand for commercial land property for both housing and industrial building has grown. The retail, hotel, and entertainment industries all have an impact on real estate developments. The research looks at the motivation, awareness and profitability of retail real estate investors. The study design comprises descriptive research, in which various elements of real estate investments are studied. The demographic profile of real estate investors, motivation, and profitability in real estate investments were investigated in this study. A total of 314 samples were used in this investigation, and data was obtained using a questionnaire. Simple percentages analysis, descriptive statistics, factor assay, chi-square, and regression were utilised as statistical techniques. Individual investors have adequate </em></p> M. Jayanthi S. Saravanakumar Copyright (c) 2021 M. Jayanthi, S. Saravanakumar 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Dual modulation of IL-6 pathway by flavonoid- metal complexes as immune boosters for SARS-CoV-2 therapy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2989 <p>The present study was conducted because of the recent scenario on this pandemic Coronavirus outbreak worldwide. Currently, this disease cannot be treated through specific vaccines and therapeutic medicines. While many vaccine candidates are being investigated, it takes some time for the mass public to access them. Eventual evidence indicates that many COVID-19 patients may die from an irregular release of cytokines called cytokine release syndrome (CRS) due to the excessive reaction of their immune systems. In worsening patients with COVID-19, CRS plays an important role, from pneumonia via ARDS, to cumulative systemic inflammation and eventually to a failing of the multi-system organ. A large number of cytokines participate in the 'cytokine storm' in COVID- 19 individuals, including IL-6, IL-1, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-α, but IL-6, whose higher serum levels are associated with respiratory failure, ARDs, and adverse clinical outcomes, tend to be a crucial factor. More importantly, as the levels of IL-6 increase, the mortality rate also increases. In China, the COVID-19 mortality indicator has been tested by a multi-center retrospective analysis in 150 COVID-19 patients. The study analysed that 82 cases are resolved from COVID-19 and 68 cases are dead due to enhancement of IL-6 levels in the serum. In this research, the secondary plant metabolites from Indian traditional medicine are identified through a computational technique and the selected seedling metabolite is sealed to block the IL-6 receptor. “Tocilizumab is the only choice to treat cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients as an IL-6 inhibitor. However, tocilizumab production is a time-consuming process; it's expensive (not affordable for patients with low economic status); also, it is administered in the parenteral route. These are some of the major demerits of Tocilizumab. At the same time, by looking at the emerging intense scientific evidence for ameliorating inflammatory conditions by flavonoids and due to their safe and cost-effective attributes, to work on designing flavonoids as a possible lead ‘IL-6 blocker’. We used <em>in-silico </em>molecular docking to study numerous flavonoids &amp; found that quercetin has an efficient binding affinity with IL-6. Previously we have noted that metal deficiency is also an effective reason that triggers IL-6 production. Thus, we planned to conjugate flavonoids with metal to improve the efficiency of our lead molecule. Our main objectives are to identify potential flavonoid and divalent metals as inhibitors of the catalytic pocket of IL-6 using structure-based <em>in-silico </em>screening. To synthesize the designed flavonoid-metal complexes and their characterization by spectral analysis and analytical methods. To investigate the <em>in-vitro </em>IL-6 inhibitory activity using human breast cancer cell lines, other cell lines which express more IL-6 levels and IL-6 Elisa plate method. To assess the toxicity of synthesized flavonoid metal complexes by haemolytic assay [1,2].</p> <p>From the previous literature reviews, I also understood that IL-6 is a bad proinflammatory cytokine causing a large number of diseases like cancer, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, anaemia, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease [1-3]. This pandemic troubled, depressed, weakened a lot of people and has taken our loved ones from us. But in my perception, I conquered my fears, strengthened my mind, gained so much knowledge on the other side of our immune system. Unfortunately, we lost so many lives due to this pandemic, especially the poor people who couldn’t afford the treatment. These heart-wrenching scenarios motivated me to enter a completely different path of casting a new medicine that can be accessible and affordable to everyone. I don’t know whether I would achieve or not, but my journey for this good cause made me feel successful.</p> Krishna Swaroop Akey Jubie S Vasanth P Jeyaprakash M Jawahar N Copyright (c) 2021 Krishna Swaroop Akey, Jubie S, Vasanth P, Jeyaprakash M, Jawahar N 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Maintenance of Tobacco Abstinence – Effect of Anti-Tobacco Media messages on students of Delhi University https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3073 <p><strong>Introduction </strong></p> <p>In 1605, tobacco was introduced in India via Portuguese and after 1930, India become a well-known country for tobacco cultivation. Through its growing and increasing demand government in 1943-44, started excise duty on tobacco and since then tobacco remained as the important source of excise revenue for this country (1). The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) 2003, initiative of WHO is the very first international agreement aimed to strengthen tobacco use&nbsp; restriction and reduction (2). Anti-tobacco campaigns and smoke-free policies altogether created a significant reduction in social acceptability for tobacco, although its affect varies among different population (3). Globally many studies&nbsp; confirm an overall reduction in tobacco use prevalence, nevertheless, it also specifies that there is also a substantial room for improvement (4). <strong>Importance and Significance of the study </strong>In Review of literature, it was found that anti-tobacco media messages have a different impact on different sections of community. It is very important to study the impact of media messages on younger generation because they are very fond of experimenting new things. Media is around the person 24x7. So knowingly or unknowingly media is acting as trigger. It can be a barrier or facilitator for craving. This study will assess whether media help in maintaining abstinence or barrier in abstinence. The main challenge of this study was to find-out the media messages which are very much suitable for our younger generation. Do they really make them think about their tobacco use behaviour? This study will have a significant social impact as we all know that State-sponsored media anti-tobacco messages are available widely over public. However, through this study we can assess the efficacy of these anti-tobacco media propaganda anti-tobacco messages.</p> <p><strong>Literature Review</strong></p> <p>Globally the anti-smoking campaigns are effective in decreasing smoking behaviour, increasing quitting attempts as well as intentions to quit and decreasing relapse among recent quitters, hence, increasing cessation-oriented behaviour. Anti-smoking campaigns plays a vital role in strengthening support for smoke free policy&nbsp; (5). However, anti-smoking campaigns are not effective in maintaining complete cessation and decreasing relapse process among older quitters&nbsp; (6). Anti-tobacco advocacy messages bring crucial attitudinal changes in tobacco related behaviour by enhancing the knowledge about the harmful effect of tobacco on one’s health. This knowledge and negative attitude towards tobacco leads to greater cessation oriented intentions and more quit attempts&nbsp; (7). The pictorial anti-tobacco messages have a great appeal and significant impact on cessation process and are successful in promoting anti-smoking behaviour (8). Influential personalities like sport persons, actors or politicians have an impact on our society. An anti-tobacco advocacy or propaganda message become more effective and acceptable if it has some celebrity influence in it&nbsp; (9).</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>Multi-stage sampling method was used. Students who were currently abstinent were included in the study and randomly divided into 4 groups namely; Personal testimonial messages, Health warning messages, Public service announcements and Natural exposure group.15 students in each. Data was collected at 0, 1 and 3 months. Ethical clearance was taken from ethical review board committee Chitkara university, Punjab.</p> <p><strong>Data collection tools:</strong> Tobacco craving questionnaire, Contemplation ladder, Smoking Abstinence Questionnaire, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine Dependence and Urine cotinine test.</p> <p><strong>Major findings and Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The mean age of the study-participants was 20.95 ± 1.702 years. There were no significant differences found within the groups for motivation to change tobacco behaviour scores within personal testimonial group and health warning group. It indicates that these types of messages helped participants to remain abstinent for 3 months as if they were during their initial stage. On the other hand, study-participants in natural exposure group deteriorated in the motivation to change tobacco behaviour and this difference is significant 0.001. The mean scores of study-participants on tobacco craving questionnaire among all three groups after 3 months of the study remained almost same as in initial phase. On the other hand, the natural exposure group reported an increase in tobacco craving scores and this difference within group was statistically significant 0.001.The mean scores for smoking abstinence questionnaire remained statistically non-significant among all four groups. The natural exposure group participant reported an overall decrease in mean scores indicative of difficulty in maintaining tobacco abstinence behaviour. There is a negative association found between number of months of past abstinence and craving. It indicates that the tobacco craving decreases with increasing number of abstinent months.. Media is available 24x7. In the era of internet and increasing dependency on media, timely efforts must be taken to protect the younger generation from harms of tobacco.</p> Laxmi Kumari Meenakshi Sood Sandhya Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Laxmi Kumari , Meenakshi Sood, Sandhya Gupta 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Developing a Model for Employer Satisfaction from Recruitment of Fresh Management Graduates Using SEM https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3088 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The need for this study is resident in the problems that are engulfing the national employment scenario right now. The model has been developed by operationalizing employer satisfaction as a construct through factors such as ‘Management Skills’, ‘Technical Skills’, ‘Communication Skills’, ‘Self-Emotion’, ‘Use of Emotion’, ‘Other Emotion’, ‘Regulation of Emotion’, ‘Business School Structures’, ‘Business School based industry interface’, ‘Career Anchor’, ‘Organizational Environment’, ‘Career Clarity’ and ‘Employer Satisfaction’. The research relied on quantitative analysis of the variables across organizational perspective. The research outcomes and hypothesis examination typically points towards the prevalence of the significant impact of individual preparedness-in terms of ‘skills and emotion management’, institutional supports in terms of ‘practices and interfaces’ and employer supports- in terms of ‘assignment of career anchor and prevailing organizational environment’; on the shaping of ‘employee sense making’ and ‘employee satisfaction’ in corporate environment[1-3].</p> Frederick Sidney Correa Pawan Kumar Chand Copyright (c) 2021 Frederick Sidney Correa, Pawan Kumar Chand 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 A study to assess the impact of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Levels and Subjective Well- Being among Housewives https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3120 <p><strong>Abstract</strong>: &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The prevalence of stress related problems and deprived overall subjective well -being are very common among women. Working women and housewives are considered full time working by a recent research. Working women are stressed and anxious in case family is not supportive whereas, Housewives are managing the family, educating and taking care of her children as well as elderly, cooking food, buying goods, cleaning and maintaining safe environment at home, in both the situations women are working and striving for the work life as well as at home. As a result, knowledge regarding stress management techniques should be increase in order to avoid stress from negatively impacting lives. The mindfulness contemplative practices originated from Buddhist tradition. Mindfulness of the body, feelings, mind. Mindfulness can be defined as “paying attention to the current moment with openness, curiosity and with full acceptance”. Mindfulness experiences can be strengthened and supported by a regular meditation practice. This practice encourages us to slow down, breathe and observe our inner experience and consciously removing the negative emotions from our thinking process<sup> [1]. </sup>Mindfulness is different from meditation. &nbsp;The individual has to concentrate on his or her breathing and slowly the person will reduce negative emotions and will have satisfying relationship too<sup> [2]. </sup>Objectives: To assess the impact of mindfulness meditation by comparing the perceived scores of stress levels and subjective well being and to find out the association of perceived scores of stress levels and subjective well being with socio-demographic variables of housewives after intervention.To find out the relationship between perceived scores of stress levels and subjective well being among housewives. Methodology: Researcher has taken one month training of mindfulness meditation from the expert and further certification for this from the expert person has been done. &nbsp;The researcher collected the data from Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali. The total sample for the pilot study was 40. Researcher divided them into two groups includes 20 experimental and 20 control group.Written informed consent was taken from them. The sociodemographic detail were filled by the housewives. The two scales perceived stress scale and subjective well being scale were used to assess the perceived stress level and subjective well-being score. There was no randomization done in choosing the subjects. &nbsp;Researchers have taken the subjects who were willing to participate in the study. The housewives were approached online and given training through online mode only. Firstly, pre-test were taken and then researcher shared a routine time table for the training of mindfulness meditation. Re-demonstration were taken by the researcher for checking the technique of performing mindfulness meditation. After four weeks, housewives were assessed for the post-test. Results: 3(15%) were came under high perceived stress followed by 14(70%) under moderate and 3(15%) under low stress category. In SUBI, 6(30%) were belong to high well being followed by 13(65%) were belong to moderate and 1(15%) belongs to low well-being score. Conclusion: - The perceived stress score found to be significant with age of housewives, socio economic status scale in of pre perceived stress scale in experimental group. In post perceived stress scale in experimental group there is an association of perceived stress scale with socio economic status scale. In case of post perceived stress scale in control group and there is an association of perceived stress scale score with total monthly income of the family and socio economic status scale.In case of pre subjective wellbeing scores in experimental there is an association of wellbeing and family source of income.</p> Manpreet Kaur Rattan Meenakshi Sood Copyright (c) 2021 Manpreet Kaur Rattan, Meenakshi Sood 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 IMPACT OF PERSONAL SELLING ON CUSTOMER’S BRAND CHOICE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3154 <p>The strategy for marketing communication has been one of the most crucial aspects of an organization’s marketing efforts[1-3]. The marketing teams strive to develop strategies to reach the target markets effectively through various media channels. On similar lines, multiple researchers have provided their work to understand individually, the parents and the students as a customer group. But, work on attracting both: the parents and the children together through personal selling were not found.</p> <p>The COVID 19 pandemic has given a huge boost to the Edtech industry. The competitors in the industry invest heavily in promotion and marketing[4] This paper focuses on studying the traditional marketing strategies of educational institutes and providing results on the possible strategies for Edtech companies in order to target the parents and the children through a single strategy.</p> <p>Methodology - For this research, a sample size of 100 responders will be taken which will consist of parents and the students. The research will be carried out through exploratory research design and questionnaire as well as some telephonic interviews.</p> <p>Implications – The research results will help the companies in the Edtech industry to develop an integrated strategy in order to communicate with the parents and the students simultaneously.&nbsp;</p> <p>Originality – To the researchers’ knowledge, no research has been carried out previously on the said topic for the mentioned industry.</p> Dhruv Naik Shailaja Manocha Copyright (c) 2021 Dhruv Naik, Shailaja Manocha 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 EXPLORING THE MULTIFACETED ROLE OF PTP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3192 <p>Diabetes is considered as one of the centenarian diseases which is a global concern. From the recent available studies and WHO, diabetes is considered as a major stellar and world- wide issue. This disease is mainly characterized by elevation of plasma glucose level commonly called as hyperglycaemia. Diabetes mellitus is of two types namely juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or type one diabetes and Adult onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or type 2 diabetes. more than 90% of the diabetes cases are of type 2 diabetes mellitus which mainly occur due to resistance of insulin resulting in loss of homeostasis of glucose [1]. Therefore it has become necessary to find new and effective therapeutic anti-diabetic medications to cope with the increasing pace of this disease in global population. Initially the cases of type 2 diabetes were observed only in adult populations which were mainly due to modifications in lifestyles but recently the medical problem has become prevalent even in children. Conventional therapies provides symptomatic relief but often fail to manage diabetes in the cases of pre diabetic conditions and also provides less effective in managing diabetic complications. The therapies that are currently being used in management of this debilitating disorder are often ineffective due to resistance two insulin and also costly therefore demanding a situation to improve the therapeutics and find effective and alternative molecules which can help in management of this disease [2]. Thus, the orientation of scientist have inclined towards exploring novel therapeutic methods/pathways which can act as a double edged sword in managing diabetes and diabetes associated complications. the most versatile and fundamental mechanism to control the functioning of the cells such as cell growth its division differentiation and communication between cells is phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins. The major role in transmitting extracellular responses for smooth functioning of different cells such as activation of T cells, signalling of antigen receptor in B cells and genetic expression in signalling pathways is mainly held by protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Two major opposing enzymes protein tyrosine kinase and protein tyrosine phosphatase control the cellular activity and are responsible for phosphate transfer and catalysing phosphate hydrolysis respectively. The stability of proteins can be controlled by addition or removal of phosphoryl group from proteins which generate recognition motives that are involved in protein-protein interactions and in monitoring the protein stability thereby affecting enzyme mobility. The protein tyrosine phosphatase enzyme mainly catalyse the phosphotyrosine hydrolysis with the help of specific proteins. The phosphotyrosine phosphatases can be distinguished by the presence of 1 catalytic domain of nearly 240 residues which poses high similarity in sequence. PTP family includes both tyrosine-specific (a) Cytosolic, nonreceptor forms PTP 1B, SHP-1, SHP-2 (b) Receptor-like, transmembrane forms CD45, RPTPµ, RPTPα and dual-specificity phosphatases like CDC25, Kinase-associated phosphatase, and MAP kinase phosphatase-1. And approximately 40% of sequence identity has been identified in the catalytic domain of PTB 1B proteins which aids in catalysation of the phosphorylation of tyrosine and further aids in phosphorylation of different types of peptides in proteins [3]. The levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in eucaryotic cells are mainly maintained by the catalytic domain of the PTP 1B. Upon gene mapping it was identified that the PTP 1B and PTPN 1 gene are present on the long arm of chromosome 20 in humans and chromosome 20 has been studied to be linked with the type 2 diabetes mellitus. This has led to identification of an association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and PTPN 1 at the genetic level. The PTP 1 B has therefore been identified as an attractive target management of type 2 diabetes mellitus since it is a negative regulator of insulin receptor and signalling of leptin receptor pathways. PTP 1B acts by dephosphorylation of incident receptors and leptin receptors leading to their deactivation and hence inhibitors of this enzyme can be useful therapeutic agent in management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. From the various literature published in past decade, Protein tyrosine phosphate (PTP) is considered as one of the most promising molecular pathway which is known to negatively regulate leptin and insulin levels. various PTP-1B inhibitors are in the pipeline research which have shown remarkable results in various in vitro and in vivo studies. in this article, we have summarized the role of PTP in the management of diabetic complications and recent findings regarding the PTP-1B inhibitors in targeting the molecular pathway associated in etiology of developing diabetic complications [4].</p> Amit Gupta Tapan Behl Sukhbir Singh Neelam Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Amit Gupta, Tapan Behl, Sukhbir Singh, Neelam Sharma 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Interpreting Morphology of Urban Open Spaces at Neighbourhood level, Patiala, Punjab https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3226 <p>In the diverse urban fabric of cities, the spaces get limited for future use and development. It is our responsibility to use the urban space as its best purpose. Every urban space has its own identity as per its psychology and character etc. Open spaces are deteriorating day by day due to over use, wrong use, least use and various other evils of the society. Urban open spaces (UOS) are diverse in nature as per the diverse religion and culture[1]. Various morphological determinants defines the sense of place [3]. UOS cannot be defined without built mass and its enclosure [1]. Web of UOS and its activities helps to construct the urban structure of the city. With the involvement of the social groups and local people, we can regenerate and reactivate urban open spaces.</p> <p>From ancient to contemporary era of cities, urban open spaces are dynamic in nature[2]. Nature of urban open spaces from Roman cities and Greek cities; Barouque cities and Renaissance cities; Medieval cities and Contemporary cities always dynamic due to change in need and the technological advancement[2]. Guru Nanak Nagar, Gurbax colony and Tafazalpur area of Patiala city of Punjab blends with each other to form a one single neighbourhood. This is nearer to railway station and bus stand. Expansion of Patiala city occurred in outwards direction [3-14]. In the era of independent world, this transformation of cities are evolved due to the latest trends and techniques [3]. General issues of Urban open spaces from city level to area level are like overcrowding, narrow streets, under use of spaces, over use of transportation system such as cars ,buses, less use of pedestrians, encroachment in urban spaces by house owners etc[2]. Pedestrian system usually ignored due to the need of paths for the use of high speed vehicles[12]. These issues tend to deteriorate the urban open spaces and its use. These issues effects the environment and sustainability of the area at the greater extent[6].</p> <p>In the urban environment of cities, most vital organ is urban open spaces which amalgamates with the building blocks and forms the image of city [2]. Any physical setting in amorphous space forms the urban pattern. These morphological determinants [5] of urban pattern of this area are Scale[11], Geometry, land use, building structures, plot pattern, street pattern etc defines the sense of place [1]. Every neighbourhood of city develops as per the idea of population density, idea of need and requirement of population as per the latest trends and techniques, idea of urban amenities, idea of future projection to avoid the urban pressure[2]. The connection between the hierarchy of streets forms the street pattern like curvilinear pattern, grid iron pattern [10], concentric pattern and radial pattern etc. Walk-ability, Variety and vitality, Level of openness, Urban furniture, Accessibility, Enjoyment, Physical activity etc. characteristics of urban open spaces needs to be handled very carefully in case of the neighbourhood area of Patiala because of absence of these characteristics, the urban open spaces gets more vulnerable[8-12].</p> <p>To achieve sustainability in the urban open spaces we should use the sustainable parameters as per need of neighbourhood [9]. Social values; social inclusion integration[8], economic values; integration of tourism, integration of economic activities in urban parks, enhancing productivity of workers [6-7-13] and environment values; wild life conservation, conservation of trees and plant species, reduction in air, water and earth pollution activities.</p> <p>For the regeneration and rejuvenation of the urban open spaces in the neighbourhood [9], it needs treatment such as safety, attractiveness, variety in urban furniture, proper management of the spaces with infrastructure etc. Some sustainable aspects and some environment controls through UDPFI, URDPFI Guidelines and sustainable urban development goals need to be incorporated for increasing the sensitivity and image of urban open areas[4-5-6-7]. Construction of the better half, conservation of the old, treatment of obsolete urban open spaces bring life to the society or the community which enhances the efficiency of the present spaces of the urban area. We need to lower the gap between old and new open spaces by achieving the efficiency. We need to do the balanced distribution of urban open space system through out the city for avoiding the overcrowding, urban pressure and various other evils of the society.</p> Manmohit Singh Niva Turna Copyright (c) 2021 Manmohit Singh, Niva Turna 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Interaction of ionic liquid with drug procaine hydrochloride: a conductivity study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3259 <p>This paper outlines the influence of drug procaine hydrochloride on the micellar properties of long chain imidazolium based ionic liquid[C<sub>15</sub>mim] [Br]. Significant physicochemical properties like critical micelle concentration and other thermodynamic parameters are evaluated to detect the change in micellar properties of ionic liquid with the addition of varied concentrations of drug. The conductometric titrations were done for ionic liquid in aqueous solution and aqueous solution of drug in a varied temperature range (298.15 - 308.15 K). Experimental data obtained via conductometric study were utilized for determination of CMC value and various thermodynamic parameters. The decrement is observed in CMC value of ionic liquid with increasing drug concentration and also with decreasing temperature. These ionic liquid drug mixtures have applications in various fields and can be helpful for other investigators for better in development medicinal chemistry.</p> Pooja Sharma Harsh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Pooja Sharma, Harsh Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Gharats: Ancient Technological Marvel at the Verge of Extinction https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3419 <p>Indian sub-continent has abundant source of fresh water which flows in the form of rivers, streams and khuds. These fresh sources of water are not only used to meet the requirements of water flowing through the villages but have been harnessed for centuries by the people living in the mountanious region as a source to meet the demands of the people in a sustainable way. One of the ancient technological innovation was the establishment of Gharats which served the people of the mountanious region for centuries by grinding the flour. This article studies the need and importance of Gharats, the challenges these Gharats face due to the industrialization. The paper proposes to conserve these ancient technological masterpiece from being extinct and suggests the upgradation of these Gharats for the conservation of these heritage sites.</p> Gautam Malik Abhineet Saini Harvinder Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Gautam Malik, Abhineet Saini, Harvinder Singh 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Slavery and Racism: Portrayal of Huck as a White Slave in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3536 <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">Slavery and racism are complicated, contentious issues having been intimately interwoven elements of American society. Slaves have suffered a wide range of wounds and afflictions at the hands of others, including members of their own community and family. Slavery and racism in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a fundamental concern for Huck, a white boy of thirteen, who observes the pinnacle of injustice and cruelty, which is ethically repugnant and blatantly anti-human. In the novel, Huck Finn’s struggle with his inner conscience due the heinous practice of slavery, the harsh realities of white culture, and their cold-hearted attitude have horrible implications on his heart and mind. This research emphasizes the necessity for deliberate moral reflection on how a white person’s honesty and kindness became a justification for his enslavement among the white community and also how he fights against the atrocities of the whites.</span></em></p> Zeenat Khalil Dr. Mursalin Jahan Copyright (c) 2021 Zeenat Khalil, Dr. Mursalin Jahan 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 General aspects, Applications and Recent advancements of 1,2-disubstituted Benzimidazole Mannich Bases: A Privileged Scaffold. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3049 Swikriti Ritchu Babbar Sandeep Arora Copyright (c) 2021 Swikriti, Ritchu Babbar, Sandeep Arora 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Performance and Volatility Analysis of Real Estate Private Equity Index and Listed REIT Index: A USA Based Study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3103 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>[</p> <p>The study analysed the comparative performance and volatility analysis of US private equity real estate index and US real estate index. For performance, portfolio returns were analysed for total risk, market risk and bad risk. The public equity index i.e. US REIT Index performed far better than US Private Equity index in terms of returns with respect to total risk, market risk and bad risk[1-3]. The performance of REIT index is not related to performance of equity market whereas the performance of Private equity real estate index was partially related to performance of equity. This means that real estate investors in publically traded REITs can expect returns even when equity market is not performing at all. The ARCH(1) and threshold GARCH model were used to perform volatility analysis of both indices and study ruled out that negative news have greater influence on returns of both indices[4].</p> Manu Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Manu Sharma 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Estimation of effective Debye Temperature of Water over Extended Pressure Range; 0.25 GPa -3.5 GPa https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3136 <p>The motion of molecules in liquids is more complex as compared to that in solids. Hughes [1] in his famous cold neutron scattering experiment confirmed that the molecules of water vibrate about fixed positions for about 10<sup>-13</sup> sec. It means the molecules of water follow an ordered arrangement for a fraction of picoseconds and attain solid like behaviour. In case of liquids, this behaviour is termed as quasi crystalline state. However the Debye temperature is mostly evaluated for solids but as it is related to the atomic motion of the molecules, therefore it can be a significant parameter to study the quasi-crystalline behaviour of liquids. Most of the data for Debye temperature determined on the basis of quasi-crystalline model is available only at atmospheric pressure [2]. Kor et al. [3] had made an attempt to evaluate the Debye temperature for water, methanol and ethanol using quasi-crystalline model at elevated pressure (0.098 MPa - 294 MPa) and in the temperature range 0 <sup>o</sup>C – 50. He concluded that the pressure has significant effect on the atomic motion of the liquids. The insight of literature also indicates that the thermodynamic properties of water at high temperature and pressure are also of considerable importance in Science and technology [1-3]. Based on Quasi-crystalline model for liquids, Debye temperature for water has been estimated in the high pressure region (0.25 GPa -3.5 GPa) and in the temperature range; T= 353.15 K – T=473.15 K.The required data&nbsp;&nbsp; ultrasonic velocity, density have been taken from Wiryana et al. [4]. The obtained results infer that <em>θ<sub>D</sub></em> is increase ~1.5 times as the pressure changes from 0.25 G Pa - 3.5 G Pa, whereas no significant increase is observed with increase in temperature range from 353.15 K - 473.15 K. A minimal change of about 2.4% is observed when the temperature increases from 353.15 K to 473.15 K. To the best of our knowledge, study of water at elevated pressure ranges from 0.25 G Pa - 3.5 G Pa have not yet reported in literature. The present study also reveals that quasi crystalline behaviour of water is much probable at elevated pressure.</p> Monika Dhiman D.P. Gupta Pankaj Kumar D. P. Singh Arun Upmanyu Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Dhiman, D.P. Gupta, Pankaj Kumar, D. P. Singh, Arun Upmanyu 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 NORMATIVE VALUES OF BINOCULAR VISION PARAMETERS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3170 <p><strong>Background:</strong> There is a need of standard population-specific normative data for all the non-strabismic binocular vision parameters as the diagnosis and management of binocular vision anomalies require comparison of patient’s clinical signs with baseline data in a specific population.</p> <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> &nbsp;Non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies are the most commonly observed visual disorders among school going population after refractive error and has gained much attention over recent years. Despite the enormity in the availability of normative data of binocular vision parameters, there is a significant lack of data based on race, ethnicity and age of population. This article aims to review population specific ethnicity based normative data for binocular vision parameters for diagnosing non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Several search engines e.g. Google scholar and Pubmed were used to search studies published between 1983 to 2021 using keywords such as Normative values of Binocular vision parameters, Non-strabismic binocular vision anomalies, Binocular vision, Accommodation, Vergence. Results were summarized in tabular form for easy comparison. Data were presented &amp; classified based on the geographical location, year of publication &amp; techniques used for measuring the parameters. Several observed challenges with reviewed works and recommendations for future studies are indicated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Several studies have been conducted in different parts of the world, but most of the studies investigated specific parameters of either accommodation only or vergence only. Recently few studies have comprehensively investigated both parameters. Most of the studies were conducted in North America followed by Europe, Africa and then Asia. There were discrepancies and differences in methodologies &amp; techniques used by the studies reviewed &amp; normative data varied among different studies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> As the observed differences in normative data of non-strabismic binocular vision test parameters in reviewed studies could be attributed to differences in test techniques. The future studies should consider using identical, reliable, repeatable, objectives and subjective techniques with good methodology to clarify these results. More studies should be conducted in Asian population.</p> Priyanka Yadav Purushotta Joshi Anita Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Priyanka Yadav, Purushotta Joshi, Anita Gupta 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Improving Woody Biomass Pellets in Residential Applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3208 <p>The excessive utilisation fossil fuels to create power to satisfy growing demand have generated an ecological instability, prompting the search for renewable energy sources. In this case, excess biomass from diverse crops has been considered. Despite this, there are significant challenges with this electricity generation, which are mostly related to its small size and high transit costs. As a result, this study describes an optimization approach for strategic planning of the use of waste biomass pellets in fuel sources for electric generating power. The suggested strategy takes into account all operations in the distribution chain, from residue harvesting through pellet burning in power plants. The placement and structure of the pelleting facilities in a geographical region, as well as the choosing of biomass and distribution methods, are all taken into account in order to meet the demands of the power plants at the lowest possible cost and ecological effects.</p> <p>To reduce air pollution produced by forest fires in empty land to cleanse the fields for growing the next crop, India began co-firing biomass pellets in coal-fired power plants in various locations. Biomass pellets are being developed for use in power generation across the country, with plans to utilise approximately 145 metric tons of biomass residues to eliminate a similar amount of conventional energy sources [1, 2]. There are many industries like saw mill and wood processing through which the pellets are being produced. The process of making the pellets using raw materials such as sawdust, bark, shavings etc. with the energy as electricity or bark. The materials were flow through a production chain and resulted the production of wood fuel pellets. These pellets are direct imports to the large-scale consumers, residential consumers and retailers.</p> <p>The following materials which were selected for experimentation are as follows:</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <ol> <li>Pine wood</li> <li>Saw dust</li> <li>Dried Sugarcane</li> <li>Rice Husk</li> <li>Peanut Shell</li> <li>Plant litters</li> <li>The properties of the raw material utilised must be taken into account when making changes to a pellet production process. The goal of this study was to evaluate the changes that needed to be made to a wood pellet manufacturing process, as well as the quality of pellets generated using this method from five different energy crops [3]. Along with nonstop harvesting from plants, biomass was created casually in numerous agricultural industries like rice husk commencing rice powder, bagasse through sugar mills, saw powder from saw mill etc. Synchronous, their appliance in undersized burning appliances for heat creation is frequently related with increased working problems.</li> </ol> Jaswinder Singh Dr. Rajesh Kumar Gagandeep kaur Madhur chauhan Copyright (c) 2021 Jaswinder Singh, Dr. Rajesh Kumar, Gagandeep kaur, Madhur chauhan 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Hyperspectral Image Classification using Deep Learning Model https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3241 <p>In today’s scenario, the classification process is required for numerous purposes, including planning of modern cities, agriculture production, and monitoring of environmental factors. So far, the optimal categorization level has remained unattainable. Manual feature-based approaches, unsupervised feature learning methods, and supervised feature learning methods are the three types of remote-sensing images classification methods available nowadays. Supervised deep learning methods have recently been widely used in a variety of remote sensing applications, including as object detection and land use scene classification. In contrast to traditional computer vision tasks that only use the spatial context, this article can improve hyperspectral image classification by utilising both spatial context and spectral correlation [1]. To achieve this, the benchmark hyperspectral datasetwith CNNdeep learning model [2] for hyperspectral image classification [3] is carried out with different activation functions [4]. The model is compared with different activation functions.</p> Sangeetha Annam Anshu Singla Copyright (c) 2021 Sangeetha Annam, Anshu Singla 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Idea, Architecture and Applications of 5G enabled IoMT Systems for Smart Health Care System https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3277 <p>Health Sector is one of the important sectors of the Indian Economy. The average expenditure on smart healthcare can be saved using the smart healthcare systems. Using Smart Healthcare System, death rate can be reduced and life span can be increased. Smart healthcare includes eHealth, mHealth services, smart home services, electronic database and intelligent medical devices. Use of IoT based smart healthcare systems is increasing rapidly for better diagnosis of disease, better treatment of patients, and better quality of life. However, it produces a massive amount of data from different applications. It is the need of an hour to process and monitor real time data remotely with accuracy. As there are some limitations of IoT in healthcare like the massive amount of data generated, Data Security/Privacy concerns and many more. This issue can be resolved by 5G technology. It has the capability to handle the massive amount of data with minimum delay and fulfils the requirement such as high bandwidth, ultra-low latency, and ultra-high energy efficiency. Both 5G and IoT have great utility in the health sector. This research paper will explore components, architecture and applications of 5G enabled Internet of medical things (IoMT). This paper also covers how the 5G enabled IoMT supports the smart healthcare system and Comparison of available wireless communication technologies for 5G enabled IoT. Requirements and technologies involved in 5G enabled IoMT Systems are presented along with the Impact on quality and cost.</p> Sadhana Tiwari Neha Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Sadhana Tiwari, Neha Sharma 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Awareness and attitude towards digital screen based binocular vision therapy amongst eye care practitioners of Karnataka https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3436 <p>Amblyopia is a visual impairment due to defective processing of visual information because of degradation of the retinal image during the critical period of visual development.<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1"><sup>[i]</sup></a> Worldwide 1.4 million children are visually impaired or blind that can be prevented if detected and managed at early ages.<a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2">[ii]</a> Fu Z <em>et al </em><sup>&nbsp;</sup>study has reported pooled global prevalence of around 1.44% (95% CI 1.17% to 1.78%) from systematic review of 60 studies.<a href="#_edn3" name="_ednref3">[iii]</a> Multiple clinical research studies are taking place all over the world to understand the course and management of amblyopia. Conventionally amblyopia is treated with patching of the good eye, thereby forcing the amblyopic eye to function. Although there is improvement in visual acuity of the amblyopic eye with patching, when the perception of objects happens binocularly the actions of two eyes together is questionable. Kelly <em>et al<a href="#_edn4" name="_ednref4"><strong>[iv]</strong></a></em> study with binocular iPad treatment on amblyopic children and Ziak <em>et al<a href="#_edn5" name="_ednref5"><strong>[v]</strong></a></em> study with&nbsp; Vivid Vision virtual reality head mounted display among adult patients have shown greater improvement in BCVA and stereopsis. Eye care practitioners being the major stakeholders in the management of amblyopia, for the timely management and optimal visual prognosis, it is very important to understand the awareness and attitude towards the digital screen based binocular vision therapy.</p> Namratha Hegde Kalika Bandamwar Maram Annapurna Kaushik Murali Diwakar Rao Copyright (c) 2021 Namratha Hegde, Kalika Bandamwar, Maram Annapurna, Kaushik Murali, Diwakar Rao 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Practices of Small Finance Banks in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3516 <p class="Abstract"><em><span lang="EN-US">A holistic approach to business growth based on the dual goals of commercial success and social impact is the aim of every small finance banks (SFBs) in India. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities of these banks pay attention to develop the society. Also, it is essential for a competitive edge. This paper made an attempt to identify the thrust area of CSR activities of SFBs and examine their CSR spending. The findings reveal that SFBs are given less attention to CSR activities related to environmental protection. Equitas and ESAF SFBs are the major contributors to CSR activities. </span></em></p> Felice Joy V. Ambilikumar Copyright (c) 2021 Felice Joy , V. Ambilikumar 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Healthcare Monitoring through Sensor Network and its applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2986 <p>Wearable sensors and forms of social media are crucial in giving a new way to collect medical data for effective healthcare monitoring. Technological solutions have benefited people's daily lives practically in every industry. Sensing devices that detect and gather signals from the sources such as human, environment, and machines, design the response accordingly [1]. Innovative sensor techniques are used in a variety of applications in healthcare, production, lifestyle, fitness, and everyday life [2]. These sensors can be used as wrist watch, implanted under the body or skin and can be attached with the treads of clothes. Wearable sensors which have transmission, computing, storage, and sensing capabilities are known as a wireless body sensor network (WBSN) [3, 4]. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging information technology that enables performance enhancement and improved solutions in the health sector, such as appropriate medical record-keeping, monitoring, device integration, and disease prediction. Modern sensor technology benefits older people, sportsmen, and risk patients in healthcare. Ultrasound, satellite tracking, non-contact optoelectronic solutions, and laser technology are among the current industrial trends driving innovation. This review gives a brief outline of the&nbsp;various&nbsp;types&nbsp;of sensors that are&nbsp;used&nbsp;for healthcare monitoring, WBSN components and its applications.</p> Deepika Sharma Jaiteg Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Deepika Sharma, Jaiteg Singh 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 A Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey to find the impact of mobile application among maternal hypothyroidism patients https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3030 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Pregnancy is a period that places great physiological stress on both the mother and the fetus. When pregnancy is compounded by endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, the potential for maternal and fetal adverse outcomes can be immense. While a lot of attention has been focused on the adverse fetal outcomes consequent to hypothyroidism, attention is also being gradually directed towards the adverse maternal outcomes of this disorder [1]. The prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy is estimated to be 0.3–0.5% for overt hypothyroidism and 2–3% for subclinical hypothyroidism [2]. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy is usually asymptomatic, especially when subclinical. Signs and symptoms which suggest hypothyroidism include inappropriate weight gain, cold intolerance, dry skin and delayed relaxation of deep tendon reflexes. Other features like constipation, fatigue, and somnolence are usually attributed to pregnancy. Untreated hypothyroidism adversely affects the physical and mental well‑being of the mother and baby. Incomplete and unreliable information obtained from the Internet or known acquaintances may hamper disease management [3,4]. A knowledge, attitude, and practices&nbsp; (KAP) survey is a quantitative tool, based on a standardized questionnaire, that measures these domains in a predefined population. A&nbsp; KAP survey essentially records an “opinion” and is based on the “declaration”&nbsp;(i.e., statements). We created a informative android mobile application for maternal hypothyroidism patients and implemented this app among maternal hypothyroidism patients and conducted this survey to identify impact of mobile application among pregnant women.</p> Shaima K A Nidhi Garg Sandeep Arora Jyoti Mary Jose Copyright (c) 2021 Shaima K A, Nidhi Garg, Sandeep Arora, Jyoti Mary Jose 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Teachers Attitudes, Instructional Practices and Experiences in Inclusive Schools https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3071 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>As schools are becoming more inclusive in character with various schemes and policy initiatives of the government, there is an increased enrollment of children with disabilities in regular classrooms. Teachers play a significant role in the inclusion of children with disabilities by adopting more inclusive practices to enhance the participation of all learners. The paper is an attempt to examine the experiences of government and private school teachers working in inclusive set-up, their attitudes and perceptions of the impact of inclusion of children with disabilities on their instructional practices, challenges and opportunities for creating effective inclusive classrooms.The study offers significant insights for both policy makers and practitioners in terms of the role of teachers in creating effective inclusive classrooms. The results underline the need for considering the experiences of teachers and the challenges they face to design better pre-service and in-service training programs. The need for diversification of curriculum and vocational courses will benefit all children and not just children with disabilities.</p> Harpreet Kaur Sneh Bansal Sangeeta Pant Copyright (c) 2021 Harpreet Kaur, Sneh Bansal, Sangeeta Pant 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Leeder Ville-Reimagined (Perth, WA) https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3086 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>This paper aims to address recurring issues for the towns and suburbs built around mining areas in Western Australia, as they fail to survive after the mining areas shut down in an unplanned manner [1]. Without any blueprint for sustenance, the loss of the source of income causes migration of the young population out of the towns for new job opportunities and leading to many other socio-cultural problems for the left out older population [2], [3]. This paper tries to study and analyse such issues of Leeder Ville, a suburb in the state of Western Australia, in similar conditions, and explore various possibilities to transform and revitalise the place into a tourist centre by implementing appropriate urban planning techniques and trying to help create other sources of incomes for self-sustainability for Leeder Ville.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>In assessing the current conditions and intricacies of the Leeder Ville, a range of methods like site visits, public surveys, were done and analysed to obtain a holistic understanding of Leeder Ville. A site analysis was conducted to help in understanding the intricacies of the Leeder Ville locality. The key primary data sources included ABS Data (helping to give a holistic overview of Leeder Ville), REIWA Data (for the housing statistics) and ESRI Data for GIS analysis. The primary data sources were the public life surveys conducted. A Lynch style analysis was undertaken to analyse the ways in which users identify and move throughout Leeder Ville. From the data collected, various charts and maps were created to read and analyse the data. The public life surveys were conducted physically on two different occasions as it plays an important role in shaping individual social and environmental experiences for people. The locations of these surveys were selected based on the future use of the data sets and to determine either physical design related or policy interventions within the project boundary. For the built environment, surveys were conducted to deconstruct the various elements that form Leeder Ville’s built environment. Therefore, Reimagined aims to transform, Leeder Ville as an accessible and sustainable forward-moving place, which constantly thrives to celebrate diversity, a sense of community, and character.</p> Jasleen Antony Kumar Boity Copyright (c) 2021 Jasleen, Antony Kumar Boity 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Evaluation of Architectural Design Features in Achieving Sustainability in Hospital Projects https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3118 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>Newly built hospitals need to be assessed to evaluate the performance in the context of sustainability by means of comparing the thermal comfort level of the users and the ambient thermal conditions in hospital environment of high and low level designs [1].&nbsp;&nbsp; A perspective of facility management has been used to decide the responsibility of hospital administrators towards contributing for sustainable design outcome in order to make operational sustainable hospital with newly and restructured construction. To asses this study data was extracted by using thermal environment equipment and energy simulation applications, through thermal comfort survey and direct contacting with care providers, facility provider and patients. The hypothesis suggests about how sophisticated sustainable ventilation design provisions provide a feel good factor from thermal comfort point of view and it helps to push down lower heat index in the wards that are designed with natural ventilation features. The sub parts of the hospitals with these sustainable features were compared with the air-conditioned environment to evaluate thermal comfort. The findings of the study suggest that sustainable hospital designs features are able to improve the ambient thermal environment and users’ thermal comfort but the results also suggest that all those architectural treatments were not necessary to achieve the goal.&nbsp; Hospitals are the construction projects that require a very high level quality in terms of functionality, indoor environmental conditions, feel good factor, healing environment, maintenance and so on, thermal comfort of the occupant plays a vital role in patient occupied spaces including the relevant staff like nurses’ areas[2] With the findings revealed in this study suggest clearly that not all sustainable design features always creates comfortable environment but can cause multiple operational challenges and difficulties in running the hospital so design fraternity must pay heed towards these issues along with making the hospitals sustainable and comfortable from within[3]. More research can be conducted in future to identify and discover the new design features in order to make the indoor environment to be ambient and comfortable.&nbsp; The study also suggests the hospital designers to create better planning aspects of sustainability by using an integrated and operational perspective to eliminate existing setbacks caused by the negligence during planning and analysis process [4] and it should be done through latest tools and technics. The study can also help the government authority to implement the current sustainable approach in hospital designing through certain and specific analysis on every associated space affects the thermal comfort of the occupant.&nbsp;</p> Julfikar Antony Kumar Bioty Harnoor Kaur Chauhan Kritika Arora Copyright (c) 2021 Julfikar, Antony Kumar Bioty, Harnoor Kaur Chauhan, Kritika Arora 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Analysis of input variables on the tool life in machining of alloy steel under controlled environment https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3152 <p>High carbon alloy steels viz. EN31, AISI 4140, EN8 etc. typically established their applications in industry for various purposes. However, the machining of these hard materials found to be challenging owing to their corrosion and wear resistant properties [1]. These properties could result in immense temperature generation and severe vibrations during the machining which directly affects the life of the tool material [2]. Here in machining of EN31 alloy steel, an attempt has been made to find out an optimal solution of input parameters for maximum tool life and moreover to do a comprehensive analysis of temperature and tool vibrations for tool life. For experimentation work, controlled machining environment is adopted in terms of minimum quantity lubrication. Taguchi based orthogonal array is selected for experimentation while grey relational analysis technique is used for optimization.&nbsp; The process variables chosen are cutting speed, feed rate, and cutting depth as machining parameters while lubricant supply rate and lubricant concentration are selected as MQL (minimum quantity lubrication) parameters. After analysis, depth of cut is termed as highly influencing factor for aforementioned conditions. Optimal conditions achieved are speed 1000 rpm, feed rate 120 mm/min, depth 0.2 mm, lubricant concentration 60 % and lubricant supply rate 180 ml/hr.</p> Talvinder Singh Vijay Kumar Sharma Mohit Rana Abhineet Saini Copyright (c) 2021 Talvinder Singh, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Mohit Rana, Abhineet Saini 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Usage of Magnetic Spinel Nano-Ferrites in waste water treatment https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3190 <p>In this review we study spinal ferrite magnetic nanoparticle for the effective removal of harmful contaminates from the waste water [1].&nbsp; It is well known that synthesis methods strongly effect the crystalline and the magnetic properties of the synthesized materials. In order to improve the magnetic properties various method of synthesis along with their effective applications have been discussed and published in various scientific journal [2-3]. Main contaminants of water are classified broadly in two categories that are organic and inorganic. Here in pollutants are classified and probable removal methods are explained throughout this content using magnetic separation methods. The effective spinel ferrites consisted with lower hysteresis loop and lower coercivity, which is beneficiary for the removal of the pollutant from waste water [1,4].</p> Rajat Takkar Shikha Rana Pankaj Kumar Partha Khanra Baljinder Kaur Meenakshi Dhiman Copyright (c) 2021 Rajat Takkar, Shikha Rana, Pankaj Kumar , Partha Khanra , Baljinder Kaur, Meenakshi Dhiman 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Nostalgia: An antecedent of tourist motivations in senior citizens https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3224 <p>Nostalgia can be described as a poignant yearning for the bygone times and is a universally familiar as well as a collective phenomenon experienced by all and sundry [4]. Nostalgia contributes significantly to the overall tourism experience [2] and recently some researchers have theorized nostalgia as a push travel motive [1,5,9]. Nostalgia has not been much explored in the arena of senior tourism except for few researchers who have studied nostalgia as a push factor for travel in senior citizens [6,10]. Following the work of Prayag and Del Chiappa (2021) [7], nostalgia has not been treated as a travel motivation in this study. Since nostalgia itself has several motivational implications [3,8], this research work aims to explore its role as an antecedent to tourist motivations of senior citizens. The study provides a rather unexplored point of view for senior tourism marketers to design new marketing strategies that would take into account the nostalgic element in order to propel senior citizens to undertake travel activities.</p> Vandita Hajra Arun Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 Vandita Hajra, Arun Aggarwal 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Volumetric and acoustic studies of interactions between 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in aqueous solution https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3257 <p>Experimental density (<em>ρ</em>) and ultrasonic velocity (<em>c</em>) for phenylglycine in ( 0.005, 0.007, 0.09 and 0.01) mol.kg<sup>−1</sup> aqueous solutions of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide at T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K. Experimental data for density and ultrasonic velocity were used to calculate the apparent molar volumes (<em>V</em><em><sub>f</sub></em>), the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution (), partial molar isentropic compression (<em>K</em><em><sub>f</sub></em><em><sub>,s</sub></em>) and partial molar isentropic compression at infinite dilution (). Further pair and triplet interaction coefficients have been calculated from volumetric and acoustic studies. These Thermodynamic parameters are useful to study the solvation behaviour, structure making and different types of interactions present in the ternary solutions of (phenylglycine + water + 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide)</p> Ravinder Sharma Harsh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Ravinder Sharma, Harsh Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 A Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Human Resource Management https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3417 <p>Over the past few years, organizations are focusing on adopting sustainable business practices. The idea of sustainability came into picture around 19<sup>th</sup> century and was adopted by the ecological development. The, analysed the worldwide environmental problem and painted a bleak picture of the Earth's term was coined owing to the increasing population and limited resources. The increased population created burden on resources and hence there comes a need of resource conservation. The term SHRM combines social and economic angles and safeguards ecological balance as well as protects the environment. The report "The Limits to Growth" issued by the Club of Rome in 1968 future [1]. Whereas the Brundtland Commission's&nbsp; (1987) emphasized the significance of long-term development [2]. The triple bottom line concept of sustainability is based on the three pillars: economy, society and environment. Climate change, global warming, and resource conservation are all concerns that businesses are grappling with, and they all have a direct impact on best practices.</p> <p>The concept of SHRM blends sustainability with a soft approach to human resources. A soft strategy is beneficial to encourage employees for information sharing, enhancing productivity and come forward with new ideas for the growth and development of organization [3]. The link between sustainability and human resource management is highlighted as both a fresh and rising strategy and a critical gap that needs to be filled. Therefore, the objective of this study is to bridge the gap between sustainability and human resource management and propose a conceptual framework for adopting SHRM practices. We believe that the conceptual framework proposed in this study would be helpful to organizations</p> Shweta Saini Leena Sachdeva Gaurav Kumar Badhotiya Copyright (c) 2021 Shweta Saini, Leena Sachdeva, Gaurav Kumar Badhotiya 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 A Critical Evaluation of Bengal Colonial City through the Literature of Bengal Modernist Poet Jibanananda Das https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3451 <p>From the poetry of the early age [Charyapada app. 10th A.D] to the modern era (20th century present), Bengali poetry underwent a vast chronological evolution. In this changing pattern of literature, Jibanananda das played a significant role to propel the stream of modernism in Bengal poetry. Jibanananda Das (17 February 1899 – 22 October 1954) was a famous Bengali poet, narrative writer and novelist. Dimly recognized during his lifetime, today Das is acknowledged as the premier poet of the post-Tagore era in India and Bangladesh. Jibanananda scholars <em>Seely, Clinton (1990) </em>has termed Jibanananda Das as</p> <p><em>"Bengal's most cherished poet since&nbsp; Rabindranath Tagore". (Seely, 1990) .</em></p> <p>About his poetic works, Sengupta &amp; Dutta summarized that,<em>‘He is considered one of the precursors who introduced modernist poetry to Bengali Literature,&nbsp; at a period when it was influenced by Romantic poetry. During his lifetime he published only 269&nbsp; poems in different journals and magazines, of which 162 were collected in seven anthologies ...’&nbsp; (Sengupta &amp; Dutta 2016, p06) </em></p> <p>Though considered as a poet of “Ruposhi Banglar Kobi”, most of his works reflect the urban environment and experience. Thematically, Jibanananda's literature are largely autobiographical. His own time constitutes the perspective. While in poetry he subjugated his own life, made it into his own fiction. About his literature inspiration, Swarup Dey stated that, <em>‘He delineates the artistic conscience of his soul self which is enlightened by his lively spirit, movable by his mind and by his emotions. Every poem of this composition is packed with a fine sensation of life-based on various word pictures.’ (Dey, p02, 2015)</em></p> <p>&nbsp;His works illustrate real experience of urban life accompanied by surreal feelings of human mind diverted the conventional stream of romance-based literature practice into modern Bengali poem. Jibanananda relies largely on imagistic and symbolical means to express in his poems a complexity that grapples with the subjective realities of modern urban life. He&nbsp; was unhappy with the conditions of modern living, was hopelessly impecunious and often&nbsp; expresses a deeply tragic sensibility. From this agonizing experience, he developed a deep&nbsp; moral understanding of city life, for that reason he can portray successfully distressed humanity&nbsp; as well as the depression, frustration, and loneliness of modern urban life in his poems. The&nbsp; hopelessness and discord of material exploitation, overpopulation, and poverty, the poet’s&nbsp; awareness of an eternal beauty and Love struggle to penetrate the veil of appearances,&nbsp; questioning, probing and finding significance in unlikely circumstances. A fundamental question about world progress, development, indiscriminant society, economic&nbsp; freedom was haunting him. Are these all just tools for absorption of power for proletariats?&nbsp; When he looked back to history, he didn’t find any significant chapter to answer his inquiry --- <em>“ Manushera bar bar prithibir ayute jonmeche; </em></p> <p><em>nobo nobo itihas soikote vireche; </em></p> <p><em>tobuo kothao sei onirbochoniyo </em></p> <p><em>shopner sofolota nabinota shuvro manobikotar vor?”&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;(Das Jibanananda, somoyer kache 1952 cited in amitananda, 2006, p97) </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em>From this agony he wrote from frustration&nbsp; <em>“Prithibir somosto rup omey timir mritodeher durgondher moto …”(Das Jibanananda, 1948b&nbsp; cited in shahadzzaman , 2017,p217)&nbsp; </em></p> <p>This paper aims to analyse his literature practice for exploring the context and subject matter of his writing to construct a visualization of Bengal colonial city experience.&nbsp; Jibanananda Das’s poetry not only portrayed the tract of the slowly evolving 20th century modern mind and city experience but also reflects the sensitivity and reactiveness, full&nbsp; of anxiety and tension, that he invented through his own diction, rhythm, and vocabulary, with&nbsp; an unmistakably indigenous rooting and colonial city experience.&nbsp;</p> Asif Ibney Basit Turza Copyright (c) 2021 Asif Ibney Basit Turza 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Factors Influencing Customers’ Loyalty towards Offline and Online Stores https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3534 <p><em>Loyalty is the key to long term success. As the economy and market are changing, in reference to internet and mobile technologies, shopping behaviour of the consumers has developed more complex behaviour because of the variety of channels emerged and offering variety of choices and options and this brings changes in consumer buying behaviour. With this note, the researchers try to find in this study, how consumer decides their purchasing channels and their loyalty towards the company they opt for. The primary data is gathered by means of structured questionnaire from 50 respondents living between Kandivali to Churchgate area. In the study, the researchers have analysed the customers’ loyalty towards the offline and online company they shop. The data for analyses are taken from the purchases made in the same city and over the same period of time. </em></p> Dr. Sakshi Khatri Minal Parekh Meena Mashru Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Sakshi Khatri , Minal Parekh , Meena Mashru 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 A RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF COMBINATION OF SPECTACLES WITH ATROPINE 0.01% ON MYOPIA PROGRESSION IN TEENAGE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3101 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><strong>AIM :</strong> To assess effectiveness of interventions on myopia progression in teenage children.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong>: A total of 63 (37 male &amp; 26 female) children (age 8-15Y; mean [SE]age13.43[1.53] years, mean [SE] myopia in R/E-3.05D[0.97],mean [SE] in L/E - 3.07[0.94] were randomly assigned to one of three treatment. A total of 43 children completed trial.</p> <p><strong>Intervention</strong>: Single vision lens (control n=21), Single vision lens+ Atropine 0.01%(n=21) &amp; (Bifocal+Atropine 0.01%) (n=21).</p> <p><strong>Main outcome and measures</strong>: Myopia progression measured assessed using streak retinoscope following cycloplegia over a period of 1 year using SPSS 20 with confidence interval 95%. For outcome variable ANOVA was used to test for treatment effect between groups and to adjust for all covariates such as&nbsp; age group,sex, family history,outdoor activites Independent T Test was used to evaluate mean myopia progression.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Myopia progression over 1 year was an average of- 3.15[1.05],- 3.13[0.98],-3.11[0.51]for single vision control group, bifocal+ atropine0.01% and single vision lens + atropine0.01% in R/E respectively and -3.14[1.13]-3.12[.92],- 3.10[.52]for single vision control group , bifocal+atropine0.01% and single vision +atropine0.01% in L/E respectively. Treatment effect of both intervention was statistically insignificant (p value&gt;0.05%) .&nbsp; However children in both intervention group did not progressed as compared to single vision control group over a period of 1 year.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Over a period of 1 year both Single vision lenses +atropine0.01% and Bifocal+atropine 0.01% were found to be ineffective as compared to single vision control group.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: Myopia, Bifocal Spectacle, Atropine, Children</strong></p> <p>Myopia, also known as near sightedness, is most common type of refractive error and one of the most important causes of visual impairment globally<sup>[1]</sup>.Prevalence of myopia is not uniform worldwide and varies among geographic regions, ethnic populations and age groups. The prevalence of myopia is increasing and in some regions of world, it has become an important public health problem<sup>[2].</sup> Compared to 2.0-2.3% prevalence in Non-Asian populations, prevalence of myopia is approximately 7-21% in Asian population<sup>[3].</sup> Most persons are affected with myopia in early childhood<sup>[4].</sup> Early onset of myopia may be associated with higher degree of myopia in later life.<sup>[5]</sup> Higher degree of myopia are associated with pathological changes in eye like retinal detachment, maculopathy, choroidal neovascularization etc. which may severely impair vision. Progression of myopia is found to be associated with genetic and environmental factors. Most speculated non-genetic factors associated with with progression of myopia are near work, use of video-terminals and lack of out-door activities.<sup>[6-7]</sup> Several treatment strategies has been evaluated to arrest progression of myopia in children <sup>[8-14]</sup> . Most notables are use of antimuscarinic drugs ,bifocal and progressive spectacles , gas-permeable contact lenses, peripheral defocus-modifying contact lenses, spectacle undercorrection, orthokeratology. However yet no effective treatment or strategy has been devised. Since near work is among several risk factors associated with progression of myopia, suspending accommodation is area of interest for control. A recently published study Atropine for treatment of myopia 1(ATOM1) found that anti-muscarinic drug are most effective means of slowing myopia progression. The authors concluded that atropine 1% was more effective in controlling in myopia progression but with several side effects resulting from cycloplegia and mydriasis<sup>[8]</sup>. Atropine is a strong cycloplegic-mydriatic agent used as 1% topical preparation in ophthalmology practice. Topical use of atropine 1% is often associated with several undesirable side effects. In 2012 Atropine for treatment of myopia study 2 clearly showed that lower concentrations of atropine are effectively slow myopia progression while minimizing side effects .<sup>[15-16]</sup> In 2014 study done by Cheng reported that bifocal can effectively slow myopia progression. He provided executive bifocal to children but did not state that whether executive bifocal have stronger treatment effect as compared to other bifocals.<sup>[10].</sup> <strong>The present study is designed to evaluate effectiveness of using combination of spectacles with different concentrations of atropine in teenage children in preventing myopia progression.</strong></p> <p><strong>CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;D type bifocal is most common bifocal style. They are also called straight top bifocal or flat top bifocal. D type bifocal have near segment that resemble letter ‘D’. The diameter of near segment available in various sizes like 22mm, 25mm&amp; 28mm. D type bifocal provide good size field of view as compared to Kryptok bifocal.</p> <p>Lower concentration of atropine have minimal effect on accommodation and pupil size and minimal or no impact on near visual acuity. They retain comparable efficacy in controlling myopia progression. Therefore lower concentration of atropine are safe and effective regimen for controlling myopia progression in teenage.</p> <p><strong>OBJECTIVE</strong></p> <ul> <li>To assess effectiveness of interventions on myopia progression in teenage.</li> <li>To compare interventions (Bifocal+atropine0.01% and Single vision lens +atropine0.01%) of interest with each other and to single vision lens control group.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Methods</strong> <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Conduct of Study :&nbsp; </strong>Myopic children were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups:(1) single vision lens (2) bifocal lens with near addition and (3) single vision lens +atropine0.01%. A written and verbal informed consent obtained from children and parents. Study was conducted at Department of Ophthalmology , Maharaja Agarsain Medical College and Research Institute, Agroha .</p> Alpa Mohammad Noor uz Zaman Copyright (c) 2021 Alpa, Mohammad Noor uz Zaman 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Manuscript Recognition using Convolutional Neural Network: A case study based on Devanagri Language https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3134 <p>Devanagri manuscripts are a good source of information and are a wealth of knowledge. To make the older documents available one needs to digitize these scripts. A lot of efforts are being done to make the information available to people [1-3]. OCR is one of the most emerging applications of pattern recognition. Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) gives promising results in most emerging fields like pattern recognition, numeral recognition, etc.&nbsp; This paper provides CNN based approach for the recognition of basic Devanagri manuscript characters. A total of 33 classes for basic characters were built and 250 different pages were used to calculate the accuracy of the OCR system. Results varied depending on the number of epochs [4].&nbsp; System accuracy was observed by changing the parameters like stride size, a number of layers, etc.&nbsp; The highest accuracy of 93.63% was calculated using CNN.</p> Aditi Moudgil Saravjeet Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Aditi Moudgil, Saravjeet Singh 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Political Advertising in India: Its Appeals and Impact on Peoples Voting https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3168 <p>India is the largest democratic country in the world and the selection of politicians and political parties by a voter very tough task. If we compare an election campaign and a product campaign planning. Both look like same and their strategy was also Implemented in such a similar manner. In this research paper, the investigator is trying to focus on the design appeals and creative approach which is used by an advertising agency. How both the elements or selection strategy for a product consumer and by a voter (politician/party selection person) work in a comparative way?</p> <p>Kotler (2003) divided advertising appeal into rational (Logical) and emotional appeals. Advertising appeals are an essential ingredient for any type of advertising maybe&nbsp;it's a product, service, or political. According to this element ad, designers target the brains and hearts of our future audience.&nbsp; Advertising appeals have two types and both work from&nbsp;a different perspective, where one can focus on the consumer's mind that is called a logical appeal, and the other focuses on the consumer's heart that is called an emotional appeal. Berkman and Gilson (1987) “defined advertising appeal as an attempt at creativity that inspires consumer purchase motives and influences consumer attitudes toward a particular product or service. Schiffman and Kanuk (2007) define “Advertising appeal as the application of a psychologically motivating force on the part of suppliers to awaken the desire and willingness to buy in consumers while transmitting signals to change the product concepts of the recipients. To meet the diverse needs of their target customers, advertisers often use rational and emotional attraction in their advertising to influence consumer behaviour (the Chu, 1996).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>How Appeals works in Advertising</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="39"> <p>SN.</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>Appeals</p> </td> <td width="244"> <p>Product Advertising</p> </td> <td width="216"> <p>Political Advertising</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="39"> <p>1</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>Emotional Appeals</p> <p>(Heart-based feelings)</p> </td> <td width="244"> <p>Baby soap- mother and child attachment</p> <p>Dettol sanitizer- Care of Family</p> <p>Move- Love and care emotion</p> </td> <td width="216"> <p>2014 election- Poor child</p> <p>Struggling biography</p> <p>Motherlove and care</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="39"> <p>2</p> </td> <td width="103"> <p>Logical</p> <p>(Mind based Feeling)</p> </td> <td width="244"> <p>Airtel Black- 5G hi-speed network</p> <p>True value- car selling</p> <p>Harper cleaner-Diwali or festival offers by e-commerce sites</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="216"> <p>Strong leader as a superhero</p> <p>Decision making like chacha chaudhary</p> <p>Pappu name target</p> <p>Sahabjade title target</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>This research is based on the method of mixed research methodology were qualitative, as well as quantitative methods, have been used to explore the impact of Political Advertising. To understand the nature of the research, experts from the concerned subject have been interviewed to understand the various aspects of the subject. In the form of population, the research scholar resorted to the purposive sampling technique. For this research and data collection, the investigator has also reviewed ‘the Google transparency Report’ and election commission data from 2010 to 2020. It reflects many Indian political parties advertising budgets, advertising designs, content, and effect of the particular advertising message. To understand people's Emotional and Logical behaviour, Interview methods have been utilized to understand the whole phenomenon of political advertising. Emotional appeals always work in advertising may be&nbsp;a product or maybe a political party. Here two best examples to create a successful political campaign and with the maximum impact of future voters and help to easily divert toward the political party.</p> <p><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; color: black; font-weight: normal;">2014 elections</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; color: #202124; font-weight: normal;"> -In a personal interview, Mr. Narendra Modi tells his biography that he was a very poor boy at a young age and for his survival, he sails tea on platforms. It's such an emotional story of a struggling boy Narendra. After that one senior </span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Arial','sans-serif'; font-weight: normal;">leader of<span style="color: black;"> Congress, Mani </span>Shankar Aiyar&nbsp;said that Mr. Narendra Modi was<span style="color: black;"> a </span>"chaiwala" (vendor of tea)<span style="color: black;"> and </span>ridicule your goals<span style="color: black;"> as </span>a Minister. He is a tea Distributor<span style="color: black;">. </span>During<span style="color: black;"> the 2014 elections, the BJP </span>launched<span style="color: black;"> the </span>marketing campaign<span style="color: black;"> "<em>Chai pe charcha</em>" </span>(tea talks). This campaign made maximum impact on Indian people and they accept him as love care and a person who live between them. &nbsp;The BJP won the 2014 elections in a landslide, while the Congress party was reduced to 44 seats, its worst performance on record.</span></p> <p>16 Lok Sabha election 2019 -Which is emotionally attached to a common man lifestyle. Congress president Mr. Rahul Gandhi use a sentence to Mr. Narendra Modi against corruption. And blamed him that he is the person who helps many businesses man for leaving the country and use one sentence “<em>Bharat ka Chowkidar chor Hai</em>” this is an emotional game and tries to divert the&nbsp;mind of Indian voters from a corrupt prime minister. But this line BJP used as positive way and start a campaign “<em>Mai Bhi Chowkidar</em>” and under this Punch line, they focus as a person who cares the country, who help the people, who aware to stop corruption and always prepare for serving. And this big initiative emotional campaign work and BJP Elected again in a big gap and present single leading party and made his government. After the observation and analysis of emotional-based advertising campaign and their impact on consumer or voter brain. How they able to decide their vote for a particular party with full of confidence. As we discussed above the two major appeals one emotional appeal and Logical appeals. We can clearly understand that how emotional appeals work in political advertising campaigns&nbsp;and how their proper implementation, strategy help to divert customers or voters towards the party. If we use appeals in such a proper way with research, analysis, feedback, and good impactful presentation according to the mindset of voters. We definitely become successful political advertising campaign designers.</p> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> Rakesh Kumar Chaudhary Arjun Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Rakesh Kumar Chaudhary, Arjun Kumar Singh 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Impact of Service Quality and Patient Orientation on Loyalty Through Mediation of Patient Satisfaction https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3206 <p>Unprecedented disruption to growing service sector because of COVID-19 pandemic has put extra burden on an overstretched healthcare sector globally. Understanding changing dynamics and changing patient behaviour is need of hour for survival of hospitals. Present study intends to find relationship between patient orientation, service quality perception, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty. A descriptive research-based study design was adopted to collect data from 500 patients of 10 multi-speciality hospitals located in north India.</p> <p>According to Zarie et al.[1], this decade has seen increasing interest of researchers in studying the association between various factors like service quality, positive word of mouth, customer satisfaction, loyalty, and firm’s profitability.</p> <p>Shabbir et al. [2] and Park et al. [3] were of view that in case of healthcare service providers, it has been observed that patient loyalty and satisfaction is enormously affected by the quality of services being provided Excellent service quality is always seen as antecedent to better customer satisfaction. According to Kaushik and Mukherjee [4], positive word of mouth and better evaluation of service quality can be achieved by being customer oriented. According to Swain and Kar [5] various parameters which transform a hospital to a patient centric organisation are, quality communication, empathy, transparent feedback, regular satisfaction measurement, understanding patient desires and committing the best quality services</p> <p>On the basis of research questions, the main objectives of present study have been framed as, to examine the customer orientation and service quality practices among multi-speciality hospitals in north India, and to study the impact of service quality on patient satisfaction and patient loyalty. The study also aims to study mediating effect of service quality on relationship between customer orientation and patient satisfaction and to examine mediating role of patient satisfaction on relationship between service quality and patient loyalty.</p> <p>Following hypotheses were framed on the basis of research model:</p> <p><em>H<sub>1</sub>: Customer orientation has a significant and positive effect on patient satisfaction</em></p> <p><em>H<sub>2: </sub>Customer orientation has a positive and significant impact on service quality</em></p> <p><em>H<sub>3</sub>: Hospital service quality has a positive significant impact on patient satisfaction</em></p> <p><em>H<sub>4</sub>: Patient satisfaction from overall service encounter has a significant and positive effect on patient loyalty</em></p> <p><em>H<sub>5</sub>: Service quality mediates the relationship between customer orientation and patient satisfaction</em></p> <p><em>H<sub>6</sub>: Patient satisfaction mediates the relationship between hospital service quality and patient loyalty</em></p> <p><em>H<sub>7</sub>: Relationship between customer orientation and patient loyalty is mediated by patient satisfaction</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>To understand relationship between variables and cause and effect chain, PLS-SEM technique was adopted. Findings of study found significant impact of patient orientation on satisfaction and service quality. Patient satisfaction was strong determinant of loyalty. Mediating effect of satisfaction between quality and loyalty, and that of quality between orientation and satisfaction was also confirmed. Study concluded that patient-oriented approach leads to better evaluation of service quality and hence, enhanced satisfaction.</p> <p>Results have shown that level of interaction, understanding the needs of patients and taking regular feedbacks as part of patient-oriented behaviour positively influences the perception of service quality, which leads to patient satisfaction and eventually, the patient loyalty is generated. Another significant matter addressed by study was relationship between customer orientation, service quality, patient satisfaction and patient loyalty, it was found that patient satisfaction significantly mediates the relationship between service quality and patient loyalty, signifying importance of medical, nursing, administrative, support services, safety and infrastructure in providing satisfaction which leads to loyalty among patients. The present study gathered the data from inpatients with minimum of 24 hours of hospitalization, in future the research can be done with inclusion of outpatients also. Impact of insurance and pricing on satisfaction and loyalty may also be evaluated in future research. Further investigation related to impact of trust and switching barriers on satisfaction and patient loyalty are also encouraged.</p> Ajay Kumar Dogra Copyright (c) 2021 Ajay Kumar Dogra 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 THE COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AJANTA PAINTINGS WITH ITS REPLICAS: AN OVERVIEW https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3239 <p>The yellow-robed monks with inexperienced haloes standing on blue lotuses, whereas on the rock walls facing on to the aspect aisles were long panels of painting crammed with elaborate crowd scenes. Those precious artworks given inspiration to numerous modern artists of India and abroad to showcase those beautiful creations transferred on the canvas or paper or on the walls of art galleries or art villages. The proposed research will focus on the efforts and credibility of some replica artists like Vijay Kulkarni, M.R. Pimpare, Robert Gil, and John Griffith etc. who dedicated their lives to make the world aware about the miraculous artworks painted on the cave of Ajanta by making the replica of those masterpieces. The different aspects of Ajanta painting like rhythmic contours of physical grace, actual and deep knowledge of emotional presentation, their composition and quality of the colors need to be taken into the consideration. Proposed discussion is about the comparative study of Replica Artists’ style, techniques, and characteristic features of&nbsp;color&nbsp;handling and setting of composition taking inspiration from original masterpieces on the cave walls of Ajanta. The endeavors of replica artists as well as the dedication of those original painters of Ajanta mural are an epitome to enhance the glory of Indian culture. The comparative study helps to develop the style of Ajanta paintings and its replicas thoroughly from the point of view of visual art.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Literature review and hypothesis development: </strong>Significantly the books, literature and articles&nbsp;have been discussed about the traditions and their meaning of Ajanta paintings as a revelation of the inner language of the soul. Ancient and Medieval age of Indian literature like Natyasastra, Abhilashitartha Chintamani, JaiMangla, Shilparatna, Therigatha etc. are given&nbsp; the valuable contribution towards the Indian painting.</p> <p>H1–Medium and technique of Ajanta paintings and its replicas is different.</p> <p>H2– After rediscovery of Ajanta its replica helpful to show the glory of Ajanta paintings.</p> <p>H3–In the flux of time it is necessary to support the value of replicas of Ajanta paintings.</p> <p><strong>Methodology, survey instrument and data collection: &nbsp;</strong>A Research is going to be under the use of qualitative method, some of primary and lot of secondary sources like writing available in books, research paper, articles, historical ruins, and archaeological information’s and objects, electronic media, websites etc. are available and has been used in this synopsis</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In different time period, with different techniques, the Aim and objectives are also different in both style, but common factor is devotion of artist to showing the deep emotion in their artwork. More than 30 original and 10 replica artist artwork is to be consider for pivot study of the research topic<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Image 1 – </strong>In the comparative study of both styles we can see first one image presenting as a replica and second one is from original painting of Ajanta. original painting of Ajanta having deep emotional touch with subjective compositions, but in the flux of time its color and form is to be disappear, as compare with original artwork of Ajanta its replicas look fresh and it’s all part of the scene is to be visible.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion and implications of the study: </strong></p> <p>To let other scholars, researchers, Art critic and artists require knowing about the original and replica paintings at Ajanta. Which have been approved as cultural heritage of the India. It is observe that, through the reproduction of Ajanta paintings, all section of the society are seen using it’s from socio- religious artistic organs.</p> <p>To let common people know about the endeavours of replica artists as well as original artists of Ajanta paintings. Ajanta is an excellent example of world class paintings, its replicas helps to give the glory Indian art. Now a day’s lot of artists engaged in creating replicas, but in various ways, it should come to know the contemporary world.</p> Ravindra Torawane S.K.Sarkar Copyright (c) 2021 Ravindra Torawane, S.K.Sarkar 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 An Assessment of Machine Learning and Deep Learning Techniques with Applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3274 <p>Nowadays, sheer amount of data is being generated by plethora of sources, like science, business, medicine, sports, geography, environment etc. This produced data may be formless, bigger sized and in the raw format and has no importance at all, until analysed. Conventional techniques of data analysis may be inappropriate due to vast data diverse nature, high dimensionality of data and much of the data is never explored. So, in order to get relevant data, some techniques need to be incorporated on the existing data which would be effective for the real-world applications [1-2]. Artificial intelligence, machine learning and deep learning are the widely used technologies with the most buzz. Machine learning is a subfield of AI that designs the intelligent model based on past and current trends. The sole focus of this field is automatic learning methods without any human intervention. In addition to this, Deep learning processes the data and creates pattern for decision use after imitating the working of human brain [1-4]. So, the objective of this paper is to explore the research application areas and the widely used approaches/ techniques in the domain of machine learning and deep learning.</p> Shikha Sharma Ruchi Mittal Nitin Goyal Copyright (c) 2021 Shikha Sharma, Ruchi Mittal, Nitin Goyal 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Customer perceived value of social media interface: An exploration of its factors and model testing using CFA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3434 <p>Customer perceived value is one the most extensively studied concept in modern marketing literature. This study is an attempt to develop a conceptual model measuring customer perceived value of social media interfaces (eg FaceBook pages, Twitter handles etc) of brands. Various variables that could impact customer perceived value are explored, factors are extracted using factor analysis and conceptual model is tested using confirmatory factor analysis. The study identifies five factors namely trustworthiness of social media interface (Online Trust), company personnel handling social media interface, developing relationships, being heard or staying connected and seeking information as factors that contribute to perceived customer value while considering social media interface of brands. The results provided in the study support for the proposed theoretical model. In particular, the study identified dimensions of customer perceived value for social media interface of the brands.</p> Shravan Chandak Ruchi Sao Pritam Bhadade Copyright (c) 2021 Shravan Chandak, Ruchi Sao, Pritam Bhadade 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Detection and Classification of Brain Tumor from MR Images Using an Improvised Image Analysis Algorithm https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3514 <p><em>Early detection of brain tumour and its classification are predominantly achieved by conventional methods of image processing and machine learning. Brain tumour, known for its rapid development in terms of size and effects over human health, has to be detected immediately from the onset for an effective diagnosis. Unless a treatment plan is defined to mitigate further growth, there are high chances of fatality. Detecting and classifying processes are an exigent task even for experienced radiologists. Segmentation and feature extraction are traditional image processing techniques used for the purpose, nowadays, a computer aided diagnosis system is merged with machine learning and deep learning strategies for distinguishing tumour cells. The proposed system is an investigation of classifying brain tumour in its early stages using enriched feature sets support vector machine classifiers for increasing the precision of accuracy. Apart from the standard features of shape, texture and intensity, prospective growth areas with a comparison of recent two reports sufficed for the estimation of predicting tumour growth. Dice Coefficient was introduced along with the said methods to ensure classification accuracy. Enrichment of the features was achieved by area-based analysis with prospective growth metrics on a four quadrants designated on two dimensional plane. Genetic algorithm with soft computing techniques improvised the classification accuracy. Two standard and open-source data sets deployed the proposed model which resulted in an accuracy of 98%, sensitivity of 92% and the specificity of 98.1% as an average. The proposed model also consumed lesser time than the conventional standards with respect to detection and classification of brain tumours.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> K. Dinesh Babu Dr. C. Senthil Singh Copyright (c) 2021 K. Dinesh Babu, Dr. C. Senthil Singh 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Determinants of a cross border merger and acquisition decision: A literature review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2984 <p>This paper aims to explore, consolidate and comprehend the determinants that impact a cross border merger and acquisition decision. We mainly research past studies performed in the last two decades that have identified several factors affecting the merger decision. Mergers and acquisitions (M&amp;As) constitute significant capital reallocations, with an estimated $1.34 trillion in annual volume (Bonaime et al., 2018). M &amp;As are essential to academicians, practitioners, and policymakers because of their sheer size and ability to develop synergies. Several factors determine whether an organization moves forward with a merger decision. Cross border M&amp;As are perceived as news of strength and growth by the stock market, and thus positive reactions in the stock market are seen (Tao et al., 2017).The Global Financial crisis of 2007-2008 has provided an impetus for multinational companies to cross boundaries and explore opportunities in foreign markets. In the cross border, M&amp;A deals, one of the parties involved is a foreign entity. Researchers have found that these international deals create significant and positive abnormal returns to the acquirers', thereby proving profitable to them both in the short and long run (Jain et al., 2020). Before deciding on M&amp;A, firms should look into the available resources, evaluate the target, analyze the value addition of the merger deal and after the deal, integrate and judicially allocate the resources (Zhang et al., 2018).</p> <p>Various studies have scrutinized various different determinants of a M&amp;A. Huhtilainen et al. (2021) have examined capitalization, size, performance, bank's income diversification (fee and commission income) and loan growth as the main determinants. Opoku-Mensah et al. (2019) proposed a model for M&amp;A antecedents for BRICS countries. Value creation is studied as a motive of M&amp;A to gain a competitive advantage in managerial, technological and entrepreneurial areas. Firm Characteristics like ownership, level of innovation, industrialization, and capital structure for target firms are studied. Opoku-Mensah et al. (2019) have studied Institutional factors like market sophistication, the distance between an institution in countries, roles of network-embedded and firms' learning. The role of environmental factors like cultural distance and industry of target firms, the country's political instability, and the industry concentration is also explored. Basuil &amp; Datta (2019) empirically studied the effect of firm-specific and country-specific factors on relative acquisition size in a cross-border M&amp;A in the service sector in the US from 1990-2006.The firm-specific factors studied are financial slack, prior merger experience and target industry knowledge. Idol financial resources can be used for significant cross-border acquisitions, especially in the service sector, where significant assets are intangible, like human resources. Prior experience aids in the routine building like due diligence, resource integration, negotiations etc. The country-specific factors studied are host country market potential, host country political risk and cultural similarity.</p> <p>In this paper, we will be using a systematic review-based approach to understand the determinants of cross border M&amp;A transactions as many knowledge gaps can be addressed. By integrating the research findings from prior research, we propose developing a clear understanding of the factors that determine a merger decision. Many factors like characteristics of the CEO of the target and the acquiring company have also been summarized in this paper, which have not been consolidated by previous studies. The CEO of the company is the major strategic decision maker in a M&amp;A deal and analysing his behaviour like age, tenure etc.&nbsp; would enhance the existing knowledge. .This study can have vital future implications as a comprehensive knowledge of the determinants of a merger decision can give a clear picture to the managers and stakeholders about the decision and prove crucial to the success of the deal. Studying the market and economic conditions of host and home countries can provide an insight into the investment decision. This can apprise the policymakers to formulate laws and regulations that would promote inward and outward investments.</p> Sukhmani Bhatia Chugh Archana Goel Copyright (c) 2021 Sukhmani Bhatia Chugh, Archana Goel 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Influence of Autonomy, Skills and Knowledge, Role Efficacy on Discretionary Effort of Indian Retail Managers https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3068 <p>The purpose of this study was to explore the relation among role efficacy, discretionary effort, autonomy and skills and knowledge. Structured questionnaire was administered to 480 retail store managers from Bengaluru City. The proposed research hypotheses were evaluated using the PLS-SEM model. Role efficacy was significantly linked to discretionary effort</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Retail sector as an industry provides significant contribution to the economy of a nation. This sector encompasses different types of stores ranging from small grocery shops, department stores to big malls, warehouses, factory outlets, etc. which sell multiple ranges of products to consumers of different age and gender (Hameli, 2018).</p> <p>Theoretical background</p> <p>The concept of role integrates an individual within a social system of family or the organization (Sluss et al., 2011).</p> <p>In current times, in the words of Aubrey C. Daniels, “discretionary effort is&nbsp;the level of effort people could give if they wanted to, but above and beyond the minimum required” (Daniels, 2013).</p> <p>To perform the job well, certain job characteristics like talent or skills are pre requisites. In this context, autonomy and skills variety are among the other core job design characteristics including task significance, task identity and feedback as proposed by Hackman and Oldham in their Job Characteristics Model (Taylor, 2015).</p> <p><strong>Research Questions</strong></p> <ol> <li>How does Role efficacy impact discretionary effort?</li> <li>How to Skills and Knowledge and Autonomy impact discretionary effort?</li> </ol> <p>Hypotheses</p> <p>Hypothesis 1: Role efficacy has a significant impact on the discretionary effort of&nbsp; managers.</p> <p>Hypothesis 2: Relevant skills and knowledge, and autonomy has a significant impact on discretionary effort of managers.</p> <p>Methodology</p> <p>A sample size of 480 retail store managers from Bengaluru city were chosen for the present study. Namely, four variables, role efficacy (independent variable, IV), autonomy (IV), skills and knowledge (IV) and discretionary effort (dependent variable) were measured using a structured questionnaire.</p> <p>Data analysis</p> <p>Partial-least-squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) used to test the hypothesized model.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Altogether, the results supported hypothesis 1 and 2. The proposed conceptual model signifies the importance of retail store managers' role efficacy in the application of discretionary effort. In addition, autonomy, skills and knowledge contributed to retail store manager’s discretionary effort. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Acknowledgments</p> <p>To all the store managers and the HR professionals who made this study possible. Dr. Amit Mittal, Chitkara Univeristy and Shri. Mohit Chitkara, Chitkara University for inspiring good work always.</p> S. Naga Siddharth Dr. Pawan Kumar Chand Copyright (c) 2021 S. Naga Siddharth, Dr. Pawan Kumar Chand 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Comparing Social Sustainability -Traditional Practices in Wooden Houses with Contemporary Practices in Masonry Houses in Munshiganj https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3084 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>Traditional communities in wetland areas are extremely significant as they present a unique understanding of the indigenous practices that are symbolic of a rare social system to the context. These wetland communities and their practices present the way human settlements have responded and adapted to the geographic, climatic &amp; environmental conditions within a specific context [1]. The design and layout of these traditional wood houses in Munshiganj, Bangladesh was done primarily by house owners and were derivative of locally available materials, climate and economic ability of the people [2-3]. This is due to depleting natural resources, easy availability of modern materials and is time-saving transforming the construction practices of the traditional communities. The global environmental issues in the 21st-century have brought consideration of economic and environmental aspects in sustainability assessment for buildings, while less attention is driven towards the concept of social sustainability [4]. To evaluate the important aspects of socially sustainable construction, the key indicators were identified based on various studies by previous researchers as well as indicators given by the building sustainability assessment (BSA) tools. The objective of the study is to evaluate and compare the social sustainability of traditional wood houses with contemporary masonry house through an analysis of the space layout, visual and thermal comfort, as well as the quality of living in a traditional community of Munshiganj. Empirical data of a more than hundred year’s old traditional community in Khidirpara, Munshiganj is collected through a series of on-site workshops in the form of settlement pattern, form &amp; layout, size of the structure, materials and construction technology were compiled into architectural drawings [5-6]. The study empirically analysed geographic, climatic and socio-economic conditions of the two selected types of houses. Quantitative data collection was conducted using field investigation, documentation and structured interviews to collect and evaluate the validity of characteristics in actual conditions. The findings of the study indicate that within a the proposed set of indicators, the traditional practices adopted in a wooden house have higher social sustainability than the contemporary practices made of brick and cement in terms context with identical space sizes and layouts. The study’s main contribution is an innovative approach to evaluate the traditional methods of construction vis-à-vis modern methods through the users’ perspective that compares the wood-based constructions over masonry structures in terms of social sustainability.</p> Kanika Bansal Sheikh Rezwan Copyright (c) 2021 Kanika Bansal, Sheikh Rezwan 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 A Critical Analysis of Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) Towards Adopting BIM by Architects in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3116 <p><strong>Abstract</strong> &nbsp;</p> <h1>In India architecture, engineering and construction(AEC) industry has been in transitional phase in the context of technology that keep changing and upgrading at continual pace. Building Information Modelling is deemed to be the latest development in AEC industry at pan India level where architects are first and foremost professionals that have adopted this high-tech technology in their offices but unfortunately very less number of architectural firms are working on the projects through implementing BIM that too not in complete mode. On account of low adoption from architects and designers it is believed to be in early stage in India. Construction sector in India contributes at least 5 percent to the nation’s GDP and 78 percent to the gross capital formation with regard to the built environment BIM has huge potential and capabilities to enhance and improve the society in terms of construction and design of the buildings [1]. BIM helps to achieve the goal by decreasing cost, minimize human errors, increase the productivity, reduce the project delivery time in order to create a quality of output within all relevant domain in AEC industry from micro to macro level [2]. The primary aim of this research is to identify and recognize the setbacks in the way to adopt it by architects. Furthermore, the focus will be projected on investigating and analyzing technical and organizational aspects that makes the difference in adopting this technology. With the aim to carry out this study a quantitative Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) method will be implemented by means of conducting interviewing through questionnaire (30), total 110 participants responded that were from the area of architecture, engineering and construction(AEC). The research will be outlined and drawn by identifying the important research question that is to identify the blockades to espouse Building Information and Modelling(BI<strong>M</strong>).</h1> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <p>&nbsp;The main purposes of this research article are to identify and recognize possible blockades towards BIM adoption in architectural firms, and to create a model for exploring further research at pan India level to fulfill the purpose of the study. There are limitations in conducting this study that could not be tacked in this short research article so detailed analysis will be required to overcome these issues hampered into the way to advance of the study. Through this study the biggest challenge was to test the proposed hypothesis qualitatively but a quantities analysis laid a strong foundation for proving the claims the study that will surely help AEC industry to recognize the importance of BIM towards its implementation and usage. In this study three Technology Acceptance Model are discussed and analyzed on the basis of the related theories as TAM1,2 &amp; 3 along with the modified model named BIM TAM [3]. The development of these three TAM models is not completed yet it is in progress mode that can be adapted to specific circumstances that depends on the characteristics of research [4]. By identifying the possible reasons and factors affecting the process of BIM adoption arguable will lead the AEC industry to make best use of the technology along with it will assist academic society to produce quality of professionals to work in the industry with maximum outcome.</p> Julfikar Chandika Ahir Kritika Arora Jasleen Kathpal Copyright (c) 2021 Julfikar, Chandika Ahir, Kritika Arora, Jasleen Kathpal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Commodity Price Prediction using Time Series Forecasting using Econometrics and Different Statistical Models https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3150 <p>Forecasting has been a useful area that has benefited many people and businesses all over the world as a result of various technological advancements. Commodity price shocks[1] affect the economy immensely. Commodity prices, such as gold and silver, do not fluctuate much, but agricultural commodities[2], such as soybean prices, are affected by a variety of factors. Similarly, the constant fluctuation of global oil prices[4] has been a constant source of concern. This study's goal is to predict a pattern and forecast commodity prices in the future. Identifying the scale at which the variable affects the prices of all such commodities can aid in gaining some control over it. The main factor is prediction; the traditional practice for forecasting future price movements based on current and past prices aids in preparation after analysis. This study will identify the variables that are directly or indirectly related to commodity prices and will incorporate Time Series Analysis. This research will also look into how the forecasting model predicts commodity prices with and without certain variables. The model that will be used in this study is intended to make much better predictions than traditional practice. The primary goal of this research is to forecast and predict the prices of commodities such as gold, steel, and silver in order to understand how predictions are made and how other variables affect their prices. Another goal is to identify the variables and understand how deeply they are linked to commodity prices, as well as how the price performs when certain variables are removed. This study will be exploratory in nature. And secondary quantitative/qualitative historical data will be collected for this study to fulfill the aim. After this study we will be able to find if there is a significant impact of certain variables on the commodity prices through which we can take precautionary measures. This study will use the combination of latest Statistical, Econometrics[3],neural network and Machine Learning tools to design a model to forecast and essentially predict the commodity price and will cover all globally traded commodities.</p> Ayushi Mishra Mukul Jain Copyright (c) 2021 Ayushi Mishra, Mukul Jain 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 A Review on the mental health of House-keeping workers during COVID-19 pandemic https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3187 <p>The Emergence of the Covid19 pandemic has resulted in a severe impact on the mental health of people all over the world. As an individual everyone is stronger mentally than they realize but this situation altered everyone by testing their psychological attributes. To examine this article theme, housekeeping worker’s chief duty is to follow the principles &amp; procedures for covid which the government has set globally. Their cleanliness and precautionary standard must meet with the world health organization (W.H.O) standards to prevent and control the virus from spreading it. Apart from taking precautions and isolating themselves, covid-19 has created enormous physical and mental burdens on all people[1]. The lower-income people all over the world have attained severe losses during this covid. The main objective of this study is to identify the factors influential to the mental health. Several researchers have contributed their insight knowledge to examine the mental health of housekeeping workers during the pandemic and they have also addressed their efforts and continue support for this society.</p> B.Vidya Sri S.Vasantha Copyright (c) 2021 B.Vidya Sri, S.Vasantha 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Role of AI in the field of Agriculture: A Review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3222 <p>Agriculture and its allied activities play an important role in the economy of a nation. The ever growing population of the world and the unexpected changes occurring in environment makes it necessary to bring a change in the age old agricultural practices. There is a need to introduce new and innovative methods of improving the quality and quantity of agriculture produce with minimum loss of natural resources called Climate Sustainable agriculture practices. The alarming downfall of the ground water levels in various agriculture regions, the loss of nutrients from the soils and conversion of agriculture lands to urban habitats is forcing the world researchers to find means of increasing the crop productions in such difficult situations. The emergence of Artificial Intelligence and its allied fields like machine and deep learning have opened new avenues in the field of agriculture [1]. Also, the hybridization of IoT with AI has enabled the inclusion of intelligence in network of devices connected through internet facilitating availability and efficient analysis of huge amounts of agriculture data [2]. The efficiency of such hybridized models has already been explored in various areas of agriculture where the inputs obtained through sensors are used by various AI tools for analysis and predictions [3].&nbsp; Another branch of AI, fuzzy logic, is very useful in agriculture studies due to its inherent ability to perform efficient analysis on data with large uncertainties. The inference systems designed by fuzzy logic can enable the development of decision support systems helping the farmers to take timely and accurate decisions [4]. The present study is done with an objective (i) to study the role of Al and its related fields in agriculture and (ii) to explore the future of various hybridized techniques being used in different areas of agriculture.</p> Nishu Bali Anshu Singla Copyright (c) 2021 Nishu Bali, Anshu Singla 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 An insight into the effect of drug Betaine hydrochloride on the micelle forming tendency of surfactant AOT https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3255 <p>The present investigation employs the electrical conductivity measurements to monitor the effect of addition of drug Betaine hydrochloride (BH) on the double chain anionic surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT). Different concentrations (0.10, 0.25, and 0.50) mmolkg<sup>-1</sup> of drug Betaine hydrochloride have been added to the aqueous solution of surfactant AOT at three different temperatures (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15)K in order to examine the micellization properties of the surfactant AOT. The values of critical micelle concentration, and various thermodynamic quantities which include Gibb’s free energy of micellization (ΔG<sup>0</sup><sub>m</sub>), enthalpy of micellization (ΔH<sup>0</sup><sub>m</sub>), and entropy of micellization (ΔS<sup>0</sup><sub>m</sub>) have been computed from the conductivity measurements. The interactions prevailing among the surfactant-drug system have been discussed in order to explore their applications in drug delivery systems.</p> Ramanjeet Kaur Harsh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Ramanjeet Kaur, Harsh Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 RESPONSIBLE CAUSES OF PAYMENT DELAYS IN INDIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3415 <p>Introduction</p> <p>Payment delays are endemic in construction industry all across the world. Several research studies in India and abroad have identified payment delays as a major cause of cost and time overruns and disputes in construction( Abeysekera &amp; Wedawatta, 2008; Latham Report,1993; Abdul-Rehman, 2008; Eugine,2006; Iyer, Chaphalpkar &amp; Joshi, 2008; Iyer, Sawhney, Bali &amp; Rentale, 2011; Pimplikar &amp; Radekar, 2014). Government of India, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MOSPI) data of infrastructure projects costing Rs 150 crores and above, of last ten years, available on Government of India website, reflects cost overruns ranging from 10-12% and time overruns from one month to 10 years. Delays in payments has been listed as one major reason for time and cost overruns in Public sector infrastructure projects. Unlike other countries, India lags behind in statistical data and extensive local academic research that reflects the payment situation in the construction industry. Estimates made by Dr P R Swarup, Director General of Construction Industry Development Council state that approximately Rs 3 lakh crores of construction contractors are held up in Indian public sector projects due to delayed payments and disputes. Dr Bibek Debroy, member Niti Aayog, places this figure at Rs 1 lakh crore.(Business Today, 17 July 2016).</p> Amit Kathpalia Deepika Jhamb Copyright (c) 2021 Amit Kathpalia, Deepika Jhamb 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Financial inclusion and mobile banking adoption: A structural modeling approach https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3449 <p>The main aim of this study is to investigate on factors that determines the usage of Mobile Banking Services among the rural customers and has identified the significant relationship between the factors and intentional behavioral of rural customers towards mobile banking usage. Mobile Banking is one of the banking technologies that play an important role in financial strengthening especially in rural areas. Mobile Banking services is said to be a simple payment system designed for the customers for making banking transaction in transparent manner. This Paper has done an investigation on factors that determines the usage of Mobile Banking[1] Services among the rural customers and has identified the significant relationship between the factors and intentional behavioral of rural customers towards mobile banking usage. This study has adopted Technology Acceptance Model[2-3] (TAM) for constructing the theoretical framework. The findings from the study has displayed that attitude, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Trust and Perceived risk are the estimated variables for intentional behavior of rural customers towards accessing mobile banking services. The entire hypothesis between the constructs was supported through structural equation modeling.Therefore this study has done an investigation<sup>[4-5]</sup> among the customers of Delhi NCR towards the intention for accessing mobile banking services by adopting Technological Acceptance Model. Mobile Banking[6-8] is one of the banking technologies that play an important role in financial strengthening especially in rural areas. Mobile Banking services is said to be a simple payment system designed for the customers for making banking transaction in transparent manner. This Paper has done an investigation on factors that determines the usage of Mobile Banking Services among the rural customers and has identified the significant relationship between the factors and intentional behavioral of rural customers towards mobile banking usage. According Reserve Bank of India (RBI)[9-11] 2015, the penetration of mobile phones has been increased to nearly 80% in India. Therefore it has been stated that banking services could be easily delivered even to the rural people at a very low cost through mobile banking technologies. Therefore this study has done an investigation among the customers of Delhi NCR towards the intention for accessing mobile banking services by adopting Technological Acceptance Model. This study has adopted Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) for constructing the theoretical framework. The findings from the study has displayed that attitude, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Trust and Perceived risk are the estimated variables for intentional behavior of rural customers towards accessing mobile banking services.</p> Manika Garg Sangeeta Goel Copyright (c) 2021 Manika Garg, Sangeeta Goel 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Consumer Inclination to Purchase Personal Care Products in Salem City https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3532 <p><em>The study's goal is to assess consumers' proclivity to buy personal care items in Salem. The data for the study was collected by using direct interview with the consumers who were purchasing personal care products via an interview schedule. The study collects data from 794 consumers in different parts of Salem City. The study was commenced with the motive to test demographic profile of consumers, factors influencing consumer inclination and satisfaction of consumers while purchasing personal care products. The data was appropriately collated and analysed using basic frequencies and percentages, exploratory factors, weighted ranking as well as&nbsp;multiple regression. The study confirmed that consumer inclination mainly relies on store ambience, product quality, product promotion, product price, interest to purchase and external influences. Consumer satisfaction was mainly influenced by the package quality, variety of product, and quality offered by the personal care products. It is concluded that several factors determine consumer inclination to procure personal care products.&nbsp; </em></p> Dr. V.P. Rameshkumaar Dr. B. Balaji Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. V.P. Rameshkumaar , Dr. B. Balaji 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Review of Spatial Transformations in Indian Cities Post Economic Reforms 1991 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3044 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>It is widely acknowledged that cities are economic growth drivers and countries must invest in cities to attain higher economic growth. &nbsp;City planning governs the land utilization, and urban reforms are adopted by authorities for upliftment of existing cities which shall be capable of fuelling economic growth. In July 1991 India adopted economic reforms which has two major segments 1) Macro-Economic Management aiming to control fiscal deficit country was going through, and 2) Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) aiming at opening India’s Market on global platform by introducing Liberalisation, Privatization and Globalisation policies&nbsp;[1]. Former were more to be exercised by central govt., whereas SAPs were to be executed through states and ULBs to accelerate development that enables investor friendly environment.</p> <p>In last 20-25 years, 1991 onward an emerging socio-economic and cultural structure has been observed which has driven changes in city fabric and evolved a new physical form of human habitation. Along with achieved significant economic growth, phenomenon of disparity resulting into uneven geographic development has also been observed. Hence the need is felt to explore the influence of economic reforms adopted in 1991 on evolving spatial changes in Indian cities. This research is important to gauge the scope of physical change due to policy adoption by government and draw inferences and recommendations that can guide future policy formulation.</p> <p><strong>Hypothesis:</strong> Geographies of Indian cities have profoundly changed since economic reforms 1991 are undertaken.</p> <p><strong>Research Question:</strong> How economic reforms have influenced changes in Indian cities?</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To explore implications of economic reforms resulting in spatial transformations in Indian cities.</p> <p><strong>Methodology </strong></p> <p>For better understanding of reform approach, all five-year plans since post-independence are reviewed through scholarly articles which guide us that evolving socio-economic and political landscape of India has been the prime reason for the kind of policies India practiced. Study of theoretical approach on this subject highlights the important of spatial quality aspects. To support the discussion, quantitative analysis of achieved economic growth and physical change in Indian cities post 1991 reforms has been carried out. To assess economic growth, GDP sector wise contribution and individual’s prosperity levels are referred. To analyse spatial transformations in cities, level of urbanisation and physical change in terms of 1) Demographic change 2) rise in number of cities, 3) physical expansion of cities and density from 1991 to 2011, 4) rise in built-up areas in 23 cities (as per 1991 census) from 1991 to 2017 are referred. The study concludes by drawing inferences on the factors responsible for the kind of spatial implications Indian cityscape has witnessed post adoption of reforms.</p> <p>National policies of 1991 have also oriented city planning in India. Multiplier effects of policies on spatial transformations in Indian cities can be observed in the form of change in economic sector from manufacturing to service industry, demography, social and physical infrastructure demands and new skill-based employment opportunities. To review spatial implications in Indian cities, the quantitative analysis of various parameters discussed below informs about the attainment of above-mentioned changes.</p> <p><strong>GDP growth, urbanisation and household asset ownership</strong></p> <p>It is reported that percentage share of urban areas could generate 70 % of net new jobs created to 2030, producing 70 percent of Indian GDP and driving four time increase in per capita income across country [2]. Between 2000 and 2010 number of direct jobs in Information Communication and Technology (ICT) jumped from 284,000 to more than 2 million is evidence of rising prospects in tertiary sector&nbsp;[3]. Change in urban population from 70.7 million in 1991 to 160.7 million in 2011 and rising number of million plus cities from 23 in 1991 to 53 and approx. 7935 towns and urban agglomerations in 2011 is a reflection of available opportunities in cities.</p> <p><strong>Physical expansion of cities and rise in Built-up areas</strong></p> <p>The rise in built-up area&nbsp;[4] is observed average 20% to 30%, resultant of conversion of urban open spaces, urban green spaces, agricultural land to development of new establishments, real estate and expansion of physical social infrastructure, quite significant result of economic growth post 1991 reforms.</p> <p><strong>Expected Contributions </strong></p> <p>The research will be able to add value to policy making process for future practices of spatial planning that ultimately enhances quality of life of people and economic growth of the regions and cities and are capable of adapting ever changing cityscapes. Research findings suggest that spatial transformations in Indian cities is a resultant of reform led investment, demanding new set of spatial requirements complimenting current pattern of growth. Though cities contributed in achieving economic growth but failed to cater holistic progress of all section of society which shall be taken into consideration while crafting future policies.</p> Shilpi Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 Shilpi Aggarwal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Role Of Industry 4.0 Practices In Supply Chain Resilience https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3131 <p>Predictable and unexpected events have long threatened the continuity and profitability of supply chains, especially multinational ones. Human-made catastrophes and natural tragedies can cause supply chain interruptions. Several events, such as the earthquakes in Gujarat (2001), The Nuclear Power Plant, Fukushima Daiichi disaster was caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Japan in 2011 March (1). The COVID-19 epidemic has thrown demand and supply into disarray, and most businesses have yet to devise a strategy for enhancing their resilience and recovery. It has impacted 94 percent of Fortune 1000 companies, and supply chain resilience mechanisms in place have failed to keep them afloat during the pandemic. (2). Industry 4.0 refers to a series of technologies, principles, and methods to make manufacturing systems more autonomous, evolving, adaptable, and precise(3). Implementing Artificial Intelligence through high connection, accuracy, and transparency, digital technologies are playing a significant role in supply chain resilience (4). The Proposed hypotheses is The Impact of Industry 4.0 practices have positive impact on Supply Chain Resilience and Different Artificial Intelligence techniques are incorporated have positive impact on Supply chain resilience.The findings of the study indicates that industry 4.0 technologies i.e artificial intelligence has significant impact on supply chain and its resilience.</p> Devnaad Singh Anupam Sharma Prashant Singh Rana Copyright (c) 2021 Devnaad Singh, Anupam Sharma, Prashant Singh Rana 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Epistemological study of Urban Voids https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3166 <p>Cities are running out of horizontal room for growing population [1]. Today cities are expanding in outer peripheries. However, when city cores are observed closely there are always some areas which are not being used as they were intended. These types of spaces create a rift or void in the urban fabric. One can find such blank, unused, under used, void spaces even in cores of the city. City has pattern of solid and void [2]. &nbsp;Sometimes surrounding solids might often camouflage voids which have hidden potentials for emerging cities. Based on previous research, the purpose of the study is to understand the significance of urban voids and their forms. Also emphasizes the importance of the urban void as a possible resource for an urban setup's environmental, social, economic, cultural, and aesthetic elements.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Many writers and researchers provided varied definitions, findings, methods, and solutions based on the specific context of urban voids. Overall defined by all authors urban voids are any location in an urban environment that lacks purpose, experience, character, policy, and flexibility of transformation, etc [3]. Such urban blank spaces are devoid of Liveability, Sustainability, Proximity, Identity, healthy environment, Legibility, Urban Continuity, heritage conservation, safety. Previous researchers suggested solving this issue of urban voids, blank building [4] to be used for re-adaptive use method [5], rejuvenating void spaces, and Green infill in blank place.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>As stated by previous researchers’ solutions for urban voids could be at various levels by involvement of all stake holders. Some of the solutions are, rethinking urban design polices, promotion of pedestrianization, public awareness about space, reduction in vehicular traffic, re-adaptive reuse&nbsp;of brown field, reviving, re use, transformable space, preservation of character, proper conservation strategies to be planned by policy maker, green infrastructure, rethinking over regimentation of laws &amp; regulations, flexibility in land use. Existing literature by previous researchers and academics have identified the following issues: 1) Contributing factors to the formation of negative urban voids. 2) The need to reinforce negative urban gaps in order to give a sense of safety. 3) Identifying and categorizing negative urban voids. 4) Methods for studying negative urban voids; and 5) how negative urban voids may be used to benefit the urban community. Solutions proposed by previous researchers were purely based on context of Urban Voids; with temporary &amp; permanent approaches. For global perspective international researches were also taken into consideration for literature review.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The research will help in the creation of a better understanding of urban voids, which are the result of disconnect in urban fabric or urban character in cities built in the recent past or to be built in future. The findings can help to determine how to use such urban voids to improve the urban areas. The study will also address the gaps in the literature of urban voids and will be useful contribution to the body of knowledge for future academicians and researchers to explore further in this aspect for utilizing Urban Voids. The study will also be useful for planners and other organizations who are always trying to improve the urban environment. Further studies can expand on this study by adding the perspectives of local inhabitants in order to gain public involvement, since only then will it have a viable applicability in the setting.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The findings show that the linkages between socio-economic, migration, congestion, poor planning coordination between policymakers, urban planners, and other stakeholders work as a catalyst for increased urban voids. Though such gaps have the ability to degrade the city's quality, implying the diversion of the city's particular identity and resulting in underused or left-over regions inside the city as a permanent feature, If discovered and dealt with appropriately, these places can act as synergists for the long-term resurrection and regeneration of cities' dead zones. By addressing these blank places, planners will be able to address the paucity of horizontal spaces in urban environments by associating these voids with specific purpose and function. These void spaces can be served as enhancers of the modern-day city fabric, also key-factors in regeneration initiatives and concrete renewal, stating and permitting interventions related to consolidated existing tissues of city in an incremental way.</p> Aarti Rana Ambuj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Aarti Rana, Ambuj Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Comprehensive Study of Microstrip Patch Antenna using different Feeding Techniques https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3204 <p>For modern wireless communication systems, miniaturized multiband antennas with enhanced bandwidth and gain are desired to achieve optimum system performance. A planar microstrip patch antenna is preferred because of its small size, low cost, and ease of fabrication. For impedance matching, a conductive metallic patch can be fed by different techniques to deliver the maximum power to the microstrip antenna. The various configurations of inset feed, co-axial feed, aperture feed, and proximity feed, CPW feed which are used to excite micro-strip patch antennas are reviewed in this research work. Different feeding mechanisms are discussed to improve antenna performance in terms of S<sub>11</sub> parameter, bandwidth, gain and radiation pattern suitable for different wireless communication applications.</p> <p>In a wireless communication system, antenna is the key component that serves the most important function. For low frequency applications, special antennas were employed that were merely positioned outside the electronic devices. The antennas were quite enormous, and they only supported single frequency band with limited bandwidth. To overcome these issues, a new antenna was developed in 1953, named microstrip antenna for wireless communication. Microstrip patch antennas are used to get Single-band, multi-band, and broadband frequency responses with the majority of the features we use most often. It is used in many applications, such as mobile communications (GSM, LTE), Bluetooth and WiFi coverage, global positioning satellites (GPS), direct broadband satellite systems (DBS), remote sensing, and non-Satellite based applications such as medical hyperthermia. This has seen an increase in data transmission speed due to the rapid advancement in communication technology which is successful only if the transmission bandwidth and efficiency is maintained by an equally effective antenna to enable multiple services, standards and systems. [1,2].</p> <p>Microstrip antenna has a thin profile, light weight, easy to fabricate with low cost characteristics [3,4]. In this paper, a review of microstrip patch antennas with different feeding techniques is presented and the improvement in the performance parameters is compared for with respect to S<sub>11</sub> parameters. Microstrip patch antenna is composed of a metallic patch, dielectric substrate, and perfect electrically conducting ground plane as shown in the fig.1(a). The patch may be in different shapes such as square, rectangular, circular, and elliptical as shown in fig.1(b). Feeding structurescause an efficient power transfer from the transmission line to the radiation structure and help in matching their impedance. The choice of feeding technique depends on the application chosen for wireless communication. Some feed structures give greater bandwidth performance, better efficiency, better gain, return loss, and better radiations as compared to others. However, the main drawbacks of microstrip antennas include narrow bandwidth and low gain. This can be compensated by increasing radiation efficiency to overcome these drawbacks.</p> <p>The antenna's input impedance should be the same as the source's, which is 50 ohms for all RF and microwave sources. Because the antenna is pointed towards space, it works as an impedance transducer between the 50 ohms source and the 377 ohms free space. As a reason, a feed point on the antenna should be selected so that the input impedance of the antenna reaches 50 ohms at that point. Feeding techniques [3] which are implemented in microstrip patch antenna can either be direct contacting (feed line in contact with patch) or&nbsp; non-contacting ( not in contact with patch). The feed of microstrip antenna can have many configurations like microstrip feed, coaxial feed [4], aperture coupled feed and proximity feed. The microstrip feed and coaxial feed are relatively easier to fabricate. There are the significant key roles of the feeding techniques.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;(b)</p> <p><strong>Fig.1</strong> Microstrip Patch Antenna (a) Structure (b) various Shapes of Microstrip Patch</p> Neeru Kashyap Geetanjali Dhawan Singh Neha Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Neeru Kashyap, Geetanjali, Dhawan Singh, Neha Sharma 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Children’s Perception of the Environmental Affordances in the Public Spaces: Analysis of Case Examples https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3237 <p>Cities have been built for industry, commerce, transport, housing and ancillary uses by the town planners or have grown independent of any planning for the aforesaid purposes only. Never ever a city has been built with children and their needs in mind. With excessive urbanization and exorbitant cost of living in the urban area, it has become a practice for both the partners to be working in order to be financially sound to afford the urban life. Being in a nuclear family and weighted down with both the domestic and official responsibilities, it becomes challenging for the parents to accompany the child for the play time in open green area or in the defined play area. The design and location of the designated green space/play lot does not enable the child to have free or independent mobility. Increasing crime rate and reporting of those in social media has made parents scared to leave the child free on its own to the play area. Urbanization has caused increase in density of habitation. This has resulted in unorganized spurring of the sub-urban areas and diminution in availability of designated green spaces or encroachment in the available green spaces for parking, commercial activities etc. All the above reason has made the children confined in the close environment and engaged either with screen time, prominently, or other indoor games with minimal physical moment and interaction with nature. This may lead to possibilities of negative physiological or psychological effect (like obesity, no team spirit, unconnected with nature, poor communication skills etc.) on the children.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A city is considered to be the good one where a child can grow, is confident and has the liberty to express its powers. Good city also enables the child to be actively engaged with the world, being autonomous and able to manage their own affairs [1]. There are limited cities, which are making all innovative efforts to keep their kids healthy sociable and outdoors. Children are a kind of indicator species. If a successful city is built for children, then it will be a successful city for all people [2].</p> <p>The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (1992) and the Habitat II Conference in Istanbul (1996) issued the conceptual framework for sustainable urban development, taking into greater consideration the needs of all citizens, including the most vulnerable. The role of children and youth in sustainable development is highlighted in the Section III of the agenda 21 which is the outcome of Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro (1992). Consequently, various organizations started global launch of programs and projects to improve the urban quality of life specifically for children and youth. To make cities more liveable and inclusive for children and youth [3].</p> <p>A significant proportion of the population in countries all over the world is formed by the children [4]. Though there is a great variability in this section and they are always in supervision of the adults. It is considered as unacceptable by the social norms for unsupervised use of the public spaces by the children. This can be considered as “Environmental Injustice” [5-7].</p> <p>The paper has synthesized the various research work on children as urbanites and their reaction or behaviour settings for the affordances as provided by the environment. The research works which were based on the methodological approach of study were considered for the review.</p> <p>It has been observed that environmental affordances like the actualized environmental affordances, potential environmental affordances, safety conscious parenting practices have significant influence on freedom of movement of children and therefore children’s activities in public spaces [5-6]. The studies have also highlighted that the children prefer heterogenous spaces to homogenous spaces in the play area [8]. Based on the behavior mapping, focus group study, mental map imaging, of groups of children as carried out by various researchers it has been analyzed that the spaces which provides more environmental accordance will lead to moderate level of safety conscious parenting practices and thus more freedom of movement. These indicators will help in designing child friendly urban spaces.</p> Shruti Behera Ambuj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Shruti Behera, Ambuj Kumar 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Relevance of Artificial Intelligence in a Retail Pharma Store: A Review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3272 <p>The whole pharmaceutical areas needed various innovative and scientific solutions to solve the current problems related to cGMP practices, production, documentation, regulatory body requirements (eg. US FDA, WHO, EU-GMP, PICS), quality of product etc [1]. to overcome such problems different computer system software plays important role by monitoring and maintaining the current practices of pharma industry [2]. By installing such software will help pharma industry to improve their cGMP practices and fulfillment of regulatory body’s requirements. This article gives overview on different types of software used in pharmaceutical industry. It also covers importance and their need in pharma industry. It also covers the meaning of software used in pharmaceutical industry [3].</p> Neeraj Bainsa Jitender Singh Aanchal Gupta Kundan Singh Bora Copyright (c) 2021 Neeraj Bainsa, Jitender Singh, Aanchal Gupta, Kundan Singh Bora 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Ever-evolving Landscape: A Review of Luxury Hotels in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3432 <p>In recent years, a lot of new Luxury hotels have opened and are expected to open in the near future. The hospitality segment in India is attracting much attention from investors. New investors and existing hotels have robust expansion plans in India, and therefore, they are introducing new brands within their existing portfolios in India. A comprehensive view of the hospitality industry in India is crucial to understand how this industry grew from the first hotel during the British Raj in India to a holistic 1201 luxury hotels with a total inventory of 144047 rooms that cover the geographical landscape of India today [1]. Tourism is significant in India for various reasons such as geographic landscape, flora-fauna, diverse culture, traditional values, heritage &amp; history, proliferation in imports/ exports and the advent of Multi-Nationals. These reasons have helped to amplify tourism in India [3]. The growth of Luxury hotels has happened tremendously to meet the demand.</p> <p>-The importance of this sector has grown day by day, and therefore it is also prominently known as a rising industry of India. Flourishment and downfall are the two facets of the same coin. Similarly, if one side of this industry has set new benchmarks, at the same time, downfalls are also not untouched. Time to time this industry has faced numerous challenges from time to time, including impact on tourism due to safety hazards i.e. terrorism, extreme climate issues i.e. cyclone, floods, seasonality, health alarming crisis like SARS and H1N1 Swine flu and economic slump. Despite all these hurdles, the Tourism industry has witnessed a wide revolution and expansion over a period. The tourism industry has become an emerging source of foreign exchange for the country [3]. and has contributed significantly to Foreign Direct Investment compared to other industries in India (Sanjeev &amp; Birdie, 2019).&nbsp;Not only the past records but also the current state of Covid-19, domestic tourism has shown green flags in several markets. The Hospitality Industry has shown its importance in the pre-pandemic era by its contribution to the country's GDP, but it has also stood firm and shown its resilience in these unprecedented times [2].&nbsp;</p> Gouri Kalra Deepika Jhamb Copyright (c) 2021 Gouri Kalra, Deepika Jhamb 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 GCC Countries’ Financial Scenario: FDI Impression on GDP https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3512 <p><em>Foreign direct investment is accumulation of equity capital, borrowings and plough back of gains. Foreign financing inflows have significant effect in transforming economy of a nation. However, this investigation makes an effort to test the significance of FDI inflows on GDP apropos constituent countries of Gulf Cooperation Council. The study commenced with the motive to check the trend in FDI inflows and its growth rate, FDI’s impression on GDP and impact of FDI on per capita GDP in GCC countries. The study is based on secondary data and analytical research design is applied. The study utilized a data of GDP and per capita GDP pertaining from 2000 to 2019. Statistical techniques such as two-way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison are applied. It can be concluded that there is cogent variation in GDP and per capita GDP due to inflow of FDI among GCC countries.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bijja Srinivas Copyright (c) 2021 Bijja Srinivas 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Phytoconstituents Based Novel Nano-Formulations: An Approach https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2982 <p>Over the last few eras, the plant-based drugs have been receiving extensive attention as these were used from the ancient times for the cure of diseases. However, the dose accuracy, dose efficacy and treatment has been based on the observed symptoms only. Instead of crude drug, current research mainly focused on medicinal active phytoconstituents [1]. Over the past numerous centuries, great advancement has been made by the researchers for the development of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) in order to improve therapeutic efficacy and to reduce adverse effect of the bioactive molecule. Several novel drug formulations like nano-capsules, polymer micelles, liposomes, nanogel, nano capsules, phytosomes, nano-emulsions, transferosomes, microsphere, ethosomes, injectable hydrogels, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers etc. has been developed using bioactive molecules and plant extract [2,3]. The tremendous applications of the novel formulations are enhancement in solubility, therapeutic efficacy, bioavailability, stability, tissue distribution, protection from physical and chemical damage and sustained and targeted delivery [4,5]. Nanomedicine, an emerging field that uses the application of nanoscience information and technology in medical biology and disease prevention and treatment. It includes the utilization of nano dimensional building materials the included nanorobots, diagnostic nano-sensors, delivery, and sensory targets, and materials in live cells. For instance, a nanoparticle-based method was developed and employed collectively in both cancer diagnosis in imaging methods and cancer treatment [6]. The first generation of nanoparticle-based treatment incorporating lipid systems such as liposomes and micelles, now approved by the FDA [7]. liposomes and micelles can contain inorganic nanoparticles such as gold or magnetic nanoparticles [8]. These outstanding properties should enhance the use of inorganic nanoparticles emphasizing drug delivery, imaging and medical activities. Added by, nanostructures are reported to prevent drug degradation in the intestinal tract and to facilitate the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs in their target site. Nanodrugs unveiled improved oral bioavailability because of absorptive endocytosis mechanism adopted by them. Nanostructures stay in the circulatory system for a long time and enabled drug release at specified rate resulting in reduced plasma fluctuation with reduced side effects. Most of the material used are eco-friendly, biodegradable, plant-based material and bioadhesive, that provides extensive benefits as well as distinctive size to the nano-formulations [9].&nbsp; It offers many benefits for the treatment of cancer and many other ailments. The use of an appropriate drug and nano-drug delivery system has been determined primarily by the biochemical and biophysical properties of the target drug selected for treatment [10]. However, problems such as toxicity expressed by nanoparticles could not be ignored while considering their benefits. The present review highlights the existing research and development of various novel formulations especially for the herbal bioactive molecules and summarizes their active ingredients, commercial formulations, route of drug administration, and pharmacological activity.</p> Sapna Kumari Anju Goyal Madhukar Garg Copyright (c) 2021 Sapna Kumari, Anju Goyal, Madhukar Garg 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Job satisfaction: A determinant of retention of new employees in hotels https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3026 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This study is a review of 30 different papers that were aimed at understanding the causes of attrition of fresh and new employees in hotels during pre covid time. This study is an attempt to compile various elements of job satisfaction which is reported to be one of the most prominent factors for attrition and job jumping amongst new entrants in the hotels.</p> <p>There were a variety of reasons that different researchers have highlighted. For example, for some it was financial benefits and for others it was work environment. Amongst other reasons, were job security, organisational commitment, organisational socialisation, working hours, job burnout etc. that influenced employee turnover especially those employees who were new to the industry. This review highlights the mentioned reasons and provides an insight to researchers to conduct future studies on these parameters especially when the industry is going to restart from SARS COV-2 pandemic[1-2].</p> Amit Gupta Amanjeet Bhalla Arvind Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Amit Gupta, Amanjeet Bhalla, Arvind Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Comics: An Alternative Medium for Education and Social Progress https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3082 <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>It was the beginning of the 1990s and India was still waiting to see the results of newly introduced economic reforms. The newspaper industry was struggling to sustain itself and the government TV channel Doordarshan was already seen as lack-luster and manipulated. The sources of news were shrinking with each passing day and expressing one's opinions was still a prerogative of journalists. The NGO world had not yet boomed; the people's movement and a few left-oriented originations were doing their bit. The A.H. Wheeler bookstalls at railway stations across the country were still a dependable source of books and comics. The only big names in comics in those days were <em>Diamond Comic</em> and <em>Lotpot </em>Magazine, with <em>Amar Chitra Katha</em> being parents' favorite gift to the children, providing a low-priced dose of moral and cultural values with a mythological flavor. A user-generated medium was required to address the issues of the silent majority. The concept of grassroots comics was developed to provide such a media tool. It was an organic process and took years to take final shape. After several experiments and hit-and-miss attempts, a simple four-frame wall-poster comic’s format was developed [2]. This was cost-effective, easy to produce, self-publishable and suitable for distribution by any individual or small organization. Grassroots comics are inexpensive and the method is not complicated - you just require a pen, paper and access to a copying machine to produce them. These comics are photocopied and distributed in a limited area, which encourages local debate in the community.</p> <p>Comics are thus a powerful way to explore the possibilities to communicate using “text immersed in the image” and “pictures anchored in words,” which “relay meaning back and forth across their boundaries”[5].</p> <p>Mr. Will Eisner in his book “Comics and sequential art ”(Will Eisner-Comics and sequential art-Poorhouse Press [1] describe that, from the last hundred years, the subject of reading has been connected quite directly to the concept of literacy he writes that in recent research has shown that the reading of words is but a subset of a much more general human activity which includes symbol decoding, information integration and organization, Indeed, reading in the most general sense can be thought of as a form of perceptual activity. In this manner it is clear that Comics is a tool for informing and educating people for contemporary challenges. And it is also using by lots of government and non government agencies as per their objectives.</p> <p>This research paper is based on the method of qualitative research methodology. To understand the nature of the research, experts from the concerned subject have been interviewed to understand the various aspects of the subject. This research is qualitative study, through which an attempt has been made to understand how the public is educated/informed through the use of Comics.</p> <p>One of the benefits of the four-frame comics poster is that it can easily be reassembled into a strip- a newspaper-friendly format. Many of the comics developed in various WCI workshops in Rajasthan, UP and Uttarakhand were supplied to small and medium newspapers. Though Western comic’s strips dominate the global market they are limited to the English-language press. The vernacular press does not feature these comics; moreover, their stories have no cultural resonance with readers [2-3]. It was wonderful to see the first local voices getting space in the mainstream media in comic form. Each comic strip would appear in over 100 small- and medium-sized newspapers in the three states. The popularity of the strip could be measured from the fact that these newspapers started downloading comics from the World Comics website when the service was discontinued [4]. In many places’ locals took over, and youngsters started producing strips on demand. Comics as an alternative medium have been successfully accepted by various communities in society. The best thing about this medium is that even an illiterate person can also understand.</p> Amit Kumar Das Arjun Kumar Singh Gitanjali Kalia Copyright (c) 2021 Amit Kumar Das , Arjun Kumar Singh, Gitanjali Kalia 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Architectural Design Quality Assessment Framework for School Buildings in the context of India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3114 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Quality is one of the triple constraints in any project, other two are namely time and cost. While there are measuring tools for both time and cost, quality remains unmeasured in objective manner.&nbsp; Quality as defined by Cambridge Dictionary is “of a high standard” or “the degree of excellence of something, often a high degree of it”. As per The Oxford dictionary quality is “The standard of something as measured against other things of a similar kind”.</p> <p>Design quality can be defined as the value of design to its user. Design could be for any product, service, system or experience. Design quality could be function of any combinations of usability, performance, aesthetics, reliability, predictability, stability, consistency, safety and security [1].&nbsp; Measuring design quality is still in a very elementary stage in developing countries like India. Building is a product of design and the quality of building depends on the quality of design.</p> <p>It is important to measure the quality of design in different stages of project life cycle as good design quality increases the acceptability and marketability of buildings. The measure can be done during briefing, predesign, construction, pre and post occupancy stages. Also, all the factors in design might not have the same weightage in the measuring scale [2].</p> <p>A total of 46 pieces of literature have been reviewed to understand the nuances of the architectural design process and the requirement of finding a tool to measure the quality of the design. Out of 46 literature, 32 were based on the quality of the design in architectural projects and measurement of the same. It also includes the research based on the Design Quality Indicator launched by the Construction Industry Council (CIC) of the United Kingdom in 2002. DQI has been accepted in countries other than the UK also.</p> <p><strong>Requirement of Design Quality Indicators in schools in India </strong></p> <p>Design quality management is a complex issue in any construction project. In India several standards and codes like, National Building Code 2016, several BIS standards and different building environment assessment methods are used to evaluate different design aspects. However, there is no unified code has been developed yet to measure design quality objectively. As a result, design quality has remained a matter of perception of individual.</p> <p>In the area of school education, the National Education Mission saw a huge rise in budget allocation. As per the expenditure budget documents, there has been a 10.5 percent increase in allocation for the mid-day meal scheme in schools to Rs 11,000 crore in FY20 (Expenditure budget 2019- 20). The investment on the education sector has increased, therefore, there is a need for physical spaces to make this investment work efficiently.&nbsp; To make these schools functionally efficient a good design is required. Therefore, to assess the design quality a framework is required which will quantify the appropriateness of the design of school buildings in India and make a DQI framework for the future design of the schools which is suitable in Indian context.</p> <p><strong>Research Questions </strong></p> <p>RQ1. What is the applicable theoretical model or roadmap that promotes robust development of a customized design quality assessment method?</p> <p>RQ2. What are the required categories and criteria that form the best design quality assessment method for school-built environment in Indian context?</p> <p>RQ3. What is the applicable weighting system, rating formulas and benchmarking expressions that reflect the most accurate appraisal for school buildings in Indian context?</p> <p><strong>Major Findings and Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Among the 32 research papers on design quality, 14 have been selected, which have listed down all the criteria that make a project successful and validated them involving the project stakeholders in different stages of projects. The DQI standards, and their various indicators are mapped through these 14 literatures to understand the frequency of occurrences of different indicators also the inclusion of quality indicators in each literature. Higher the number of indicators included in the assessment framework means a high success rate and accuracy of the design assessment. On the other hand, the frequency justifies the importance of one particular indicator in the entire list and people’s acceptance of the indicator while assessing the design quality.</p> <p>A survey questionnaire was formed which includes all the questions from DQI meant for school. So far, the author has received 31 responses as the survey is still open. The number of respondents targeted is 35 as it was done during the formulation of DQI in the United Kingdom.&nbsp; However, an intermediate analysis will be done and the results will be shown in the main article.</p> Tanushree Das Copyright (c) 2021 Tanushree Das 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Effects of Kohl application on the eye and its related parts – Reviewed medical journals https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3148 <p>Purpose: Kohl (Surma or Kajal) is a traditional practice that is very common and popular nowadays across the world especially in children and women despite having awareness of its negative effect on the eye and its related parts[1].</p> <p>Methods: Electronic bibliographic databases searched on PubMed / Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria were used for search in PubMed / Google Scholar database like Publication year: &gt;= 1990 (For publications in last 30 years), Publication Language: English. The terms for all the above search strategies were: Kajal, kohl, effects of kajal, kajal in children, advantages and disadvantages of kajal, eye cosmetic, long term effects of kajal, impact of eye cosmetic, cosmetic and ocular problem, manufacturing of kajal.</p> <p>The authors analyzed the various harmful effect of Kohl on the eye and its related parts which ultimately lead to many eye problems as well as the harmful effect on the human body.</p> <p>Result: The use of Kohl causes tear film contamination and severe ocular discomfort. Usage of Kohl increases the debris on the lipid layer of the tear film causing meibomian gland blockage. This results in reduced stability of tear film[2]. Its use also results in external eye infections in children[3].</p> <p>Application of Kohl in children may lead to asymptomatic lead poisoning[4]. Tear film destabilization occurs due to particles migration across the eyelid margin. This causes poor stability of tear film and also dry eye symptoms. There are microbial pathogens and toxic metals in kohl that prove harmful to the human body[5]. The poisoning caused due to the use of kohl affects the general health and causes different problems like anxiety and irritability, abdominal cramps and anemia, etc.[6].</p> <p>Conclusion: Eye health in the early years of life is very important and kohl application may have dangerous effects. There is the prevalence of using kohl in children especially in rural India leading to frequent eye infections and frequent hospital visits. The chemical composition of Kohl may differ in different regions, but whatever the composition it harms the meibomian gland function, as it covers and blocks it. The use of Kohl needs to be strictly stopped. There needs to be proper awareness of the eye health of children specially the side effects of kohl.</p> Ankita Raj Navita Gupta Ajit Kumar Poddar Copyright (c) 2021 Ankita Raj, Navita Gupta, Ajit Kumar Poddar 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Appraising The Case Examples of Smart-Cities Policies Taking on the Impact of Pandemic https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3184 <p>With many sections of the city affected due to Pandemic, there is a dire need to assess the vulnerability of Pandemic hit areas in a city. Majorly, market places, slum areas, residential areas, transportations means, educational institutions and religious areas which comes under High Density people intensive areas are vulnerable to any future pandemic. Newer Policies, capacity building, technologies and awareness among the people have paved a safer way in eradication and/or curbing the Pandemic. There are set prototypes and case examples which intervened in the city, have proven their worth when implemented within the city. Global cities like London, Singapore, Japan &amp; S. Korea and Indian cities like Bengaluru, Pune, Agra, Varanasi, and Chandigarh have developed solutions to safely handle the Pandemic and kept their citizens served and informed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Pandemic has physically, socially and economically impacted the cities which is the part of discussion among urban planners, architects, epidemiologists and doctors, who are further willing to propose newer policies for cities to control the future pandemic. There are city specific solutions developed recently by policy advisors at local level, city level and state level which are helping in recovering from the impact of pandemic, faster. Smart city policy solutions and technologies are closely integrated to full fill local city’s need and the need of the general people both [1-2].</p> <p><em><sup>&nbsp;</sup></em></p> <p>Policies regarding capacity building, awareness, data analysis, big data and artificial Intelligence have given the way to handle the impacts of the current pandemic. City Governments are paving out ways to think about the future of the cities and existing vulnerability of the cities. The policy advisor at various levels in urban planning need start strategizing the resilience of urban areas. There are provisions in providing the much-required awareness about vulnerable areas in a city through interactive maps [2]. There is a way finding for such pandemic as the already implemented solutions have shown their worth in tough times.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Since the Pandemic, according to the theories, has come after 100 years [3] therefore the research shall be majorly focused on exploratory techniques. Hence, the results shall be concluded based on the already implemented policies and the impacts happened in urban areas. The impacts of pandemic are new and it has never happened of this scale that’s is why the data is limited and will be available after the results from public experiences. There are physical, social and economic setups shattered by this pandemic and people are highly impacted due to this. Transportation, industrial, educational, housing and healthcare sections are highly impacted [3] due to this pandemic and are now recovering due to newer policy environment. The Methodology shall be further subdivided into Primary research and Secondary Research, which further includes surveys, questionnaires, interviews, literature reviews and Online research to collect the data.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Expected Contributions through the research paper is that the impacts of pandemic are quite measurable and will bring out results through case examples. It has been crucial to bring the physical, socio-economic changes for further generations to know about the changes brought in the cities due to the pandemic [3]. Urban planning Policies and Digitization are two different verticals, but during pandemic the integration of both has brought positive results in the community in the form of inclusive e-governance. Combination of Urban policies and Digitization for citizens, after the negative impacts of pandemic, have given a new cushion to safeguard the public [3]. The policy interventions which helped in curbing the pandemic shall be studied. Also, the purpose of Smart City mission and National Digital mission is to bring the inclusivity in the cities and to keep people informed about every possible information. Therefore, newer policies shall bring newer positive impacts in the community which can be studied and related result can be brought out for researchers [4].</p> <p>Safety, security, information, accuracy in results is highly required, for the public to be informed throughout the day[2]. Integrated Urban management may bring integrated solutions of urban governance and e-governance which may shape a new infrastructure for the public welfare.</p> <p>During Covid-19, high density areas are more vulnerable and highly impacted by the people itself. Policy intervention and Digitization have brought positive results and people may enjoy the public services at their door steps [1,2]. Newer policies need newer challenges, and this pandemic has provided an opportunity to bring newer policies in cities which are either already tested or being tested, for resilient future cities</p> Damanpreet Chugh Ambuj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Damanpreet Chugh, Ambuj Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Evaluating ARITE System Usability for Rendering Hands-on Experience to Engineering Undergraduates https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3220 <p>The purpose of engineering is to bring together technical knowledge and ethical principles so that every graduating engineer may become a problem solver [1-2]. The majority of engineering courses are a combination of theory and hands-on laboratory experiences. However, the infusion of hands-on experience became troublesome due to limited infrastructure and a continuous increase in students entering the engineering education departments [3-4]. The adoption of new teaching tools and information and communications technology (ICT) in higher engineering education helped overcome the issue of dealing with a larger cohort. Despite this, only a small percentage of engineering students graduate with the logic construction and conceptual clarity necessary to function as professional engineers. However, disruptive technologies (AR/VR/MR/XR) help the existing engineering learning environment and improve engineering graduate skills [5-6]. Embedded system is one of the foundational courses in electronics, electrical, and computer engineering domains. It deals with the design and development of digital devices or systems that use microcontrollers as primary components. A microcontroller is an Integrated Circuit (IC) used to interface and control external peripherals that come in multiple packing styles. Therefore, a sound understanding of using microcontrollers for developing ready-to-use products is required. Despite this, current learning environments are unable to transmit hardware abstraction knowledge associated with the use of microcontroller devices. The fusion of disruptive technologies that offer an additional sensory paradigm through immersion and interaction to the exciting learning environments has been under research since the last decade. [7-9]. Augmented Reality Interactive Table-top Environment (ARITE) is a learning environment designed and developed to impart the technical know-how of microcontrollers to freshmen engineering [10].</p> <p>AR is a technology that allows virtual things made by a computer to be superimposed on the immediate physical environment on a continual basis. [11-13]. ARITE system is designed using Augmented Reality technology to teach microcontroller-based embedded systems principles to undergraduate engineering students. The system has four sub-parts: AR application, imaging device, display unit, and user. Figure 1 shows the framework of the ARITE system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Figure 1: ARITE system framework</p> <p>The system works on a vision-based approach of AR, which uses AR-markers to scan and produce 3D-generated virtual replicas of real-time objects [14-15]. The user can interact with virtual content either through mouse or touch displays. The present system uses Arduino Uno microcontroller fundamentals to teach embedded system courses to engineering students [16].</p> <p>According to John Brooke (1996), "Usability does not exist in any absolute sense; it can only be defined concerning particular contexts." Perhaps it can best be summed up as a general standard of suitability for any specific artifacts purpose. The notion of usability must contain three attributes, as specified by ISO standards: efficacy, efficiency, and satisfaction [17]. The System Usability Score (SUS) Questionnaire (developed by Brooke 1996) evaluated the SU Score for the proposed ARITE system. The score measures the subjective usability of the system through a ten-item based questionnaire evaluated on a five-point Likert scale, where "1" means "Strongly Disagree" and "5" means "Strongly Agree." The method to evaluate system usability score is shown in figure 2:</p> <p>Figure 2: Method to evaluate system usability score</p> <p>The ARITE system evaluation conducted as follows:</p> <ul> <li>Participants: The ARITE system was tested with 36 engineering students of multiple domains. 72% of participants were male and 28% female with average age of all is 19 years with no prior experience of using AR technology.</li> <li>Instrument used: The research instrument used in this study was adopted from the work of John Brooke, which have ten-items to assess system usability as discussed in previous section.</li> </ul> <p>After using Booke's methodology, the SU score for the ARITE system is 67.40%, which infers that the system is suitable for learning embedded system fundamentals. It could be easily included in the regular curriculum of engineering education. The future development in this regard is to increase the number of activities that students can perform and evaluate other critical parameters like cognitive load, motivation, and students' knowledge gain</p> Amit Kumar Archana Mantri Copyright (c) 2021 Amit Kumar, Archana Mantri 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Design and Development of Oral Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery System Based on Natural Polymer https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3253 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The present work is aimed to isolate gum from the seeds of <em>Samanea saman</em>. Mucoadhesive tablets of Valsartan were formulated using novel gum of <em>Samanea saman</em> as a mucoadhesive polymer and Instamodel 41 as a release retardant. [1-3] The formulation parameters like the concentration of <em>Samanea saman</em> gum and Instamodel 41 were optimized by using design expert software by constructing response surface graph, contour, and desirability graph. A relationship between variables was developed by constructing a polynomial equation using a quadratic and linear model. The optimized tablet formulation shows mucoadhesive strength 4635.65 Dynes/cm<sup>2</sup> and <em>Exvivo </em>Residence Time 382 min and complete drug release within 12 hours. In the ANOVA model F value, 292.58 for Mucoadhesive strength of tablet and 19.59 for t100% implies that the model is significant. [4-8] Korsmeyer-Peppas model, suggests anomalous transport of drug release.[9] The optimized formulation was found to be stable at accelerated conditions of temperature and humidity.</p> Nayana Baste Ganesh Basarkar Chandrashekhar Upasani Hemant Gangurde Copyright (c) 2021 Nayana Baste , Ganesh Basarkar, Chandrashekhar Upasani, Hemant Gangurde 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Green Human Resource Management: Proposed Conceptual Model Through Systematic Review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3413 <p>This evaluation serves two goals: (1) to conduct a systematic review of the literature on Green Human Resource Management (GHRM); (2) to provide a framework for facilitating future researchers to examine issues faced during practice of green human resource management. Selection of empirical research papers from 2010 till 2021 published in Scopus-listed journals. Through the systematic literature review the aspects of GHRM are identified, segregated and analysed. Highly favoured theories in GHRM domain are the abilities-motivation-opportunities theory [1-3] and resource-based-view theory &nbsp;[4-5]. This unveiled research hypothesis that GHRM trainings influences green skills and green behaviours among employees. The literature showed that the integration of key functions: supply chain management, cost cutting, lean manufacturing and operations management with GHRM practices results in improved business outcomes[2]. The analysis suggests GHRM can be more gainfully applied with corporate governance and cost cutting practices in businesses which deals with natural resources and/ are labour intensive. Human resource operations can be amplified by implementing GHRM bundle practices. This analysis gives an insight into environmental management and builds a cohesive subject domain. And it examines theoretical underpinnings related to GHRM. This review highlights possibilities to include stake holder theory, corporate social responsibility and investment theory of creativity in future researches.</p> Ramneek Kelsang Bawa Kapil Kathuria Rahul Dhiman Copyright (c) 2021 Ramneek Kelsang Bawa, Kapil Kathuria, Rahul Dhiman 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Brief Overview on Synthesis and Application of Ni-doped Carbon Dots https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3447 <p>Carbon dots (CDs) are semiconductor materials with size ranging from 2 to 10 nm [1, 2]. Among these CDs, nickel CDs (Ni@CDs) materials have piqued researcher's curiosity in the past years due to their specific properties such as strong catalytic activity, good stability, great hydrophilicity, and high oxidation states [3]. Several synthetic pathways exist for the synthesis of Ni@CDs such as, hydrothermal method, microwave irradiation, green synthesis, pyrolytic decomposition, precipitation method and electrochemical route [4]. These Ni@CDs have shown application for charge transfer, excellent thermodynamic stability, luminescent properties, high chemical and photo-stability, Opto-electronic devices, catalysis, sensing, and drug delivery are applications of Ni@CDs [5]. In this review, various synthetic methods had been explored extensively along with their numerous applications.</p> Ajay Khajuria Shubam Sudan Mohit Kapoor Copyright (c) 2021 Ajay Khajuria, Shubam Sudan, Mohit Kapoor 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 A transformed Perception of Customers towards Digital Banking during the COVID-19 – A Study across Bengaluru City https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3530 <p><em>The RBI and the National Payment Corporation of India have made a number of significant actions and attempts to improve the payment and settlement system in banks, including the creation of the Unified Payments Interface and the Bharat Interface for money. The purpose of this research study is to examine how the move to digital banking affects customers. It also aims to look at customer perception of Digital banking during COVID-19, as well as analyse the factors influencing use of Digital Banking during the Pandemic. This study seeks to provide a clear picture of how consumers feel about their banks' e-services.</em></p> Rajani H Pillai Aatika Bi Copyright (c) 2021 Rajani H Pillai , Aatika Bi 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Social Media Networking: As Facilitator of Acculturation https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2998 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Globalization has made the whole world a single market for the consumer as well as for employees in terms of employment opportunities. Due to this phenomenon, global enterprises are facing acculturation problems regarding employees and there is a requirement of proper policy regarding this. The tension/stress of cultural adjustment at a new workplace with their own culture results in adverse effects on the employee’s mental and physical health. But due to the reduction of barriers, the movement of employees has also increased as they have more choices worldwide. The tendency of changing employers instead of changing occupations are becoming more prevalent these days [1]. The cost of employee turnover is more than their salaries [2]. “Acculturation comprehends those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups” [3]. The organizations tried to tackle this problem by implementing socialization programs through which the new employees facilitated to learn the cultural values, beliefs, organizational practices, and work skills that are required for their performance [4]. Nowadays the social networking sites are used by organizations as a measure of socialization. Social networking sites provide a platform for users for creating and sharing information through internet groups [5]. Organizations are trying to utilize social media networking as a solution to this challenge and even employees in such organizations using social media networking as a means to learn the culture of the organization. The objective of the present paper is to explore the impact of social media networking on the acculturation of employees. The following hypotheses framed based on the objective of the study: -</p> <p>H<sub>1</sub>:- The new employees have a significant positive benefit in the acculturation process at their organization from social networking sites.</p> <p>H<sub>2</sub>:- The employees working in other countries have a significant positive benefit in the acculturation process at their organization from social networking sites.</p> <p>The sample of 735 employees of various IT companies using the social networking platform of their organization. The data was collected through a standardized questionnaire of 22 items and analyzed using EFA and OLS techniques. The study resulted in a positive significant impact of social media on the acculturation of employees, however, there is a difference in employee behavior towards social media on a geographical basis. The study also indicates that social media networking also helps in satisfying the information needs of employees which further contributes to better acculturation of employees.</p> Savita Kumari Priya Jindal Pawan Kumar Chand Copyright (c) 2021 Savita Kumari, Priya Jindal, Pawan Kumar Chand 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Challenges of Gig Workers for facilitating Rural Health Care Services under e-governance initiatives during COVID-19 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3042 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Innovation in Technology has provided a remarkable contribution in delivering health care services all around the world. Our Indian Government has taken several initiatives for the transformation of the entire government process to the electronic mode to improve their performance and earn citizens’ trust [1]. E-governance is said to be the most efficient platform for facilitating consistent services to the citizens through several delivery channels especially in the pandemic condition of COVID-19. It is embraced that the present situation of COVID-19 has made “health” a priority need for an individual when compared to any other fundamental requirements. In developing countries like India, nearly 70 percent of the population resides in rural villages. Hence the services offered by the government should reach the rural citizens residing in remote villages since they occupy huge space in the entire population. In 2009 the term “gig economy” has come into existence and it has been determined as freelance jobs made by the workers on a temporary or contract basis [2]. During the pandemic condition of COVID-19 several gig workers have been appointed on a contract basis to support the medical staffs in health care organizations and the citizens residing in villages [3, 4]. The gig workers face multiple challenges in engaging themselves in gig economy Hence this research study is an attempt to analyse the challenges faced by the rural gig workers in safeguarding the health of rural citizens. The researchers have adopted neural network analysis in r studio for determining the hidden layers between the input and output variables. The study has also examined the exact factor that strongly affects the gig workers to reach their monthly income through facilitating rural health care services under e-governance initiatives.</p> Bhuvana M Vasantha S Copyright (c) 2021 Bhuvana M, Vasantha S 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Recent Progress on the Synthesis and Applications of Cu@CDs https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3097 <p><strong>Abstract:&nbsp; </strong>Metal doped carbon dots (CDs) have been extensively studied due to their tunable and strong fluorescence emission properties, which open their applications in sensing, organic catalysis, optronics and biomedicine [1]. This have attracted the attention of many researchers to develop transition metal doped CDs. Herein, we reported a mini review article on synthesis and applications of copper doped CDs (Cu@CDs). We have focused on copper because of its various advantages, such as low cost, low toxicity, natural abundance, and ability to be show 0-III oxidation states which give them access to show both one and two electron processes [2, 3]. This review will focus on the recent progress in the synthesis, functionalization, and technical applications of Cu@CDs using chemical reduction, hydrothermal, solvothermal, thermolysis, green synthesis from various chemical and natural carbon pre-cursors [4]. The synthesized Cu@CDs have application in analyte detection and sensing, organic-catalysis, anti-microbial activity, bio-imaging, and cancer therapy [5, 6].</p> Shubam Sudan Ajay Khajuria Jyotsna Kaushal Mohit Kapoor Copyright (c) 2021 Shubam Sudan, Ajay Khajuria, Jyotsna Kaushal , Mohit Kapoor 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Mobile Based Application on Weight Control among Overweight Children https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3129 <p>Childhood obesity is one of the most common&nbsp;social problems&nbsp;of this century,&nbsp;especially&nbsp;in urban&nbsp;settings. Overweight and obesity&nbsp;are&nbsp;the 5th&nbsp;driving risk for disease worldwide. Body Mass Index is an utmost crucial method for measurement of overweight and obesity for men and women.<sup> [1] </sup>Children with more weight issues have lower confidence and are not very much known among their friends. Depression, anxiety, and OCD issue likewise happens because of childhood obesity.<sup>[2] </sup>Childhood obesity is linked to a variety of co-morbid illnesses, including metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders. <sup>[3] </sup>Parents play a major role in childcare. Parents play a vital role in the children's diet, food intake, and food choices.<sup> [4] </sup>Therefore, there is a need for urgent interventions to control obesity-related health hazards. The increase of online life and innovation may help to give a productive centre point to treatment, control, and avoidance to address childhood obesity. The advantages of mobile-based programs are that they can be conveyed any place whenever possible; members are not required to go to a facility. <sup>[5] </sup></p> <p>As indicated by the WHO (2016), about two billion people are viewed as overweight, among them six hundred fifty million are having obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2).<sup> [2] </sup>&nbsp;A couple of studies on the current ratio of younger and older obesity and overweight show prevalence between 3 to 29 percent across the different regions of India.<sup> [6] </sup>&nbsp;Aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mobile based application on weight control, physical activity and dietary pattern among overweight children. The aim of selecting this topic is social changes in view of diet, lifestyle and physical activities by. If the intervention proves&nbsp;to be&nbsp;effective, it&nbsp;may&nbsp;be&nbsp;applied&nbsp;in child care to combat&nbsp;childhood&nbsp;overweight and&nbsp;obesity. It is important that society&nbsp;recognizes&nbsp;the need to change&nbsp;its&nbsp;social behaviour that promotes the&nbsp;development&nbsp;of&nbsp;childhood&nbsp;obesity.&nbsp; The hypothesis of study is that mobile based application will be able to control weight among overweight and obese children.</p> <p>Quasi experimental research design will be used for the study. Subjects will be taken from nine villages. Subjects will be allocated to intervention and comparison group by convenience sampling technique.&nbsp; Pre-test will be taken on 1<sup>st</sup> day, 1<sup>st</sup> post test will be taken on 30<sup>th</sup> day and 2<sup>nd</sup> will be on 90<sup>th</sup> day. Anthropometric measurements and CDC growth chart will be used as data collection tool for overweight and obesity. Children physical activity questionnaire (C-PAQ) and Children nutrition questionnaire used to assess the physical activity and dietary pattern. Schematic differential satisfaction scale will be used to find out the level of satisfaction of parents. The application will provide information on prevention of childhood obesity through good nutrition, lifestyle changes and physical activity. By acquiring&nbsp;such information through&nbsp;a mobile based application,&nbsp;society&nbsp;will recognize&nbsp;the importance of&nbsp;diet, physical activity and lifestyle changes to prevent obesity.</p> Ranjana Dhiman Vinay Kumari Copyright (c) 2021 Ranjana Dhiman, Vinay Kumari 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 The Godhadi Art: Inspiration to develop new trends in Design https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3164 <p>Godhadi is a traditional and hand-stitched quilt originally from Maharashtra. It is Made from curtains, old sarees, cotton cloth, used bed sheets and all discarded fabrics of different types without wasting anything. The Godhadi is in form of a collage as a final result . It is a creative combination of different types of fabrics, textures, designs, patterns, colour schemes, folds and shapes. It is a traditional craft type in which all types of fabrics are being reused.&nbsp;</p> <p>Thus <em>Godhadi</em> is a type of a thick blanket. It keeps creating memories and pass it on from one generation to the another generation. It is a great aesthetic value with affection we receive from our Grandmother through the medium of these <em>Godhadi</em> quilts. It never ages though users and viewers get older. It is a warm blanket that speaks about memories and makers especially women.&nbsp;</p> <p>These <em>Godhadis</em> have been around in Maharashtra for centuries. These lovingly hand stitched <em>Godhadis</em> are turned into soft quilts as warm and precious as a love of Grandmother. Godhadis are preserved from generation as a symbol of maternal love. They talk about the stories about the alive-hands that made them.</p> <p>Researcher is from Maharashtra and wants to throw light on different aspects of the state. Maharashra state is blessed with history of reach culture, tradition and heritage. The Godhadi Art is one of them. This paper is focusing on the International and National level participation of the product of Maharashtra with different style from others. This is the time of the revival of the <em>Godhadi</em>. Maharashtrian <em>Godhadi</em> is displayed in International market of Fashion design, Interior design, product design, space planning and overall Design Market. Grandmother’s Godhadi with weaving memories goes to global and it really deserves.&nbsp;The paper also study that many of the artisans who took inspiration from this <em>Godhadi</em> art and craft. They have established new trends in Design with innovation</p> Rakhi Charwad Girish Charwad Copyright (c) 2021 Rakhi Charwad, Girish Charwad 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 State-of-the-Art Dynamic Load Balancing Algorithms for Cloud Computing https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3202 <pre style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: black;">Cloud computing is a technological commitment that allows it to achieve a set goal, improving business performance. Cloud computing offers many applications like scalability, extensive infrastructure, storage, resource pooling, virtualization, and a wide range of online services. Cloud service providers provide a variety of technologies to cloud computing users all the time. Load balancing algorithms are used to improve the performance and speed of nodes in cloud environments and protect each device from affecting their threshold by reducing their performance. Classification of load balancing algorithms was based on two factors, i.e.,&nbsp;the state of the system and the person who initiated the process. The dynamic load balancing algorithms are based on challenges like high availability, scalability, fault tolerance, virtual machine migration, low response time. Dynamic load balancing algorithms apply some policies because they use the current state of a system.&nbsp;This paper describes the study of the different dynamic load balancing algorithms in the cloud environment, as well as their comparison, which is based on different load balancing systems.</span></pre> Meena Rani Kalpna Guleria Surya Narayan Panda Copyright (c) 2021 Meena Rani, Kalpna Guleria, Surya Narayan Panda 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 ANIMAL MODELS OF DEPRESSION: AN UPDATE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3235 <p>Animal models in psychopharmacology are difficult to develop because of the convolution of the human mind and the inherent difficulty in stimulating a similar condition in laboratory animals. However animal models in the psychopharmacology have contributed a lot to drug research. Depression is one among the most rampant forms of psychiatric disorders and a leading cause for morbidity and mortality [1]. Since the unexpected breakthrough of the first antidepressants the progress in developing more efficient medications has marked time, emphasizing the need to establish novel classes of antidepressants. Various animal models have been developed and are instrumental in detecting the antidepressant-like potential of novel compounds in preclinical settings. The models commonly used are diverse and were developed originally based on the behavioral consequences of stress, drug, lesion or genetic manipulations [2-4]. The present review is an attempt to compile together various animal models employed for the screening of antidepressants.</p> Tarapati Rana Tapan Behl Sukhbir Singh Neelam Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Tarapati Rana, Tapan Behl, Sukhbir Singh, Neelam Sharma 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 An Analytical Study of Architectural Design Studios with respect to Orientation and Façade Treatment https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3270 <p>Building orientation is a significant consideration, mainly with regard to solar radiation and wind. In predominantly hot and humid tropical regions like Ethiopia, which receives sunlight all year round, building should be oriented to minimize solar gain and maximize natural ventilation [1]. This paper describes and investigation into the effect of building orientation in view of solar radiation exposure of design studios, in relation to building orientation, façade treatment, road orientation and the effect of natural ventilation and the thermal performance over students’ mental state and physical health [2-3]. The Design studio building which is oriented in the east west directions and located in Nekemte Campus of Wollega University, was selected as study area. One international building was selected for the case study, which is out of the country with similar geographical location. The differences between building orientation, façade treatment, window to wall ratio, and window size and level were studied. This data has been analysed and investigated. The results show that east west facing windows have more obvious effect on increasing indoor air temperature than north south windows that is applicable for ventilated or unventilated rooms.</p> Ambuj Kumar Melak Kassa Antony Kumar Boity Aarti Rana Shruti Behera Copyright (c) 2021 Ambuj Kumar, Melak Kassa, Antony Kumar Boity, Aarti Rana, Shruti Behera 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Role Of Industry 4.0 Practices In Supply Chain Resilience https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3428 <p>Predictable and unexpected events have long threatened the continuity and profitability of supply chains, especially multinational ones. Human-made catastrophes and natural tragedies can cause supply chain interruptions. Several events, such as the earthquakes in Gujarat (2001), The Nuclear Power Plant, Fukushima Daiichi disaster was caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Japan in 2011 March (1). The COVID-19 epidemic has thrown demand and supply into disarray, and most businesses have yet to devise a strategy for enhancing their resilience and recovery. It has impacted 94 percent of Fortune 1000 companies, and supply chain resilience mechanisms in place have failed to keep them afloat during the pandemic. (2). Industry 4.0 refers to a series of technologies, principles, and methods to make manufacturing systems more autonomous, evolving, adaptable, and precise(3). Implementing Artificial Intelligence through high connection, accuracy, and transparency, digital technologies are playing a significant role in supply chain resilience (4). The Proposed hypotheses is The Impact of Industry 4.0 practices have positive impact on Supply Chain Resilience and Different Artificial Intelligence techniques are incorporated have positive impact on Supply chain resilience.The findings of the study indicates that industry 4.0 technologies i.e artificial intelligence has significant impact on supply chain and its resilience.</p> Devnaad Singh Anupam Sharma Prashant Singh Rana Copyright (c) 2021 Devnaad Singh, Anupam Sharma, Prashant Singh Rana 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Work Performance and Stress Alleviation in Hospitality Services https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3510 <p><em>The study's goal was to investigate the dynamics of workplace stress and its influence on the job performances of hospitality professionals. The hospitality sector mainly relies on services that encompass hygiene and quality rendered to the customers. Marketing of services rather than sale of products may entail large quantity of work. Increased work task fuels high responsibility and stress on the employees. Ultimately, it fosters more work pressure and directly causes depression, anxiety, strain, sleep disorders and disruptions in peace of mind of employees. This study comprises a sample of 373 employees in hospitality sector. Convenience sampling technique was employed besides a design that was descriptive in approach. Interview schedule was employed for data collection. Job dynamics such as regular tasks, human resource strategy, employee benefit, work atmosphere, supervisor support, and relations with associates have a substantial influence on the job performance of hospitality staff. Furthermore, stress coping strategies were observed to be effective for employees working in hospitality sector. </em></p> Dr. S. Arul Krishnan Dr. B. Balaji Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. S. Arul Krishnan, Dr. B. Balaji 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Role of Eye Tracking in Human Computer Interaction https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2980 <p>In the middle of the last century, with the invention of computers arises the need of an interface for users. Because of the immense advancements in computer technology in recent decades, computer capacities have increased tremendously and interacting with a computer has become a natural practice for almost everyone. For all the opportunities a machine can bring, it is now a limiting factor for humans and their interaction with machines. This has given rise to a significant amount of research in the area of human computer interaction to make it more intuitive, simpler and efficient. Human interaction with computers is no longer confined to printers and keyboards. Traditional input devices like keyboards, mouse, stylus etc. will give way to natural inputs like voice, gestures and visual computing using eye tracking. With the rapid advancement in technology and development of information systems, human-computer interaction (HCI) has been actively investigated, with the goal of designing an interface for communication with disabled and with ergonomic properties. The means by which humans connect with computers have progressed significantly. The journey continues, with new designs of technologies and systems appearing every day, and research in this area has grown significantly in recent decades. The discipline of HCI has grown not only in terms of quality of interaction, but also in terms of branching over its history [1, 2]. Instead of building standard interfaces, many research fields have focused on multimodality rather than unimodality, intelligent adaptive interfaces rather than command/action-based interfaces, and lastly active rather than passive interaction. In automated devices, HCI systems have been used from a very long time where users have relied on the standard input using keyboard, monitor and mouse. Nonetheless, many physically challenged people in the real world are still unable to use these equipments or services. People suffering from autism disorders, paralysis and those who are unable to communicate with their hands and feet depends upon others for their daily necessities. To improve the living standards for people with disabilities, HCI interface solutions independent of using hands and feet are required to serve people with disabilities. However, communication using this manual input was inconvenient for disabled, and in order to solve this problem, gesture based interfaces have been proposed by the research community [3]. Nowadays, different types of interaction devices are utilized such as pointing devices, high-resolution displays, microphones, touch-sensitive surfaces and speakers. Some new modalities are available for interaction with computers like input by gestures, speech interaction or by tangible objects with sensors [4, 5]. Verbal and nonverbal inputs like speech and gesture has been adequately explored by researchers to be used as input for computing and feedback for making decisions.</p> Nandini Modi Jaiteg Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Nandini Modi , Jaiteg Singh 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Determinants of visitor preferences in the luxury hotels: A thematic analysis approach https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3024 <h1><strong>Abstract</strong></h1> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The hotel industry has got a big setback due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The lockdown imposed by governments of various countries and travel bans had a huge negative impact on the hotel industry [1]. However recently the opening of economy and relaxation in travel bans have reopened the hotel industry. Since the hotel industry is in recovery phase and to achieve the sustainability in the hotel industry it is important to understand the stay preferences of the guests [2,3,4]. The research is done on the Indian luxury hotel industry and TripAdvisor was chosen as the platform for collecting the data related to the guests. Latent Dirichlet Allocation method was used to identify the preferences of the guests after visiting the hotel. The findings of the study highlighted ‘Hotel Staff’, ‘Hotel Environment’, ‘Room Experience’, ‘Hotel Location’ and ‘Hotel Services’ and major themes in the Indian luxury hotels [5]. The practical implications and theoretical contributions of the study were also provided in the research.</p> Tanveer Kajla Sahil Raj Vishal Sarin Copyright (c) 2021 Tanveer Kajla, Sahil Raj, Vishal Sarin 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Examining behavioral intentions of practitioners to use Forensic Accounting Technique as Fraud Detection and Prevention Mechanism https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3080 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The rising number of frauds in the recent years and the authorities' inability to combat fraud has brought the concept of forensic accounting in limelight [1-3]. Financial frauds have emerged as the world's most severe economic threat, necessitating the immediate attention of professional forensic accountants and traditional auditors. As a result of the global breakdown caused by the collapses of Enron, WorldCom, and Parmalat, the need for forensic accountants and auditors to build systems and controls for identifying, preventing, and dealing with frauds has increased. Forensic accounting is a branch of accounting that conducts fraud investigations, including the study of various financial records and data used in judicial procedures and it helps in ensuring that the financial statements must provide reliable information to the various stakeholders for taking necessary business decisions and for protecting stakeholder’s interest [4-5]. Besides of the advantages of forensic accounting it has been observed on the basis of prior literature that huge repository of studies were available in the European and Western context on Forensic accounting but a little has been written in the Indian literature. This subject has evoked intense interest in India only after the Companies Act 2013 was passed and put into force. Hence the primary aim of this study is to examining the behavioural intentions of practitioners to use various forensic accounting techniques for fraud detection and prevention in India. The study is proposed to be conducted in North region and the population for this study will include the practitioners in accounting fields, Chartered Accountants (CA’s),Certified Public Accountants (CPA’s), Association of certified chartered accountants (ACCA’s),Certified Management Accountants (CMA’s), and&nbsp; Lawyers. Snowball sampling technique will be used for data collection. For this study, structured questionnaire will be used to collect the data and further SMART PLS will be used to analyze the data.</p> Baljinder Kaur Rajni Bansal Copyright (c) 2021 Baljinder Kaur, Rajni Bansal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 The Role of Private FM Radio Channels in Popularizing in Indian Music https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3112 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>The FM stations especially the private ones are following altered variety of rules in terms of programming, music selection and content, making it more casual, lively and entertainment based. Radio industry especially private radio stations have grown impressively as music industry is the backbone which caters to 83 percent of the total airtime and expanded the listenership base.&nbsp; The present study assesses the intensity of broadcasting music by private radio stations of tricity and in the same line; preference of music over content and advertisement is examined. To keep the objectives in mind, the researcher analysed the data of aired music by three prominent private radio stations of tricity.</p> <p>In the present paper, the format of current FM programming in terms of music selection is discussed and how it caught the youth imagination is highlighted. Various genre of music whether it is current or popular, the combination of old and latest hit, station royalty, dependency on film music have been analyzed. The study concluded that an overwhelming majority of private radio stations schedule only hit numbers during prime time by keeping in mind their moving listeners so that they can avail the assistance of listening latest songs on almost all the stations. After retrieving and analysing the data, this study also adds the peculiar finding that if a station does not make a playlist according to listener’s preference, then there is a constant risk to private radio stations that their channel got swapped by the listeners without thinking or taking care of station’s loyalty.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Radio is, in many&nbsp;ways, the ultimate media. In order to produce itself, it never stops blending what it borrows. It converts spoken content&nbsp;and music into broadcasts, as well as direct reporting and presentation, into a consistent tone that defines a station. Radio is one of the most significant forms of communication which involves the process in which people communicate through the air spoken words, music, as well as communication signals to any location on the planet [1].</p> <p>FM Radio is a medium that reaches a vast audience, but it also has the added benefit of being cost-effective. Active and passive radio listeners can be divided into two categories. Active listeners are seen as a valuable resource for any radio station. The programming needs of engaged listeners are given a lot of weight by radio programmers. There are 381 commercial FM radio stations active in India, offering content, programmes and music in various cities of the country. This medium proved to be a constant companion to many people as they listen to the radio all the time in their automobiles, at home, and even at work. Every day, the average Indian listens to the radio for more than an hour. Nowadays, busy teenagers prefer to listen to music on the radio since it provides the most up-to-date variety of songs that complements their fast-paced lifestyle. They listen to music, receive important updates about different topics, new products or policy, traffic or weather update on a go [2].</p> <p>Music is the most important programming element on most radio stations, accounting for 30 to 40 percent of total broadcasting time, vastly outnumbering advertising, spoken content, presentation, and other factors. A musical and advertisement break allows the presenter to regain breath, gather the ideas and thoughts while maintaining a rhythm. Music, in a radio station makes up the framework which at a same time gives a relaxation moment in a studio. The period during prime time is marked for the best music numbers and the continuity for this must not be broken for each day [6]. &nbsp;The most targeted set of listeners are young people and these private radio stations designed the programme‘s strategy, music selection and content format according to their choice. As per the trends, the commercial radio channels have twisted the programme names, created segment and the station schedule based on such language, genre, music selection and content management which targets the young listeners [3].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong></p> <ul> <li>To understand the intensity of music broadcasting by private radio stations of tricity.</li> <li>To categorize the music selection pattern of the private FM radio station.</li> <li>To explore the scope of music preference over content and impact of radio on masses.</li> </ul> <p><strong>Research Methodology</strong></p> <p>In this study, the data of three private Radio Stations - Radio Mirchi, Red FM and BIG FM of the Chandigarh were selected and analyzed on different constraints. For examining the music content of the selected radio stations, the researcher did qualitative research and used content analysis to explain the results.</p> <p>What is contained is referred to as content, and content analysis is the study of what is contained in a communication. In general, content analysis is a method in which the content of the communication is used to derive inferences and conclusions about the content [4].</p> <p>Content analysis is any technique for drawing inferences from messages by systematically and objectively identifying specific qualities [5]. Content analysis can also be described as a systematic, objective, and quantitative way of investigating and interpreting communication for the purpose of measuring variables.</p> <p>The major discovery in the study of private FM radio stations is to ascertain the perspective of music selection being employed in their programmes, and these scholarly opinions on content analysis confirm the fact that this approach was appropriate for the study.</p> <p>The sample size for the content analysis is one week's worth of music from each radio station. The researcher captured the entire week's worth of aired content and then examined it using numerous characteristics such as music preference and scheduling technique. In order to bolster the thesis, self-observations were also carried out.</p> <p>As a result, content analysis is all about using specific criteria to make reliable, repeatable, and objective inferences about the message.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Data Analysis</strong></p> <p>A total of one week's worth of recorded content (including aired radio music, shows, and ads) was tentatively recorded. To examine the playlist, the researcher used sound forge software to listen to the recoded programmes and identify the music or songs. On the basis of availability and compatibility of time constraints, data was selected from September to October 2021</p> Rupinder Kaur Pankaj Garg Ashutosh Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Rupinder Kaur, Pankaj Garg, Ashutosh Mishra 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 The Imperative Relationship between Architecture, Urban Design & Development and Disaster Management https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3146 <p>The rising frequency of catastrophes, along with a variety of developing risks and patterns, leaves an ever-increasing number of people exposed to disaster consequences, resulting in bigger damages &amp; vulnerability worldwide. The importance of urban design in ensuring a safe neighbourhood and fostering resilience cannot be overstated. When constructing resilience, it is critical to consider the urban landscape as a whole, rather than just one building [1].</p> <p>The exploratory study aims to find the relationship between architecture, urban design &amp; development and disaster management and the various related factors for disaster resilience. Research is conducted based on study and analysis of the existing literature. The literature was reviewed for exploring the various ways in which all these disciplines contribute to each other. After analyses and synthesis of different literature reviews, various approaches were identified and summarised in the research paper. The various resources were shortlisted and included based on: 1) Architectural interventions 2) Urban Design &amp; Planning Interventions 3) Sustainable developments 4) Different approaches with relation to built environment.</p> <p>Architects, Urban Designers &amp; Planners can contribute through structural or non-structural mitigation measures. Structural mitigation like reinforcing or retrofitting of hazard prone infrastructure which can be accomplished by various engineering methods and construction techniques, as well as building byelaws is majorly influenced by Architects. Non-structural mitigation measures like relocation of inhabitants away from identified risky locations, preserving natural environment protective features, public education, professional training &amp; drills are majorly influenced by Urban Designers &amp; Planners [2].</p> <p>There are numerous design opportunities in these professions to combat disasters. Architecture should contribute to withstand earthquakes &amp; other disasters, urban planning in densely populated places should address the need to prevent fires from spreading, and tsunami victims should be relocated far enough away from the coast to avoid future tsunami disasters. The architectural designs are relevant to disaster preparations in many different ways. The logic behind some designs are to prevent harm from future disasters such as severe winds, fires, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes and others are the result of natural disasters [3].</p> <p>During previous disaster occurrences all over the world, it is proven that vernacular houses fare well in terms of survival and intensity of damage. [4]. Vernacular techniques in correlation with the contemporary techniques of construction using local resources are the way forward towards disaster resilience and sustainable development.</p> <p>The disaster resilience should be incorporated from the planning stages of the cities itself. Cities with high levels of development generally feature confined living quarters made with low-cost materials that are quickly damaged [1]. Risk Factors and related driving issues in the Urban Environment, Cities and metropolitan regions are due to densely packed, interwoven systems of services. These risk factors include increasing settlements in hazard-prone places, growing urban populations &amp; greater density, lack of financial resources. Apathy towards infrastructure, uncoordinated emergency services, weak local administrative capabilities and a lack of local stakeholder participation in planning and urban management are the other risk contributing factors [5]. The built environment not only requires emergency preparedness goals but also cultural &amp; social management perspective [6].</p> <p>The related study aims to find out the ways and role of Architecture, Urban Design &amp; Development with effective disaster management. The understanding of the relationship &amp; gaps between these fields will provide the guidelines towards disaster resilience and sustainable development in the built environment.</p> <p>All the stakeholders of building industry must take active initiatives for disaster management in all stages of built environment i.e. designing, planning, execution and operation. Multiple stakeholders play a significant role in effective DRR. Professionals associated with the construction industry may have a major contribution in disaster management and hence must have collaborative approach with other disciplines towards disaster management and sustainable development. The capacity &amp; sustainable development solutions should be practiced right from the community to the top administrative levels and must support each other for better disaster resilience. Urban resilience requires sustainable development approach at all levels including individual &amp; critical infrastructure to the entire built environment at cumulative levels.</p> Atul Dutta Ambuj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Atul Dutta , Ambuj Kumar 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Evaluation of HR Analytics Adoption in Indian Banking and Financial Services Industry: The Moderating Effect of Employees’ Resistance to Change https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3182 <p>This study identifies the lagging rate in the adoption using extended UTAUT2. The responses were obtained from 387 HR employees of BFSI sector in Metropolitan cities of India through non-probabilistic purposive sampling. The results suggests that performance expectancy, hedonic motivation and data availability have a direct impact on intention to use HR analytics. In contrast, effort expectancy, social influence, quantitative self-efficacy and habit had no influence on behavioral intention. Analysis is done through structural equation modelling and hierarchical regression techniques.&nbsp; Furthermore, the moderating effect of resistance to change has been explicated. This study builds on to the literature on HR analytics adoption. By focusing on factors that affect adoption intention of HR analytics, organizations can strengthen a robust employee relationship hence promoting acceptance of HR analytics among HR professionals.</p> Meenal Arora Anshika Prakash Amit Mittal Copyright (c) 2021 Meenal Arora; Anshika Prakash, Amit Mittal 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Art and Collective Consciousness in Aesthetical Approach of Ravi Kumar Kashi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3218 <p>Ravi Kashi has worked in various mediums and approaches to image-making hold his restless energy in artistic careers. Always search and explore new things within the relationship of the objects which is the prime concern in the recent works of arts. The creative process of developing ideas and exploring new possibilities makes a nightmare for the artist all the time which can be seen through the observational process of works. He keeps ready to adopt unidentified images and text used in the modern practices of city life to express his ideas by shifting and constructing thought by various sketches from different time-period and works to solve the problem until the idea connects, some of them connect easily and some take so many years also.</p> <p>The sensibility and awareness of connecting material’s personal identity and the role of artist for his contextualization can be seen in the playfulness in creative practice. We can see the gradual conceptual development and established his endowment through the multiple skill sets in the works. He devoted himself to molded-paper sculpture, mobilized assemblages, extended the painterly dominance to the social accumulation devices of the T-shirt and the mask; he has engaged in photography, various resources of literature, teaching-learning practice, and made digital artworks as well as artworks that are inspired by digital media processes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Ravi Kashi never limited himself to fix on one medium; he always tries to be alternative thinking, assimilation, and explorative which can be seen through the observation of gradual developments in the progress of his works of art. Ravi Kumar’s art reflects the ongoing modern city life absorption with the problem of obliging one's individuality with the constant bombardment of images and ideas from the outside, media-dominated world. The series of works and exploration highlights visual communication, which is a straightforward process and interpretation, which is dependent on each viewer’s preconceptions, experience, and knowledge, and deliberate artistic intervention and manipulation. His works comprise what appear to be randomly juxtaposed images, or an image explored on top of each other and seeks otherworldliness in an uneven material world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Embossing is not merely a technique for Ravi Kashi’s artistic creation it was also gated away from flatness nature from the two-dimensional surface of the painting, requirements, and priority of ideas. The research paper gives the insight to understand Ravi Kashi’s thought process and the development of embossed works of his inventive enthusiastic practice. The cast paper books build a layered narrative in a diary format where the text is digressional and tangent, and the choice of image and text highlighted owes as much to chance as deliberate involvement.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The broad objectives of this research are: (1) To understand the thought process of making Art and its conceptual orientation, (2) To explore various influences and motivational factors responsible for growth of an Artist. The research paper is qualitative in nature and exploratory study. An empirical study based on Personal interviews and analysis from Primary data and Secondary data sources. The research paper discussed under following points - About the artist, Medium and material, Techniques and the process, Encouragement and impressions, Form and subject matter, Context and concepts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kashi is very conscious of how meaning has been generated in works of art, and each new edition transforms the meaning of all the rest of the things, as he knows mentally separate for all but in the gallery to keep all things together is read into a very different way. The integrated the whole things when you’re thought comes parallels of ideas created by an artist. In the found objects from the market gives exposure to the creative thinking when images make links with and the way it got connected with other images. Half the creativity happens in the subconscious mind; consciously you can’t be creative at all. When Kashi’s mind connected with the measuring things in lettering, just happened like that. Then started collecting references to that, some people will be very calculative while speaking. What they say, what they get the immediate world of the image gets connected.</p> <p>Ravi Kumar Kashi works like a pictorial raconteur, exploring the intangible relationships between subjects and their depictions. His works of art are visual events that treat the dominance of seeing and with it the art of communication and interpretation in our ever-changing art world. Nevertheless, he keeps inquisitiveness while living life not only in the studio as well as outside the visual world which may invite artistic involvement in the works of art. Artists, Critics, Galleries, and art lovers also wait for explorative and creative works of art in the Ravi Kashi’s awaited surprising works; makes them breath-taking and eager to see the new set of artistic visual language.</p> Tikendra Kumar Sahu Copyright (c) 2021 Tikendra Kumar Sahu 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Role of Technology in Futuristic World of Design https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3251 <p>Design has been subject to constant change since the beginning of time. Designers have been working at the intersection of ideas &amp; trends inspired by culture, for products or buildings. These cultural strings have been accelerated &amp; directly linked with the advancements in technology which is advancing at a very rapid pace. &nbsp;This has provided ease to the profession with increased productivity and achieving greater user comfort.&nbsp; It is based on culture, tradition, changing social values and passing trends that change over time. It's hard to predict exactly what the future holds, but we can try to figure out where we will be in the next five decades given the rapids of design and construction technology. In today's world, the internet of things (IoT) and wifi technologies are becoming more prevalent. We spend a large portion of our lives using gadgets that need internet access and wifi coverage, both indoors and out. Its underlying hardware is now turning gears, moving from 3G to 4G to 5G in the near future. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a revolutionary approach to the future technological advancement. It is a modern phenomenon that has transformed conventional lifestyles into high-tech ones. Smart cities, smart houses, emission management, energy conservation, smart transportation, and smart industries are examples of IoT-driven transformations. The Internet of Things (IoT) can be thought of as the Internet's potential measurement, as it enables machine-to-machine (M2M) learning [1].</p> <p>The emerging future design benefits &amp; enhanced user comfirts have been reviewed making connectivity easier. Design applications linked with IoT , gives numerous benefits to the users in terms of intelligence, information exchange etc which can tackle future challenges of time, culture &amp; mobility.</p> <p>The major challenge technology driven design is the essence of design should not be lost. It will be very challenging for all designers to drive their design sense linked with technology &amp; achieve the desired outcome without a compromise [2].&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <h1>&nbsp;</h1> <p>The IoT can change the shape of the Internet and can offer enormous economic benefits but it also faces many key challenges [4-5]. Some of them are briefly described below.</p> <h2>A.&nbsp; Naming and Identity Management:</h2> <h2>B.&nbsp; Interoperability and Standardization:</h2> <h2>C.&nbsp; Information Privacy:</h2> <h2>D.&nbsp; Objects safety and security:</h2> <h2>E.&nbsp; Network security:</h2> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Overcoming these challenges with create ease of design &amp; user comfort both in terms of application &amp; aesthetics.</p> <p>This paper introduced the emerging future form of Internet called "Internet of Things" that will connect everything and everyone. The IoT embeds intelligence in the sensor devices to autonomously communicate, exchange information and take intelligent decisions. This paper described briefly the possible future applications with a case study and finally addressed some key challenges associated with the IoT technology. The IoT deployment could be hard and require large research efforts to tackle with the challenges but it can provide significant personal, professional and economic benefits in the near future. This evolutionary process predicts that designers will face a challenge to adapt to the process that the intelligent homes would require, the complex connection and maximum interaction.</p> Banafsha Rajput Ivene Mathew Ashik Asokan Copyright (c) 2021 Banafsha Rajput, Ivene Mathew, Ashik Asokan 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Electrical performance analysis of AlGaN/AlN/Sapphire MSM photodetector for threshold voltage using varying doping levels https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3411 <p>As per past studies, it has been demonstrated that doping concentration of photo-absorbing layer has significant impact on the electrical characteristic of MSM detectors. However effect of doping concentration on threshold voltage of AlGaN MSM detectors is studied in few research reports as it is very useful for analyzing their electrical characteristics over the desired range of R.B (Reverse Bias). In present study the threshold voltage has been investigated for two differently doped AlGaN detectors. The doping level of AlGaN layer has been slightly varied to investigate the effect of doping on the electrical performance parameters of Al<sub>0.5</sub>Ga<sub>0.5</sub>N/AlN/Sapphire MSM detector. Comparative analysis has been performed between two MSM detectors doped with 1e18 cm<sup>-3</sup> and 1e19 cm<sup>-3 </sup>n-type doping concentration. This analysis can be beneficial for selecting appropriate doping level of photo-absorbing layer of AlGaN MSM detector as per desired performance parameters. The electric field, photocurrent, dark current density and recombination rate at the top surface have been analyzed for both MSM detectors. For electrical performance analysis, I-V characteristics and cut-line plots based on respective structure diagrams have been extracted using Silvaco-Atlas simulator. It has been observed that the magnitude of threshold voltage is high in case of heavily doped AlGaN MSM detector. Comparatively slightly lower doping based MSM detector has shown very low magnitude of threshold voltage. Moreover after threshold voltage, the rise of photocurrent with respect to increase in R.B is tremendous for high doping case. In contrast lightly doped detector exhibited rapid rise in photocurrent for low bias range and slow increase in photocurrent for higher R.B range. It is also observed that the magnitude of photocurrent of higher doping detector remains very high as in mA range at 20 V and beyond it. Whereas for lightly doped detector, photocurrent of 1e-10 A range has been observed at 20 V and for a little higher voltage range. Highly doped MSM detector has shown higher dark current density and recombination rate as compared to lightly doped detector as expected. Therefore simulation outcomes in present work are beneficial for selecting appropriate doping level of active layer and to determine threshold voltage based on specific doping concentration level of AlGaN/AlN/Sapphire based MSM detectors. The electrical performance parameters of proposed detector can be modified by slight change in doping level of photo-absorbing layer. Thus present investigation analysis can be helpful for selecting suitable doping level for AlGaN MSM detector for high sensitive, high S/N based communication and reliable UV detection applications.</p> Harpreet Kaur Harsimran Jit Kaur Manish Kumar Hooda Copyright (c) 2021 Harpreet Kaur, Harsimran Jit Kaur, Manish Kumar Hooda 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 An Enhanced Homomorphic Encryption for preserving privacy in Cloud Communications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3445 <p>As huge data need to store on clouds for big data analytics and related features to analyze data computationally. Cloud computing serves many services to the client over their data such as data storage, analysis and different resources. To avail such services over clouds, the client needs to provide the access to cloud service providers (CSP’s) over their data which leaves data unprotected and confidentiality of their data is at stake [1]. Different techniques are proposed to preserve the privacy and confidentiality of client’s data. One of the most common is, cryptography, which converts the plaintext to unreadable form that is ciphertext. But almost all the existing cryptographic techniques are not up to mark and don’t have potential to perform the computation on the ciphertext. The recent trends in field of cryptography, the homomorphic encryption is emerged as a boom, which enhance the privacy of data to a large extent, without compromising the confidentiality of users’ data at cloud end. Homomorphic Encryption provides the ability to perform computation on encrypted data, even when data is in use. Most of the existing homomorphic encryption algorithms are having high computational and time complexity [2-3]. In this paper, an enhanced homomorphic encryption algorithm is proposed specifically for the cloud environments, may having better performance. The algorithm uses prime number-based matrix for encryption and decryption [4]. The algorithm may give better performance in terms of encryption, decryption and overall execution time.</p> Sonam Mittal Shagun Sharma K. R. Ramkumar Copyright (c) 2021 Sonam Mittal, Shagun Sharma, K. R. Ramkumar 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Complaint Intentions on Packages of Food Products https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3527 <p><em>Packaging plays a significant role in today's rapidly changing market climate and customer demand. The objective of the study set out the base for identifying the relation between the reasons for food package complaints and complaint intentions that customer possess towards the food products. A systematic samples approach was used to ensure that different demographic and socio-economic classes were included in the survey of 400 people. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared for collecting the responses. Findings of the study revealed the level of determinants that stimulate complaints. </em></p> Nagendra Kumar Turaga Mohana Turaga Dr. P. Venkateswar Rao Copyright (c) 2021 Nagendra Kumar Turaga, Mohana Turaga , Dr. P. Venkateswar Rao 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Comparative Efficacy evaluation of Quaternary Ammonium disinfectants as per EN 1040:2005 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2996 <p>Microbial challenges are the most complicated challenges of modern-day medical practices [1]. Such infections become fatal when acquired from hospitals or other health care facilities [2-4]. To tackle the challenges of hospital-acquired infections, different classes of chemical disinfectants are used extensively in hospitals as well as in domestic. Out of these chemical disinfectants, Quaternary&nbsp;ammonium&nbsp;compounds (QACs) based disinfectants are widely used&nbsp;inside&nbsp;care&nbsp;facilities and other establishments [5]. Quaternary ammonium-based disinfectants after their introduction were used heavily as germicidal agents and reported to be the best germicidal agents in comparison to other available disinfectants at that time [6-8]. Large-scale use of these disinfectants leads to the resistance in microbes towards then available compounds [9, 10]. To enhance the efficacy further and reduce the toxicity, manufacturers developed newer compounds and labelled them as first, second, third, fourth, and fifth-generation QACs [5]. Manufacturers claimed their disinfectants to be broad-spectrum including sporicidal, however, Guidelines issued by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and NCDC (National Centre for Disease Control) still claim these compounds to be low-level disinfectants [11, 12]. These guidelines were published a decade back and there has been a lot of development within the QACs disinfectants. Literature also suggests that Healthcare facilities use these QACs disinfectants solely in good faith and don't have an adequate policy to see the efficacy of those disinfectants [13-15]. Literature also shows the use of the non-relevant method for efficacy evaluation. The utilization of inefficient QACs disinfectants &amp; methods to see efficacy is a matter of deep concern and will result in a further increase in the resistance pattern in microbes. Thus, there is an urgent need to evaluate the efficacy of different generation QACs using standardized methods. The present research will be useful to bridge the gaps by evaluating the basic bactericidal efficacy of different generation QACs using a standardized method.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods: </strong></p> <p>The study was conducted on 9 different types of quaternary ammonium disinfectants compositions containing first to fifth-generation quaternary ammoniums compounds. All the products were tested as per methodology specified in European Norms EN 1040:2005 phase 1 test: Quantitative suspension test for the evaluation of the basic bactericidal activity of disinfectants and antiseptics [16]. Bactericidal activity of all QACs-based disinfectants was evaluated using the following obligatory organisms: <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ATCC 15442 &amp;<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC 6538. All products were tested at three different concentrations &amp; Contact time ( 5, 10 and 15 min) &nbsp;i.e. one concentration &amp; contact time as per the recommendations of the principal manufacturer and the other two was one lower and one upper to the active concentration &amp; active contact time. All the products were tested in duplicate at each concentration and contact time for reproducibility and repeatability of results.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>All the QACs disinfectants tested at different concentrations and contact times passed in the efficacy test for basic bactericidal activity as per EN 1040:2005. All QACs disinfectants showed more than 5 log reductions (&gt;5 log) when tested in accordance with the requirements of the EN 1040 standard for basic bactericidal activity. No significant difference was reported in the efficacy of all the products tested against both type of microbes (i.e. <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> ATCC 15442 &amp;<em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> ATCC 6538). All products were tested in duplicate at all concentrations and contact times and no significant difference was found.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong></p> <p>All the tests products tested showed 100% efficacy as per the methodology defined in EN 1040 irrespective of generations, meeting the predefined criteria of more than 5 log microbial reduction in the basic bactericidal activity. The results clearly indicate the equal comparative efficacy of first generation compounds with fifth generation compounds.&nbsp; However, EN 1040 is a basic standard for the bactericidal efficacy evaluation in absence of organic load. It points towards the misuse of the disinfectants in hospital settings adding to the emergence of 'superbugs'. Considering the impact of organic load, further studies for accessing the antimicrobial efficacy of these compounds are required in presence of the organic load for bactericidal, fungicidal, yeasticidal, and sporicidal claims.</p> Gaurav Sharma Kiranjeet Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 Gaurav Sharma, Kiranjeet Kaur 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Impact of Social Media Network on Uninterrupted Supply Chain Management of Farming Products During COVID-19 https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3039 <h1>Abstract&nbsp;</h1> <p>Social media platforms are the fastest reaching people network globally. The study aims to highlight the importance of social media platform usage among farmers during COVID-19 pandemic crisis. The uninterrupted supply chain management delivered basic needs at the doorstep of the consumer from the producer. Social distancing and risk inherent in visiting in stores have increased online buying through social media network. The supply chain management remained undisturbed during this COVID-19. Farmers are benefited through uninterrupted supply chain management during COVID-19 crisis. The social media platforms lead the farmers produced product and successfully distribute to the customers. During this COVID-19 the uninterrupted supply chain management has compressed the existing flow of supply chain management. Farmers earned good margin and customer get low priced farm fresh products for their daily needs. Social media usage has been a successful network for uninterrupted Supply chain management during this COVID-19 pandemic crisis.</p> A.Navitha Sulthana S.Vasantha Copyright (c) 2021 A.Navitha Sulthana , S.Vasantha 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 The Covid-19 Fighter: An Interactive Learning Platform https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3095 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong> - Video games can be a powerful tool in helping doctors and the public cope with health problems as the coronavirus epidemic shows. The relationship between medicine and video games is growing tremendously[1]. In recent years medically realistic simulation and games have risen in popularity, as a goal of gamification is to transform the game design elements into a non-gaming world which turns a human engagement like motivation and performance in each activity[2]. It’s not surprising that gamification has branched out in the realm of the medical world. Many studies have stated that gamification is a generic construct, by avoiding those facts the game design elements have proven to be utilitarian in a diverse application. Different elements of game design have fulfilled the basic psychological needs of humans which have been practically proven in the medical field[3]. It is not exactly where anyone would expect to find teams of passionate game designers who are at the forefront of the fight against a global pandemic. The effectiveness of gaming-based training is determined by the psychological state of the person assigning the circumstance during the training.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <h3><strong>Design/Methodology/approach</strong> - In this research paper, the researcher explores the importance of Game which emphasize awareness and experience through a series of questionnaires to assess the effective awareness of Covid through immersive technology because the immersive element plays a major role in the quality and success of awareness through Covid -19 Fighter a video games as an interactive learning platform.</h3> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong> - Results showed that most people don’t know how to deal with an infected person, either they feel scared or deal without taking precautions. COVID-19 Fighter empowered with a virtual patient, where players can interact with it. Once the user will finish the FPS game, then he must find out the source of viruses that will be an AR-based virtual patient. The first step instruction will ask a user to give the mask to the infected person, in the second step it will ask to sanitize his body. In the third step, it will ask to hospitalize.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value - </strong>The research offers empirical evidence on the effectiveness of augmented reality based game approaches to increased reality in basic education in order to boost the awareness of individuals. The report also gives an example of good cross-cutting education materials that provide the player with a very valuable tool for understanding knowledge of Covid awareness by playing the Covid Fighter game.</p> P. K Parthasarathy Narinder Pal Singh Archana Mantri Amit Mittal Copyright (c) 2021 P. K Parthasarathy, Narinder Pal Singh, Archana Mantri, Amit Mittal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Novel Framework for Rumour Detection using Emotionally infused LSTM https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3127 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>In modern life, Microblog has become a popular and convenient platform for sharing, posting and seeking information. The connectivity and availability has increased the use of social media [1-2]. However it has also increased the rate of generation and propagation of rumours which can become a cause of social detriment. Rumours are the unverified information, spread via social media without checking the facts with some hidden agenda or motive [3]. Detecting rumours on social media is important for the betterment of the society [7]. A lot of research has already been done for rumour detection on social media. The paper highlights the proposed emotionally infused LSTM and data mining based framework. The aim of the paper is to formulate and propose a novel hybrid model for rumour detection. The proposed framework will be useful in detecting rumours on twitter and will supposedly provide better accuracy when used with data mining considering emotion features. It is being considered that using LSTM and data mining techniques together the probable output will be of better accuracy.</p> Osheen Sharma Sachin Ahuja Copyright (c) 2021 Osheen Sharma, Sachin Ahuja 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Social Servicescape: Understanding the Impact of Customer to Customer Interactions in Beauty Salons https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3162 <p>The presence of customers and the interactions within customers has a very integral role in determining the service experience. Within a service setting the social behaviour of customers affects the overall experience.The impact of customer’s presence and interactions among customers belonging to different backgrounds has a very little understanding impacting service experiences which further effect future interactions and visits [3-2]. The physical environment has been researched by many researchers and individually there has been a lot of research on its major elements which are ambient conditions, spatial layout and functionality as well as sign, symbol and artifacts. There is dearth of studies on the social aspect of the servicescape which includes the impact created by customer to customer interactions on the service environment also known as servicescape [5-6-8]. The article focuses on finding out the perspective of customers and what they perceive in a service environment in the context of beauty salons. The customers are looking for the fulfilling experience of experiencing the servicescape. The service environment can be extended from the social aspects of the service setting as well [7-8-9]. As per social facilitation theory because of the awareness of the social aspects of the environment, the mere presence or absence of individuals has an effect on human behavior. A service setting in which customers will have a social influence on the other customers present increases customer’s sense of belongingness, because of the mere presence of other customers the customers would stay in a service setting servicescape [1-4-10]. The study involves a review of literature which will help to assess the behaviour and interpretations of people towards servicescape. The papers aims filling the gaps with a systematic literature review based on rigorous criteria as there is still dearth in the theoretical and empirical understanding of social aspects of servicescape. The study focuses on finding out the determining factors of customer to customer interactions effecting service experiences in a service setting. The result of the study indicates that social environment of a service environment impacts the service experience. The interaction among customers, the presence of other customers, the customer collaboration has a major impact in determining the service environment of a service setting. The study has been reviewed in the context of salons which comprehends that the presence of other customers their body language, their attire, the number of customers present in the salon impacts the service experiences.</p> Nidhi Kampani Deepika Jhamb Copyright (c) 2021 Nidhi Kampani, Deepika Jhamb 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Online Consumer Shopping Behavior with special references to COVID-19 pandemic in Pune city https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3200 <p>The Covid-19 Pandemic and lockdown has brought about various changes in the shopping behavior of the consumers. The risk, perceptions and precautions related to Covid-19 pandemic influenced the Consumer Shopping Behavior towards e-marketing. The COVID-19 pandemic has the impacted E-marketing or online shopping in a big way. A sudden growth and numerous opportunities are being created in the field of online marketing. In the current paper, the researchers tried to find out how customers responded to online shopping during the pandemic and lockdown times. This paper focused to understand the online shopping behavior of consumers in terms of their perceptions towards the benefits obtained by online shopping.</p> <p>The study involved 140 respondents from the different areas of Pune city. The data was collected using an online survey method. The study involved both primary &amp; secondary data. The data collected was analyzed using tests like T-Test and ANOVA.</p> <p>The research analyses the role of Covid-19 pandemic as influencing the consumer and their online shopping activity. The pandemic has influenced the consumers buying behavior. Online shopping is becoming more attractive. The current research will give a broad guideline to the online sellers to devise strategies for selling of their products and services online. The after effects of the pandemic may be carried ahead leading to a new normal, where sellers could make the best of this opportunity of changed consumer behavior towards online shopping.</p> Harshali Bhalerao Prashant Phule Copyright (c) 2021 Harshali Bhalerao, Prashant Phule 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Ex-Vivo Evaluation of Eflornitine Hydrochloride Loaded Solid Lipid Microparticles Based Cream https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3233 <p>Hirsutism is a highly distressing and relatively common problem in women [1]. Hirsutism is the presence of excess terminal (coarse) hair over the face, chest, stomach, back, upper thighs, or upper arms. Hirsutism is an embarrassing disease that affects the patient physically as well as mentally. Hirsutism can make women extremely self-conscious, threatening both their sense of femininity and self-esteem. All the sufferers want to get rid of this disease at any cost. They are using the existing treatments without considering their side effects; therefore, new techniques need to be explored [2,3]. Available alternatives for hirsutism treatment include androgen suppression, peripheral androgen blockade, mechanical or cosmetic removal of unwanted hairs, and topical application of eflornithine hydrochloride cream [3]. Androgen suppression could be achieved using oral contraceptives but produces certain side effects like suppression of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, leading to a decrease in ovarian and adrenal androgen production [4]. Another alternative is receptor blockers, but they have the teratogenic potential [5]. Mechanical or cosmetic removal of unwanted hairs through bleaching, shaving, or chemical depilation possibly will be helpful to eliminate unwanted hairs [6] temporarily. Nevertheless, plucking and waxing can cause skin irritation and scarring, while shaving may be psychologically unacceptable and lead to blunt hair. Chemical depilatories might cause skin irritation and electrolysis may be painful, and short-wave diathermy can cause scarring. Looking towards these drawbacks, topical application of eflornithine hydrochloride seems to be an appropriate preference to eliminate Hirsutism. Eflornithine hydrochloride (EFH) is the only non-hormonal and non-systemic prescription option available for women who suffer from Hirsutism. Application of EFH topical cream is approved by the food and drug administration to treat unwanted facial hair growth. EFH inhibits the L-ornithine decarboxylase enzyme activity, which decreases the production of spermidine protein, which regulates hair growth and differentiation [4,5]. EFH-SLM was manufactured using solvent evaporation technique using polymers. Ex-vivo hair re-growth studies were performed in healthy Swiss albino female mice. On day 21, modest hair-density without visible skin area were observed for animals treated with EFH-Cream while small hair density were observed for animals treated with EFH-SLM-Cream. This indicated the greater efficiency of cream loaded with EFH-SLM in comparison to plain EFH-Cream. Hair weight per cm<sup>2</sup> on day 21 were weighed for animals of all groups and It has been found that there was significant difference between animals treated with EFH-cream and EFH-SLM-Cream which could be attributed to greater permeability of EFH from EFH-SLM. Animals treated with EFH-SLM-cream were observed for lesser or negligible skin rashes, or inflammation in comparison to animals treated with EFH-Cream and marketed EFH cream.</p> Ikmeet Kaur Grewal Sukhbir Singh Sandeep Arora Neelam Sharma Tapan Behl Ishrat Zahoor Copyright (c) 2021 Ikmeet Kaur Grewal, Sukhbir Singh, Sandeep Arora, Neelam Sharma, Tapan Behl, Ishrat Zahoor 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Determination of Total Phenols and Flavonoids in Aerial Parts of Viola tricolor Linn. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3268 <ol start="8"> <li><em> tricolor</em> L (family: Violaceae) commonly known as wild pansy, heartsease exhibited various pharmacological effects such as cytotoxic activity, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, sedative, immunosuppressive, antianxiety and anticonvulsant activity. Flavonoids, polysaccharides, phenylcarbonic acids, salicylic acid derivatives, catechins, and coumarins are all known to be present in <em>Viola tricolor.</em> Furthermore, the Violaceae family, particularly <em>V. tricolor</em>, has long been regarded as a rich source of naturally occurring macrocyclic peptides, or cyclotides [1]. The aim of the present study was to perform the preliminary phytochemical screening and to estimate total phenols and total flavonoids in <em>Viola tricolor</em> aerial parts. <em>V. tricolor</em> aerial parts were successively extracted using solvents in increasing order of polarity <em>viz</em>., petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water. Phytochemical studies of <em>V. tricolor </em>confirmed the presence of phenols and flavonoids in chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extract. The amount of total phenols and flavonoids in chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extract were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique based on Folin- Ciocalteau reagents and aluminium chloride colorimetric assay, respectively [2]. Gallic acid was used as standard compound for total phenols and quercetin for total flavonoids. Total phenolic content (%w/w) were found to be 8.00±0.503, 14.84±0.298 and 2.93±0.232 in chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extract of <em>V. tricolor </em>respectively. Total flavonoid content (%w/w) were found to be 3.09±0.113, 6.24±0.279 and 2.00±0.166 in chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extract of <em>V. tricolor </em>respectively.</li> </ol> Abhishek Reecha Madaan Copyright (c) 2021 Abhishek, Reecha Madaan 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 INDIAN TRIBAL FOLK ARTS AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3426 <p>India has always been famous for its tradition and culture through art and craft. 35 state and union territories spread across the Indian land and having their own beliefs, identities, and display through various art forms. There are total 645 district tribes in India. The tribal folk art of India expresses simplicity, colourful design, and motifs. People identify any tribe through their art and culture. Major tribes and tribal art of the India are the Gond and Mandana art of Madhya Pradesh, Madhubani art of Bihar, Kalmkari of Andhra Pradesh, Warli art of Maharashtra, Pichhawi of Rajasthan, Pithro of Gujarat and many more. [2] This paper examines and evaluates the current existing tribal art and to analyse its replenishment and This article looks at and analyses the current state of tribal art, as well as its replenishment and expansion. All of these arts are working to reclaim its popularity by utilising diverse management visions and missions, as well as other variable analysis .All these art are moving towards an end to bring back their popularity by using various vision and mission of management and their factors.</p> <p>&nbsp;Indian belongs to Indigenous communities which known as “Tribes or Adivasis”. Adivasis nomenclature used for many Indigenous societies of India also reflects as scheduled Tribe. Many legal and constitutional terms create dissimilar from state to state and from one area to another. The total population of Indian tribes according to 2011 census are 8.10% of total Indian population (90 million). [1] Indian tribes are formation of the Indian civilization also known as society organizers. These tribes are famous for their rich culture, tradition, art forms, dance, language and music. Nature plays a big role in tribal culture. Most of the tribes are depends on forest. Folk and tribal art overlap each other. Tribal art can be folk art but folk arts belong to non tribal community. Both arts belong to different community and have different vision and mission.&nbsp; Through their tribal art and folk art they show their life cycle, living style. Every art form is different from other according to community. Tribal people work as individual artist, in small scale group and large scale group as per the condition. Today the situations of these arts are depleting somewhere. Artesian not getting proper platform for their art and because of this problem tribal art lacking their vision and mission and its own significances. In the primary study of different evolutionary phases of the tribal art should be observed. Suggestion is also creating to safeguards and documents this priceless attempt for the further study.</p> Apurva Narendra Thosar Copyright (c) 2021 Apurva Narendra Thosar 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Dynamic of Work from Home - Impact on Employees Stress Level https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3508 <p><em>The outbreak of coronavirus (COVID-19), the working arrangements of millions of people have changed, and many will likely continue to work from home in some capacity for the foreseeable future. According to recent studies, the majority of IT workers have been working from home for the past year, and this trend is projected to continue in the future. The study's main objectives are to know the impact of working from home on IT employees work life balance among Indian IT employees. The data was obtained using Google forms and 106 IT employees were considered for the study. The study looks at how employees feel about working from home and how satisfied they are with it. The study also looks at the influence of working from home on employee stress and the ways employed by employees to reduce stress in India's IT sector.</em></p> Dr. P. Adi Lakshmi Dr. Rajesh C. Jampala Dr. Srinivasa Rao Dokku Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. P. Adi Lakshmi, Dr. Rajesh , C. Jampala, Dr. Srinivasa Rao Dokku 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Sensor Based Wearable Devices for Road Map Navigation https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2978 <p>The Internet of things (IoT) is considered a network of physical objects with embedded sensors and communication capabilities as replacing isolated control units. IoT is a platform where everyday devices are becoming smarter, data becoming intelligent and communication becoming informative [1-3]. IoTs play a significant role and are highly influenced by the Global positioning system (GPS). GPS tracker can help to explore numerous possibilities in various domains such as health field, transportation, safety (to protect various assets), pattern recognition, logistics, in business models by using navigation system embedded with sensors, it has a wide range of applications and benefits [4].&nbsp; This paper introduces the various IoT sensors used in navigation systems and their existing application cases. Smart IoT wearable devices are the next step of evolution in the field of navigation either with visual, auditory, ultrasonic and other technology based wearable devices. The knowledge of IoT sensors will provide better decision-making and save time while navigating.&nbsp;</p> Noopur Tyagi Jaiteg Singh Saravjeet Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Noopur Tyagi, Jaiteg Singh, Saravjeet Singh 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Eye Care Practitioner’s perception to replacement schedule of Contact lenses https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3022 <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction: Contact lenses (CL) are one of the common modes of refractive error correction, approximately 125 million people wear CL worldwide; of these about 80% wear soft CL.<sup> [6]</sup> Although safe in most of the cases CL can cause serious eye infections, affecting one out of 500 users per year.&nbsp; Approximately 40-90% of CL users do not follow CL care instructions. Use of CL beyond recommended period by manufacturer has been repeatedly found to be one of the common factors of non-compliance with potential to cause adverse effects.<sup> [7,8]</sup> While many reports the percentage of people who are non-compliant, only some report pay attention to the care and maintenance instructions that CL practitioners provide to their patients.<sup> [1-5]</sup></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Purpose: <a name="_Toc525206418"></a>To evaluate practitioner’s perception towards manufacturers recommended replacement schedule of CLs in Mumbai.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Methods: An online questionnaire was designed with the help of focused group discussion and shared with 63 CL practitioner to evaluate their practice in various parameters with emphasis on experience in CL dispensing, type of CL practice, commonly used brands and preferred replacement frequency for prescription (if any), practitioners opinion about patient compliance with replacement schedule, practitioner’s perception towards importance of patient education and&nbsp; patient’s compliance according to the practitioner. Those who were willing to participate after signing an informed consent were included in the study.</p> <p>Results: Majority of Participants (77.8%) included in the study had an established practice for over 5years. 90.5% of the CL practitioner were female. Maximum of the CL user as per the CL practitioner fall in the age group of 20-29years. Disposable CL bought at a time is 46% for six months, 30.2% for more than six months and 17.5% for three months. CL practitioners prefer/suggest 68.3% monthly disposable, 20.6% daily disposable and 9.5% two-week disposable modality to their CL users. CL practitioners prefer/suggest both Bausch &amp; Lomb and Acuvue (J&amp;J) equally at 27%, whereas 17.5 % prefer /suggest Ciba and 28.6% other available brands in the market. Most of the CL practitioner keep in mind the patient affordability while suggesting a CLs. However according to CL practitioner CL user equally prefer to buy CLs from the CL practitioner or elsewhere. 90.4% of the CL practitioner inform their CL users when to discard their lenses as per manufactures recommended replacement schedule. 58.7% prefer scheduling regular follow up visits to avoid non-compliance. 28.5% prefer sending reminder via SMS to discard their lenses. Only 31.7% of CL practitioner believe that their CL users are compliant to their replacement schedule and discard their lenses as recommended. 57% of CL practitioner believe that non-compliant to recommended replacement schedule can lead to CL related complications. However, 42.8% CL practitioner provide written information for CL lens care and maintenance. Reasons of non-compliance by CL user according to CL practitioner are 35% believe CL user forget the actual day of replacement, 46% believe they forget to reorder their lenses, 33% believe to save money, 41% believe CL user have lack of time and 36% believe they don’t change their lenses as there is no discomfort in continuing. 55% of CL practitioner agree in giving written information, SMS or telephonic reminder &amp; increase in follow up would improve compliance among CL users. However, 57% of CL practitioner strongly agree that CL practice should be restricted to Eye care practitioner only to increase compliance in CL users.</p> <p>Conclusion: Practitioner perception in terms of CL user non-compliance was the failure of user to timely reorder lenses due to lack of time and no discomfort caused by the current lenses are the major reasons. In addition to this, CL practitioner believe a reminder in the form of SMS or phone call or follow up will be of great help in reducing CL non-compliance to manufactures recommended schedule. Majority of the CL practitioner strongly agree to restrict CL practice to Eye care practitioner only.</p> Mansi Mehta Kalika Bandamwar Copyright (c) 2021 Mansi Mehta, Kalika Bandamwar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 In-service Nursing Education in India: Challenges and Interventions https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3078 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; “Learning is a movement from moment to moment”- said Krishnamurti.</p> <p>Training and development is an ongoing process in every organization and each profession as it is the only way to bridge the gap between the current practices and evidence-based practices. The health care profession is a major stakeholder of evidence-based practices and dynamic changes, it is a mandate for the health care professionals to up to date with their skills and practices. Potentially these training can increase the proficiency of nurses and contribute more towards customer safety. In India, nowadays it is mandatory for each nurse to attend in-service trainings since it’s requirement from organization and from the professional end. As nursing needs a professional license to enroll into work and to renew their professional registration they have to attend trainings for certain hours. In addition to this the healthcare organizations makes the trainings mandatory for each nurse since it’s an integral part towards patient safety protocols.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Multiple barriers dither the nurses to take part in continuing nursing education programs, like lack of motivation, employee attrition and shortage, unreachable training programs, time limitation, and family responsibility [1]. At the same time, they are keen to learn and update themselves and fulfill their mandate hours for licensure renewal [2-4]. Nurse educators are responsible for identifying the training needs and develop modules and delivering the lecture, therefore they are also critical in running on-job training system [5]. Research conducted in Iran with 361 nurses also suggested that personal barriers like time constraints, domestic responsibilities, emotional stress; Interpersonal barriers like lack of mutual understanding among employees, and structural barriers like cost, work commitments less organizational support are hindering nurses from attending continuing education [6].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The quality of clinical nursing education and its effectiveness needs to be improved and it should be more customer- friendly. The published Indian literature is less on the topic and the literature review shows majorly explorative studies regarding the topic. Some countries are using e-learning platforms to conduct workshops and conferences, but not any face-to-face in-service education. Chinese studies illustrates that a critical number of nurses supports e-learning [7]. The researcher planned to conduct a study – “An experimental study to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a Blended In-service Education Model on the satisfaction, facilitators, and barriers faced by the nurses working in selected hospitals in Delhi National Capital Region”. This is designed as a <strong>Quasi-experimental</strong> <strong>one group pre-test post-test design</strong> where the sample will be assessed for satisfaction, facilitators, and barriers with the current practice in in-service education using a rating scale having five parts to assess the attributes, and after that they will undergo training with a developed blended learning strategy. The sample will be again re-assessed upon satisfaction, facilitators, and barriers, with the developed strategy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A blended approach will be developed where the nurses will have an active involvement in the In-service education as a decision-maker in the selection of topics. The nurse's feedback will be paramount. The theoretical and practical part of the module will be delivered online and if needed the nurses can undergo the practical component offline also so that they can attend the sessions at any point of time as per individual convenience followed by a post-test. The software will give pop up messages to the enrolled nurses to attend the sessions. Successful submission of the pre-test only will help them to open the gateway to the course which will end up with a post-test. Two feedback sessions will be conducted as face-to-face lectures in a month where the nurses get an opportunity to share their learning experience and clarify their queries. During face-to-face session, nurses will be motivated to attend the online sessions too. The expected outcome of this research work are, more satisfied learners, the significant reduction in barriers, there is no significant difference in the effectiveness of blended learning program compared to the current educational program.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>All the above mentioned challenges that are strongly supported by literatures even need to be addressed so that the culture of in-service nursing education and atmosphere of learning cum evidenced based practice will have renovated and strengthened.&nbsp; Only a strong and stable education system is efficient to ensure patient safety, professionalism, and organizational growth. So we need to think the alternate ways to impart in-service education in the form of e- learning or blended learning pathway. The educational system should be infectious enough to produce a positive culture report in each and every health care professional.</p> Deepa Mariya Raju Vinay Kumari Copyright (c) 2021 Deepa Mariya Raju, Vinay Kumari 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Video Editing: Technical vs. Creative Tool https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3110 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong></p> <p>The audio and video editing software market is expected to increase at a growth rate (CAGR) of 11.24% as per the Technavio report by 2024 [1]. Video editing is the unique aspect of the filmmaking process that involves cutting and assembling segments of shot footage to create a cohesive story.</p> <p>Since its inception, video editing has grown a series of transition from kinetograph device (better as 'cutting and sticking ') used in early stage of editing.&nbsp; The transition in editing took place when the filmmakers learnt the art of manipulating the viewers emotionally with the Kuleshov effect.&nbsp; Non-linear video editing systems later changed the editing scenario when filmmakers discovered that could locate a frame within seconds and go back to their edit to change.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Through this technical development coming long way, filmmakers have always understood video editing as technical stream rather than the creative. In this research paper, the researcher tries to explore the technicality of the video editing skills used in filmmaking since its inception. The paper also explores the extent to which the creative side of the video editing has been studied and understood.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Introduction: </strong></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;As one of the largest Cinema hubs in the world, the Indian film industries are known for its glitz and drama. While Hindi language Cinema dominates the multi billion rupees industry, there are many other regional language films hubs that coexist with the industry.</p> <p>India, with the worth of 183 Billion industry, is one of the leading film market across the world with context to number of film produced and provides maximum of box office hits.</p> <p>Each movie passes through a cycle of film production and each stage has its own specific task that needs to be completed before film is ready for the audience.</p> <p>Film production is a lengthy, multi step process of making movies that take years to be complete. Hence it is studied under three stages:</p> <ol> <li>Pre-Production</li> <li>Production</li> <li>Post production</li> </ol> <p><strong>Aims and Objectives</strong></p> <ul> <li>To explore the technicalities used for editing.</li> <li>To help the researcher to study the changing trends in the field of video editing.</li> <li>To explore the extent to which creative aspects of the video editing has been studied.</li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Video Editing as Technical Tool:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Since its inception, video editing has technical aspects attached to it as the films are divided into quarters; it was found that shots are longer at quarter boundaries and generally shorter near the middle of each quarter. Moreover, aside from the beginnings and ends of films, the article shows that fades, dissolves, and other non-cut transitions are more common in the third and less common in the fourth quarters of films[2].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Video Editing as a Creative Tool:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The creative aspect of film editing can be described the analysis of viewers’ spontaneous interpretations. He concluded that the first-time viewers indeed are able to notice basic pictorial&nbsp; like object and&nbsp; identity, causal (chains of activity), as well as conceptual (links between gaze direction and object attention) commonalities between shots due to their close relationship with everyday perception and cognition[3]. On the other side. Another researcher connected shot with the emotional classification [4].</p> Rajesh Chauhan Ashutosh Mishra Gitanjali Kalia Copyright (c) 2021 Rajesh Chauhan, Ashutosh Mishra, Gitanjali Kalia 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 A study of Investment Risk Tolerance among Teachers in Higher Education Institutions of Delhi-NCR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3143 <p>Risk tolerance is an important dimension of the investment and financial planning behavior and hence it is important to understand educators’ perception of financial risk to interpret their investment behavior. This paper examines the investment risk tolerance abilities of teachers from various disciplines working in higher educational institutes and tries to test whether demographic factors like gender, age, and income have any significant influence on their risk-taking abilities.</p> <p>The study would try to find out whether teachers in higher education are risk-averse, risk-tolerant or risk-takers. It would try to find if risk-taking capacity is dependent on age, (i.e. older Vs. younger teachers), gender and income. The study would be beneficial to policymakers, wealth managers, investment planners, institutions&nbsp;<em>etc. </em>to construe various aspects of economic behavior and develop programs for the improvement of the financial well-being of higher education teachers.</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Richa Agarwal Mukul Jain Richa Arora Copyright (c) 2021 Richa Agarwal, Mukul Jain, Richa Arora 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 On LightlikeSubmersion of Radical Transversal LightlikeSubmanifolds of a Kaehler Manifold https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3179 Gaurav Sharma Sangeet Kumar Manoj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Gaurav Sharma, Sangeet Kumar, Manoj Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 To Find Out The Relationship Between ACD, CCT, Corneal Power, Refractive State, Corneal Diameter And AXL https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3216 <p>Errors of refraction and its incidence in worldwide are considered most important. Refractive errors are the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. It can occur due to developmental anomalies or due to pathological conditions present in the eye. The study in this area gives us an insight into their biological nature. There are lots more optical components in the eye, the defects in any of these will contributes the occurrence of refractive errors.</p> Mredula Devassy Premjit Bhakat Archana V Copyright (c) 2021 Mredula Devassy, Premjit Bhakat, Archana V 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Development of a Framework for Assessing Energy Efficiency of Alternative Construction Techniques in the Housing Sector https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3249 <p>There is a widespread concern that the world is presently way off course to meet the global target as set out in Paris Agreement 2015. Emissions are on continuous rise and so the global temperatures (UN Climate Action Summit, 2019). The rapid growth of the building and construction sector is contributing significantly to human induced climate change. Residential housing which makes roughly three-fourth of global building floor space [1] is the main segment at stake. India is struggling with housing shortage on one end and increasing residential energy consumption on the other. The total urban housing shortage in India is about 18.78 million units (2012-17, MoHUA), wherein EWS and LIG together contributes to almost 96% of the housing shortage. PMAY-U aims to build 11.2 million housing units by 2022. It is expected that by 2030 the residential sector will become the largest consumer of electricity in the country [2] . About 70% of the growth in building sector energy demand in India is driven by the new construction and due to increased demand of air conditioning in the residential sector[3] .</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Government efforts have been focusing on the building envelope and use of appliances in the residential buildings to bring energy efficiency during the occupancy phase. Energy conservation building codes for energy efficiency in the new housing ENS-I, 2018 (Eco Niwas Samhita-I) largely focusses on minimum building envelope performance standards<strong>. </strong>Recently launched ENS-II,2021 is focusing on efficient electro-mechanical and renewable energy systems in the new residential buildings (BEE,MoP). These codes, however, are predominantly voluntary in the residential sector. Government is also focussing on alternate building construction technologies and materials to fill the vast housing shortage at a fast pace. Ministry of Housing &amp; Urban Affairs (MoHUA) initiated the Global Housing Technology Challenge(GHTC)-India in 2019 which aims to identify and mainstream a pool of innovative sustainable construction technologies from across the globe for housing construction sector in India. As part of GHTC-India, six light house projects were launched on first day of 2021, consisting of 1000 EWS houses each being constructed at six places across the country, to showcase the use of six shortlisted innovative technologies for field level application and learning. There is a need that we as architects contribute to the various Government efforts in providing energy efficient housing to all and in achieving India’s global climate commitments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The present study aims at developing a framework for assessing the energy efficiency of the alternative construction techniques in the housing sector with a focus on the Delhi-NCR Region (composite climatic zone). The larger objective of the research work aims at exploring the feasibility of application of emerging innovative building materials and construction techniques on mass scale in achieving the goal of energy efficient housing for all. An extensive review of literature comprising of peer reviewed articles, reports by Government and International organizations, policy documents, design guidelines, energy codes etc. was done to understand in detail the challenges related to housing shortage, energy consumption in residential buildings and various responses to it by the Government of India. The research is based on the fact, established from the literature that the embodied energy is expected to be a major component of life cycle energy in case of low energy buildings and strategies to reduce it should be implemented through use of alternative less energy intensive materials and construction techniques [4] .Total embodied energy of load bearing masonry buildings can be reduced by 50% when energy efficient/alternative building materials are used [5-6]. There is a considerable decrease of energy along with resulting user comfort in a shift from conventional building materials towards alternate materials [7].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The study methodology involves identifying alternative construction materials and techniques in use in the Delhi-NCR Region and outlining parameters for assessing their energy efficiency through literature and in consultation with the experts in the building and construction field. An extensive literature review has been done to identify the alternative construction materials and techniques in use/which are emerging and the parameters for assessing their energy efficiency. An online survey is being conducted to seek expert’s opinion on the alternative construction materials and techniques being used or recommended by them in the Delhi NCR region and the reasons for selecting those. They are also asked to assign ranking to the various reasons for selection of the alternative construction materials and techniques to arrive at parameters to assess their energy efficiency. Experts being consulted include practicing architects, engineers, consultants, academicians, research organizations, housing developers and building material manufacturers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The present research work is in process and the findings shared in this paper are preliminary results of an ongoing experts survey. As per the initial results, the prevalence of use of alternative construction materials is mainly in the walling material systems and is less in the partial precast roofing systems and integrated structural systems. The top reasons for selection of the alternative construction techniques are sustainability parameters; material and technology availability; strength, stability and safety and; economics of construction. Most of the experts are positive about the Indian market adapting to the new innovative modern construction techniques in the housing sector due to speed, less time of construction and its environment friendliness. The top reasons for selecting alternative construction techniques from sustainability point of view are less embodied energy and carbon emissions, local availability, use of rapidly renewable raw material and use of recycled content.</p> Gunjan Jain Mandeep Singh Shuvojit Sarkar Copyright (c) 2021 Gunjan Jain, Mandeep Singh, Shuvojit Sarkar 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Automatic Hurricane Damage Detection in Satellite Images using Deep Learning https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3443 <p>Change in climatic conditions has led to a rise in hurricanes. Hurricanes or tropical cyclones are powerful storms accompanied by strong winds of 119 km/hours or greater. Hurricanes affect the human beings as well as the environment adversely [1-2]. They are one of the most dangerous natural disaster that take place on earth. They occur mostly in the tropical or sub-tropical regions because of the presence of the warm sea-waters [3-4]. They are also accompanied by rain, thunder and lightning. This causes huge damage to human lives as well as property.</p> Swapandeep Kaur Sheifali Gupta Swati Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Swapandeep Kaur, Sheifali Gupta, Swati Singh 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES OF COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM IN HERITAGE AND SCULPTURE VILLAGE SHIVARAPATTANA https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3523 <p><em>Sculpture Tourism is a form of tourism which includes exploring different places associated with sculpture and learning about it first-hand. Shivarapattana is one of the Heritage and Sculpture villages famous for stone sculptures. Located in the Malur Taluk of Kolar District in Karnataka, It is surely a place worth visiting especially for a sculpture enthusiast. Main occupation of eighty percentage of the local community here works on crafting idols mostly in stone. The village is a non-descript rural tourism village in Karnataka. Community-Based Tourism can help the village to bring up entrepreneurial business opportunities among the local community and enhance rural development subsequently helping the villagers realising reasonable economic returns on the investment and reducing the economic leakages. The focus and aim of this study are to know about the significance of Community-Based Tourism in promotion of Sculpture Tourism and also to identify prospects and problems faced by the people involved in marking this sculpture village as a prominent rural destination in the tourism map of Karnataka. To complete the study and to derive the necessary findings, data has been collected through questionnaire and for analysis, relevant statistical tools were used.</em></p> MUKUNDA B.G G. VIJAY Copyright (c) 2021 MUKUNDA B.G, G. VIJAY 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Biocomposites in wound healing https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2994 <p>Biopolymer based hydrogels with sustained release capability and antibacterial activity exhibited great potential in clinical applications in wound healing. Wound dressings are the biomaterials which can cover the wounds or other damages. Now days, ideal wound healing environment can be provided by active occlusive dressings which protect the wound from surrounding environment and also provide the moist environment for continuous tissue reconstruction process[1]. These are designed to be properly adhered to the wound yet can be easily removed. Wound dressing casted from biopolymer based hydrogels are biocompatible, tend to absorb wound exudates and provide moist environment and less adhesive. Polymeric hydrogels are crosslinked hydrophilic networks that allows excess water absorption and structurally similar to native ECM. Some limitations associated with hydrogels is weak mechanical properties [2]. Through diverse crosslinking mechanisms, advanced hydrogel materials (in situ cross-linkable) can be fabricated with desired properties for effective wound management.&nbsp; Stable hydrogels with high mechanical properties and self healing tendency are needed to avoid any external pressure or force which lead to breakage of wound dressings[3].&nbsp; In addition to this, antibacterial drug loading into these systems with sustained release properties may lead to long term antibacterial effect which prevent wound from further infections.</p> Sonia Arora Manju Nagpal Copyright (c) 2021 Sonia Arora, Manju Nagpal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Drug Safety Monitoring (Pharmacovigilance) in India and Different Tools for Detection and Monitoring of Adverse Effects https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3125 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Pharmacovigilance (PV) is described as science and actions connected to the detection, evaluation, understanding and prevention of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) or associated conditions. According to WHO, pharmacovigilance is explained as the science and actions relating to the detection, evaluation, understanding and prevention of ADR’s or associated conditions [1]. The factors of consideration can be widely categorised into two groups 2] Human factor and Post marketing. Mortality from cancer is always possible, but mortality from a drug is not appropriate. In the United States of America (USA), ADRs are some of the 10 largest reasons of death [3] and in the United Kingdom, it is proposed that ADRs may trigger 5,700 fatalities per year. The number of hospital referrals attributed to drug-related incidents in certain nations is about 10% [2]. The legal criteria in India for PV are regulated through the provisions of Schedule Y of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1945. Schedule Y includes laws covering preclinical and clinical trials for production of developing medicines, specifications for clinical trials for the producing and of new drugs in India. Schedule Y was modified &amp; updated on 20 Jan&nbsp;2005 as the proceed pledge of the Drug Controller General of India to verify that the PV responsibilities of pharmaceutical firms are sufficiently complied with [4]. An effort was created in revised Schedule Y to further describe the functions &amp; obligations of pharma firms in relation to their drugs and also the monitoring of adverse effects from clinical trials [5]. Schedule Y states that any cases with significant unintended adverse reactions should be notified to the licencing agency within 15 days of the individual’s primary reception of data, with follow-up data given. Individual ADR data should be required in the next annual safety summary report, and not generally as a matter of urgency. However more information on the identification, analysis and ADR follow-up was not discussed in Schedule Y. Accordingly, medical firms in India follow International conference on Harmonisation (ICH) E2D guidelines for the management of spontaneous data on goods [5]. The regulatory agencies soon recognised the need for a comprehensive PV programme to protect community welfare, and the NPP was change its title India’s Pharmacovigilance Program (PvPI), that began running on 14 July 2010, with the AIIMS, New Delhi, as the National Coordinating Center (NCC). In track ADRs across nations, the system had 22 ADR Monitoring Centers (AMCs), along with AIIMS. Subsequently, the NCC was moved from AIIMS to the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC), Ghaziabad, on 15&nbsp;April&nbsp;2011, for the successful execution of the initiative, with the key objective of producing empirical data on drug safety in line with global drug safety surveillance requirements. Since PV was perceived to be a service that tracks medications for harmful drug events and dosage mistakes, some physicians became worried about it and they thought that their skills were being challenged [6]. The PvPI is working hard to address this obstacle of uncertainty and to minimize the causes for undercounting by implementing a variety of clinical practice, awareness-raising and practicing activities for Health Care Professionals (HCPs) on a continuous justification to teach and remind them of the practice of reporting ADRs. HCPs have been made clear that no disciplinary action is taken with the monitoring of ADRs[7]. All health care practitioners can report ADRs by the thoroughly completed Suspicion ADR notification form could be submitted to the neighbouring AMC or individually to National Co-ordinating Center (NCC). Anyone can report to notify ADRs by dialling Helpline (Toll Free) 1800&nbsp;180&nbsp;3024 or via mail with completed form directly to <a href="mailto:pvpi@ipcindia.net">pvpi@ipcindia.net</a> or <a href="mailto:pvpi.ipcindia@gmail.com">pvpi.ipcindia@gmail.com</a>. There is number of AMCs in India is accessible at: <a href="http://www.ipc.gov.in">http://www.ipc.gov.in</a>, <a href="http://www.ipc.gov.in/pvpi/pv_home.html">http://www.ipc.gov.in/pvpi/pv_home.html</a>. The Oracle Health Sciences Safety Suite is a comprehensive help&nbsp;for&nbsp;complete&nbsp;vigilance, from adverse event monitoring&nbsp;to signal control, across the whole lifetime of a pharmaceutical drug, from clinical trials to post-market monitoring [8]. There are different tools for monitoring ADRs, like Oracle Argus Safety, ArisG, Oracle Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), Oracle Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS), ClinTrace, PvNET, repClinical, Vigilanz Dynamic Monitoring System, WebVDME Pharmacovigilance Signal detection and Signal management software, and PV works [9].</p> Janmejay Pant Ripudaman M Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Janmejay Pant, Ripudaman M Singh 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Importance of Axial Length Measurement in Routine Clinical Practice https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3160 <p>When the refractive components of the eye namely cornea and lens do not adapt for axial lengthening during growth it results in refractive errors like myopia and hyperopia [1].&nbsp;&nbsp; When the myopia is high associated with axial elongation of the eye it can result in structural changes, increasing the risk of severe irreversible vision loss [2-7]. Retinal changes in highly myopic individuals leading to visual impairments and blindness is gaining importance as the prevalence of myopia is markedly increasing worldwide, especially east and southeast Asia [8-11]. Identifying this axial myopia is very essential for clinicians at an early age. The global incidence of myopia is on the increase, with recent studies showing that 30% of the world's population is myopic currently and almost 50% by 2050, equalling a shocking 5 billion people [12]. The International Myopia Institute 2021 yearly digest defined <em>pathological myopia</em> as axial elongation in myopes with structural like staphyloma, myopic maculopathy, optic neuropathy leading to impairment of visual acuity. They also defined <em>myopia macular degeneration (MMD</em>) as high myopia associated with diffuse or patchy macular atrophy with or without lacquer cracks, macular Bruch´s membrane defects, choroidal neovascularization, and Fuchs spot[13]. Axial elongation of the globe being the main risk factor for pathological myopic changes in adults, it was predicted that a large number of young progressive myopes will develop retinal complications later in life [12,14,15]. Mutti et al, in their study found that some children before the onset of myopia, had longer AL and lesser hyperopia than emmetropes.&nbsp; A study by McCullough S et al found that axial length being more than 23.07 mm at the age of 6 years and at least one parent being myopic, was a predicting factor for myopia to progress by +0.63D by the age of 16 years[16]. Zadnik K et al found that premyopia can be predicted with high degree of confidence, if the refractive error was more than +0.50 D in a 7- 8-year-old, more than +0.25 D in a 9–10-year-old and emmetropia in an 11 year old. They also stated that longer AL in the third grade was a risk factor to turn myopic in grade eight[17]. Axial length measurements could be for purpose of predicting future myopia, assessing the pathological risk of current myopic error and for baseline record to monitor myopia progression and control. A routine practice of axial length measurement helps monitor if the refractive error will become myopic and if the existing myopia will reach pathological levels.</p> <p>Literature search was done in search engines such as PubMed, Semantic scholar and Google scholar and analysed to find the pathological changes that happen in the eye due to axial elongation of the globe. &nbsp;The review is to scientifically prove the need to measure the axial length in all kids during eye examination so that myopia control methods can be applied as early as possible. Myopia control effects are also quantified by the measure of axial length. Hence the pathological visual impairment caused by high myopia can be controlled.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Irene Sophia Joseph Reetu Malhotra Anupama Rao Copyright (c) 2021 Irene Sophia Joseph, Reetu Malhotra , Anupama Rao 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Initial Beam Characteristics calculations of 6 MV FF Beam from Elekta Versa-H Dusing TOPAS MC simulation code https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3197 <p>The main aim of PhD. research work is to study the Small field dosimetry in Radiotherapy (RT) dosimetry using the experimental measured data Monte Carlo (MC) simulated data.Small fields are very important in RT[1,2],with the development of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)began in the early 1990s.SBRT uses advanced technology to deliver dose to small deep-seated tumors in the lung, liver, spine, pancreas, kidney and prostate. Ultra high radiation doses per fraction (6 to 30 Gy) are delivered with in five or fewer fractions. Various autors discussed about the challeages during small beam dosimetry[3–5],the challeages are related to :</p> <ul> <li>There is a loss of lateral charged particle equilibrium (LCPE) on the beam axis.</li> <li>There is partial occlusion of the primary photon source by the collimating devices on the beam axis.</li> <li>The size of the detector is similar or large compared to the beam dimensions.</li> </ul> <p>All three of these conditions result in overlap between the field penumbrae and the detector volume , so the dosimetry of these type of filed sizes is always a challenging taks , to deal with these type of condations specific dosimetry equpiments are required. The use of MC method to solve problems in the field of radiotherapy for treatment planning and dosimetry has increased almost exponentially since 1970. Various authors have used MC simulation in field of medical physics dosimetry to deal with these types of problems[6]. One of the aim is to simulate the RT machines in using Tool for particlesimulation (TOPAS) MC simulation code. But the MC simulation is very complicated and time consuming process, in this research work, we are trying to overcome the complexity using TOPAS MC simulation, which is a Geometry And Tracking (GEANT4)based MC tool kit but the way of simulation is easy as compare to other codes. So via validating this code for small beams will overcome the difficulties and increase the confidence of new users to use this code in RT dosimetry.There are many publications on the simulation of different RT machines but there are limited studies are available, so the objective of this study was to investigate the initial dosimetric parameters of a 6 MV photon beam with flattening filter (6MV FF) Elekta Versa-HD linear accelerator (LA) at Homi Bhabha Cancer Hospital (HBCH) using TOolforPArticleSimulation TOPASMC simulation code. TOPAS 3.6 simulated data was compared to experimental measured data to conform the accuracy of modelled Linac in TOPAS code. The reference data for Versa-HD Elekta Linac were acquired, using the 3D scanner water phantom system and the SNC125c chamber, dosimetric distribution experiments for 6 MV FF photon beam with field sizes 5x5, 10x10, and 20x20 cm<sup>2</sup> were performed. The data was collected at a source-to-skin distance of 90 cm, with a depth of 10 cm depth.The Linac modeling was based on the manufacturer's specifications that might be obtained from the machine vendorThe various component of Linac like, target, primary collimator, flattening filter, mirror assembly and head shielding components were modelled in TOPAS using geometry class, like the combination of different geometric components (cylinder, cone, polygon, box). However, the geometry of the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) and Y-jaws collimator is quite complex. As a result, both components were created as 3D stereolithography models (STL). This work may leads to new development in small field dosimetry moreover The clinical small field photon beam dosimetry is not well established unlike the dosimetry of a conventional photon beam. Moreover, recently IAEA TRS-483 has published but this required more attention to implement clinically, so need to be explored. This work will help to understand the small fields along with the dose verification in modern Radiotherapy techniques (SRS, SBRT, and VMAT). Further, work will search the new simple and easily reproducible methods to calculate the small beams dosimetric data, the applications of MC simulation in Medical Physics dosimetry as well as MC simulated and experimental data will may help the community to extend the knowledge in small field dosimetry and may improve the clinical outcomes.The small dosimetry is very important and crucial part of modern RT dosimetry, so the importance of this should be considered. During the dosimetric measurements of small fields.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Avtar Singh Amit Saini Rajesh Kinhikar Pankaj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Avtar Singh, Amit Saini, Rajesh Kinhikar, Pankaj Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Knowledge Sharing Inhibitors: A Study in IT Service Organizations https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3231 <p>Poor Knowledge sharing is one of the key factors impacting the operational efficiency of IT Organisations. Despite this being one of the strategic focus area,&nbsp; knowledge loss continues to be is a perpetual risk. Knowledge loss capability gap, reduced quality, customer dissatisfaction, increased learning cost to list a few. Additionally, during COVID 19 when almost entire IT workforce is enabled to work from any location and attrition is soaring high, knowledge loss has become a reality and impacting the deliveries. Knowledge sharing and curation mitigate risk and reduces the severity of impact of knowledge loss.</p> <p>Though most organisations are running internal initiatives for knowledge management, employees do not share knowledge freely. This paper presents an empirical study to understand the knowledge sharing inhibitors in IT Service Organisation and provides recommendations to overcome these challenges.</p> Varsha Deb Dr. Vasudha Vashisht Dr. Nidhi Arora Copyright (c) 2021 Varsha Deb, Dr. Vasudha Vashisht, Dr. Nidhi Arora 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Review of literature in context of triggers leading to post purchase consumer dissatisfaction in household white goods https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3266 <p>The clear understanding of triggers of “post purchase dissatisfaction” isof immense importance to fathom the world of customer dissatisfaction in case of consumer electronics and electric goods worldwide.&nbsp; The triggers of phenomenon of “consumer dissatisfaction” involve the dimensions which are either productdriven, customer “consumer driven” or “organization driven”. Such “triggers” drive the consumer to feel either satisfied or dissatisfied. This research article emphasizes and explores the role of such triggers as these find their place in various literature work to have a fair understanding of such triggers or factors of post purchase consumer dissatisfaction. The study found out the role of various triggers under the broad three classifications of Product, Consumer &amp; Organization itself. The study based outcomes support the researchers in figuring out the triggers, their frequency across the literature &amp; give a fair understanding of such triggers to practicing managers and marketers in their domains. The paper review provides researchers, marketers &amp; academicians a tool to know about the comprehensive research works done in the area of post purchase dissatisfaction and thus a guiding force for future work in the area of post purchase consumer dissatisfaction.</p> Vikas Uppal Uppal Copyright (c) 2021 Vikas Uppal Uppal 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Demystifying the role of leanness, agility, innovativeness and sustainability in manufacturing Industries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3424 <p>Globalization and increased customer awareness, changing tastes and preferences coupled with highly volatility market conditions has subjected manufacturing organizations across the globe to explore, integrate and adopt methodologies and techniques that help them to reduce costs and remain sustainable in the dynamic era of 21 century[1], [2].With the depleting natural resources and increasing environmental regulatory compliances, growing customer environmental awareness, remaining sustainable has made organization to synergies operational techniques to deliver more sustainable products and services[2]. Leanness or lean manufacturing has established as one of the most popular and accepted management strategy for providing solution for cost reduction and operational excellence though continual improvement that focuses in waste reduction and elimination thereby creating value for the customer and the organization[2]–[4]</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In addition, agile manufacturing or popularly termed as agility is an operational approach practiced by organizations that are able to tackle effectively volatile market uncertainties through demonstration of better operational excellence, improved &nbsp;responses and dynamic&nbsp; organizational adaptability[5]</p> <p>Sustainable development or sustainability is the key and is referred as “the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” [6].The world needs to explore ways to limit the damage.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Innovation is a driver that provides an organization with a competitive edge though market diversification by generation of new opportunities. Innovation is a novel idea that gets the organizations acceptance[6]</p> <p>Sustainability is now being considered a ultimate universally accepted goal for the companies to adopt, but the apprehension on compromising environment in the sake of profitability and operational performance still prevails [6]</p> Gulshan Babber Shashi Copyright (c) 2021 Gulshan Babber, Shashi 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Digitalization in Agricultural Marketing: The Future of India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2976 <p>Digitalization is a new word for all sectors. With all the sectors, the agricultural sector is also shifting towards digitalization all around the globe. For a developing country like India, agricultural transformation is vital, not only to feed the huge population but also to make the farmers of India self-dependent by reducing the long chain of agricultural marketing from producers to customers directly. Hence, focusing on digitalization in agricultural marketing only will help in realizing the dream of doubling farmer income by 2022. There are several problems and challenges involved in the marketing of agricultural produce. Limited access to the market information, intermediaries in the agricultural supply chain, financial problems, lack of infrastructure, lack of storage facilities were some of them [1]. The government of India along with the state government and private sector is all set to bring about a revolutionary change in agricultural marketing through various initiatives like E-NAM (Electronic National Agriculture Market) [7], contract farming [2-4], Agricultural Apps, etc. The present paper attempts to highlight the various initiatives taken so far to bring a revolutionary change in the field of agricultural marketing in India to overcome the above challenges. Initially only 50 commodities has been traded on E-NAM, but now 175 commodities has been traded on E-NAM which opens up the different options for farmers to cultivate different crops and trade them easily in the market. The major focus of the current study is to find out through the secondary data analysis how these initiatives especially the E-NAM portal can prove to be a better initiative in agricultural marketing that fosters the development of different stakeholders in the agriculture sector which is the future of India. For this study the real progress of different initiatives in India especially E-NAM, contract agreements has been studied from April 2016 to 2020. E-NAM addresses the above challenges by making a united market through web trading stage, both, at State and National measurement and advances consistency, streamlining of frameworks over the planned markets, removes information asymmetry among buyers and sellers [8,9]. Though these initiative provides transparency in online trading transactions, provides timely payment to farmers without including the intermediaries between them, it will lead to better opportunities for different stakeholders in the ease of doing business in terms of social context. Currently, 1000 markets are integrated with the E-NAM portal by which farmers have an option to sell their agricultural produce not only in their state but in markets of other states also. The current study found the various strength of different agricultural marketing initiatives like it will provide real-time price information to farmers, other climatic information, save them from climatic risks through insurance schemes. In social context, E-NAM helps to remove the farmers from the financial burden as more than 1 lakh crore payments has been done directly in the farmers account.</p> Mohit Garg Shelly Singhal Copyright (c) 2021 Mohit Garg, Shelly Singhal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Study on various attributes that affects Visit to a Dark Tourist Destination https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3019 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The studies on dark tourism are being done extensively and attribute like motivation, tourist’s experiences, place attachment, national identity, tourism impacts, satisfaction, and loyalty have been studied. However, there is a dearth of studies where a comprehensive study of all the factors and their association with each other has been taken care of (1). This descriptive study will try to analyse various factors associated with the visit to a dark tourist destination and their relationship with each other. There are major gaps in the literature related to dark tourism particularly in Indian context. Current study is an attempt to fill gaps like developing a model of dark tourism consumption based on cognitive-affective-behaviour theory, study the role of national identity in the context of dark tourism, and provide an assessment of relationship of motivation, place attachment, national identity, tourism impacts, satisfaction, and loyalty at a dark heritage tourist destination.</p> <p>This study is quantitative as the study will be working on antecedents of tourist’s loyalty towards a dark heritage destination in India. Quantitative approach requires data gathering through a survey method and then analysing the data through statistical tools. The universe of this study is the tourist visiting the dark heritage destination particularly Jallianwala Bagh Amritsar, Punjab. The sample size for the study is 622 domestic tourists visited the destination. Since the population in this study is not defined, therefore a non-probabilistic purposive sampling was used. The data was analysed using “Statistical Package for Social Sciences” (SPSS) was used to do statistical analysis, SPSS version 21.0 and “Analysis of Moment’s Structure”, AMOS 18.0. The proposed model was evaluated using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling). Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were used to approximate the measurement model.</p> <p>Our finding reveals that majority of tourists (58.19 %) are not aware of the fact that Jallianwala Bagh is a dark tourist destination, 41.80 % of tourist are aware of dark properties of Jallianwala Bagh.Our findings are first in dark tourism studies to find that place attachment significantly influences the loyalty of tourists. When examining the mediation of satisfaction on the relationship of place attachment and tourist loyalty, partial mediation was found. In our research it was found that satisfied tourists become loyal to Jallianwala Bagh. Our findings show very good degree of relationship between national identity and perception of positive tourism impacts. However, tourists who possess strong national identity also perceive higher negative tourism impacts (2). The results of mediation analysis suggests that there exists positive substantial relationship among the cognitive, affective, and behavior factors. The results predicts that place attachment being the mediator between motivation and satisfaction fully mediates the relationship (3).</p> <p>The perspectives of domestic tourists on tourism impacts on heritage sites are included in this research, which adds to the tourism impacts literature. The results also suggest that motivation is a multi-variable construct (4). Our findings suggests that the degree of tourist motivation significantly affect place attachment of tourists at Jallianwala Bagh. This study highlights the importance of travelers’ perspectives in gauging attitudes toward tourism. Tourists, in other words, can be aware of the benefits tourism offers to a site (i.e., community benefits) and adjust their attitudes accordingly (i.e., tourism support). Our discoveries invigorate past discoveries who considered place attachment prompts tourists loyalty. Our discoveries are first in dark tourism studies to find that place connection essentially impacts the loyalty of visitors. Tourism planners&nbsp;at Jallianwala Bagh should realise that visitors have a good sense of attachment to the destination, and that campaigns aiming should echo themes of "your own heritage" as well as "learning" about this heritage. A careful analysis of tourist’s psychology is important to provide exclusive treatment to each tourist. For example, satisfying the motives learning, knowledge, emotional bond, sense of belonging will result in strong attachment, to the destination and will further lead to a satisfied tourist.</p> <p>Current study is important because it focuses on various attributes that affect the satisfaction and loyalty of tourists. This study contributes to the literature on dark tourism and explores various important factors such as national identity, tourists' motivation, perception of tourism impacts, and place attachment. This study may also help governments and tourism planners to understand the key motivations of tourists. Moreover, this study explains the effect of tourism impacts on PA, tourist satisfaction and loyalty of tourists. The authorities can develop tourist destinations that can attract tourists.</p> Ravi Dandotiya Arun Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 Ravi Dandotiya, Arun Aggarwal 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Revised Algorithm of Vogel’s Approximation Method (RA-VAM): An Approach to Find Basic Initial Feasible Solution of Transportation Problem https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3108 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>In corporate and industries sectors, transportation plays an important role. Vogel Approximation Method&nbsp; (VAM) is a more effective method to find the initial basic feasible solution of the transportation problems, but when there is a tie between highest penalty costs for rows and columns, we have to choose arbitrary which results we may get solution far from optimal solution also. In this paper, we modified the steps of VAM to find the initial basic feasible solution of transportation problems. The proposed revised algorithm of Vogel Approximation Method (RA-VAM) gives initial basic feasible solution which is always nearest to optimal solution. Two examples are also solved to illustrate RA-VAM.</p> Jajji Singla Gourav Gupta Mohit Kumar Kakkar Neha Garg Copyright (c) 2021 Jajji Singla, Gourav Gupta, Mohit Kumar Kakkar, Neha Garg 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 IoT Enabled Real-Time Pulse Rate Monitoring System https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3141 <p>Internet of Things (IoT) as a technology has been proving its mettle in a wide variety of applications like health care, energy auditing, smart home, smart cities, retail, industrial automation, and agriculture [1]. Out of all these applications, the health care sector has drawn particular attention of the researchers working in the IoT domain. The health care sector itself is so wide and demands research innovations in areas like telemedicine, e-health care, remote patient monitoring, and remote drug administration . Remote health monitoring using Internet of Things (IoT) is a popular research area now a days. It leads to a good improvement in the quality of life, if healthcare system is able to do an accurate diagnosis remotely in a minimal time. E-health care system is also a novel solution for elderly patients suffering from chronic diseases as they face difficulties in visiting the doctor. Remote patient monitoring is even highly required in the lockdown situations due to COVID-19&nbsp; as it can help in maintaining social distancing in an effective manner. Doctors&nbsp; can do real-time monitoring of chronic diseases using IoT platform which is based on the accurate pulse rate measurement and it will be very effective for the lifesaving of patients [10]. Real-time monitoring of pulse rate can also be beneficial for the treatment of other health abnormalities like sleep disorders and depression [2]. This paper represents the development and working of a pulse rate monitoring system using IoT. The proposed system consists of an analog pulse rate sensor which is placed around the fingertip of the patient to detect the pulse rate based on variation in the flow of blood to different regions of the body. Pulse rate sensor is connected to the NodeMCU ESP8266 Wi-Fi module which processes the pulse rate signal and transfer it to the remote server. Finally, pulse rate in BPM (Beat Per Minute) is fetched through HTTP&nbsp; (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) GET request and is accessed by the health professional on the mobile screen using an android application for remote diagnosis and decision making [3-4].The main purpose of the proposed system is to monitor the patient remotely by a health professional, check for any health abnormality based on the measured pulse rate and make decision for the treatment to be done. Based on the accurate diagnosis using this system, treatment can be provided remotely at the right time and it can save life of patient and cost of treatment significantly. This system has good possibilities of extension for remote diagnosis of various type of diseases by the addition of more sensors which can monitor critical health related parameters.</p> Sumit Neha Sharma Amanpreet Kaur Rajesh Kumar Kaushal Copyright (c) 2021 Sumit, Neha Sharma, Amanpreet Kaur, Rajesh Kumar Kaushal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Introducing Intelligence in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using Machine Learning Algorithms https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3177 <p>The automotive industry has gained popularity in the past decade, and it has led to tremendous advancements in intelligent vehicular networks. The increase in the number of vehicles on the roads makes it essential for vehicles to act intelligently as humans do. The concept of machine learning is that when vehicles learn and improve to operate in accordance with the previously processed data. The machine learning techniques have helped the automotive industry in developing the driverless car [1-2]. With the help of sensors and cameras, it is quite possible to use the machine learning algorithms and provide the user with the benefits associated with it. It helps to allow the vehicle to perform certain tasks which actually can replace the driver of the vehicle. The Artificial Intelligence (AI) chips integrated into the vehicles enable the vehicle to navigate roads [3-4]. This paper provides an insight into the machine learning algorithms widely used by the automotive industries, and a comparison is made between them with respect to the applications of the Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET).</p> Ishita Seth Kalpna Guleria Surya Narayan Panda Copyright (c) 2021 Ishita Seth, Kalpna Guleria, Surya Narayan Panda 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 The Importance and Value of Art, Design in Development of Society https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3214 <p>Art has been present for many years in our society. Therefore, even when man was not civilized, it was still with human. However, many of us don’t take art very seriously. We think it’s something anyone can do. But art needs lots of creativity and is vital for our society for the following reasons. As: natural behaviour, Media for communication, language development, cultural awareness, attracts tourism, child development, and improved academic performance. It is possible to develop a strong sense of community belonging with the help of art. Art is a very valuable part of our culture and all kinds of artwork must be highly encouraged. Can you imagine a world without art? It’s unpleasant. Because art is helpful in the development of our life from the first stage of our childhood and is always helpful in some form or the other in life. Through this paper it can be said that society is the focal point of art. It will not be wrong to say that our society gets a strong development from art. Art is everywhere we go, and we must continue to promote creativity in our societies to ensure that it stays alive.</p> <p>Art is an immediate expression of personality. It is a process of personality and social adjustment. The social values constraints and prohibitions found in any culture can be expressed as art. At the same time, the challenge that culture poses to a person also manifests in the form of art, the person's intense emotional responses to the world also take the form of art or literature. Art is an effective tool in the hands of society through which it can torment its members, individuals, form their values, sentiments, beliefs, desires and aspirations so that they can stay in order in society and bring peace and harmony in the world. The art of a time is the embodiment of the basic needs of the individual and society, because it contains the desires, aspirations, values and experiences of a particular social group in a particular place and period, so the number of social groups are as much as art. There are also types. Some cultures survive as their art material even after it is exhausted. For example, the material found in the excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro reveals the life and lifestyle of the cultural life of that time.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>It could be concluded that importance of Arts in our lives is quite recognized to a greater level. Art is everywhere, influencing us on a daily basis, whether we realize it or not. With the art that we are surrounded by, whether it’s a painting, music or even videos can have a huge impact on our mood and emotions. Our concentration towards art is increasing day by day and people have started appreciating art in a serious manner. Nowadays Art and Craft Education are encouraged at schools for children as it provides a platform for the young ones to express and explore their imagination. Everywhere you go art is evident. Research and Statistics confirm that this education helps resolve a lot of problems and enhances critical thinking skills. Not all children are academically good, hence encouraging them to discover the artist in themselves might help them grow in life and excel in many other fields and may prove out to be an excellent career opportunity for them. This Research Paper Be made up of about Art for Society. The relation of art, artists and society is the focal point around which the present study revolves. There exists a reciprocal connection between the three, which has to be comprehended concurrently. Society needs art, and artists not only for enriching its culture, but also for the very development of humankind. An artist is reliant in one way or another on other people around him/her and is enmeshed in a whole series of social relationships. The making of the artist is a protracted process. Socio-cultural influences have played a central role here.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lovely Varshney Copyright (c) 2021 Lovely Varshney 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Design and Analysis of Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna Operating at 28 GHz Frequency for 5G Applications https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3246 <p>Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna (AVA) is a popular endfire antenna topology that is being used in a variety of wireless applications today as it overcomes limitations of conventional Vivaldi antenna. In this work two variations of AVA have being designed to operate at millimeter wave frequency of 28 GHz for implementation in 5G mobile handsets. With this design of AVA, a significant improvement in the impedance bandwidth of the antenna has been reported and this antenna has been designed with radiation efficiency of 90%. The reported values of other important parameters are gain: 10.7 dBi, side lobe levels: -12 dB, half power beam width (HPBW): 55.7<sup>O</sup> in E-Plane and 32.3<sup>O</sup> in H-Plane. With implementation of two different design variations, it has been showcased that small changes in the design can bring about significant improvements in the performance parameters of the antenna.</p> <p>There are many different planar antenna topologies that have been extensively studied today for 5G implementation at millimeter wave frequencies of 28 GHz and 38 GHz [1-9], and among these topologies, Vivaldi antenna or tapered slot antenna (TSA) that radiates in the endfire direction has been getting a lot of traction [10-15]. The key reasons for the same are that TSA is easy to fabricate, has wide bandwidth, offers high gain and has stable radiation pattern in both E and H planes [12]. Moreover, being an endfire antenna, TSA provides a better spatial coverage with less blind spots in comparison to a broadside radiator and hence it is ideal for implementation in mobile handsets [16].</p> <p>In conventional TSA as shown in Fig. 1, the microstrip line to slot line transition is needed for coupling electromagnetic energy from the source to the radiator, and this limits the impedance bandwidth [13]. Antipodal Vivaldi Antenna (AVA) overcomes this limitation by eliminating the need for microstrip to slot line transition, thereby resulting in wider impedance bandwidth, higher gain and lower side lobe levels.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="222"> <p>(a)</p> </td> <td width="226"> <p>(b)</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>Fig. 1</strong> (a) Top view, (b) Bottom view of the conventional TSA</p> <p>Two different designs of AVA have been carried out on CST Microwave Studio in this work for operation at 28 GHz as shown in Fig. 2. These are elliptical shaped AVAs, each consisting of two elliptical flares on the opposite sides of the substrate. The flare on the top acts as a radiator and the flare on the bottom acts as ground plane. The difference in the two designs is the implementation of the ground plane, Fig. 2 (b) showcases a wider ground plane that results in better impedance matching. The respective dimensions of the two antennas are 30 mm<sup>2</sup> and 30 mm X 50 mm, and in terms of size, both of them are suitable for mobile handset implementation.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="216"> <p>(a)</p> </td> <td width="252"> <p>(b)</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>Fig. 2.</strong> (a) AVA, (b) Modified AVA with wider ground plane</p> <p><em>Listed below are the steps that have been followed in designing the two antennas – </em></p> <ul> <li>Substrate material has been chosen which determines the value of relative dielectric constant (ε<sub>r</sub>). Both the antennas have been designed using Rogers RO3006 having ε<sub>r </sub>= 6.15.</li> <li>Thickness (t) of the substrate has been calculated using Eq. 1 and t should be less than 0.03 λ<sub>o </sub>[17]</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (1)</p> <p>Here λ<sub>o </sub>is the wavelength of the center frequency chosen to design the antenna</p> <ul> <li>Both length and width of the flare have been kept equal to the integral multiple of λo and their values were optimized in the simulator. The total length of the antenna (L) has been optimized within the constraint as defined by Eq. 2 [18]</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (2)</p> <ul> <li>The width of the feedline (W<sub>F</sub>) has been approximated using Eq. (3) [18] and it was further optimized in the simulator.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; (3)</p> <p>Here Zo is 50 Ohms</p> <ul> <li>The flare angle has been optimized between 5<sup>O</sup> to 20<sup>O</sup> in order to ensure maximum coupling of electromagnetic energy between the two flares in order to have desired endfire radiations.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Both the antennas have been designed to operate at a center frequency of 28 GHz, and impedance bandwidth ranges from 20 GHz to 40 GHz has been achieved. This antenna is ideal for implementation in mobile handsets [19].</p> <p>Fig. 3 showcases a comparison of impedance matching of the two antennas using impedance bandwidth plots. The lower value of return loss (S11) of upto - 65 dB in Fig. 3 (b) in comparison to - 35dB in Fig. 3 (a) indicates that antenna with a wider ground plane as shown in Fig. 2 (b) has a better impedance matching.</p> <p>(a)</p> <p>(b)</p> <p><strong>Fig. 3</strong> (a) S11 plot of AVA, (b) S11 plot of modified AVA with wider ground plane</p> <p>Fig. 4(a) and Fig. 4(b) respectively showcase radiation pattern in principal E-Plane and H-Plane of the modified AVA at 28 GHz frequency. It can be inferred from these two figures that the proposed antenna has stable radiation pattern in both perpendicular planes with low side lobe levels and cross polarization values. The antenna has a radiation efficiency of 90%.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="192">&nbsp;</td> <td width="185">&nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><strong>Fig. 4</strong> (a) radiation pattern in principal E-Plane and (b) radiation pattern in principal H-Plane</p> <p>Two variations of AVA have been designed and it has been demonstrated that a small variation in the design can cause significant changes in the performance parameters of the antenna. The proposed AVA has a high gain of 10.7 dBi with very high efficiency of 90% and low side lobe levels of -12 dB. The antenna has stable radiation patterns in both E-plane and H-plane. All these performance parameters make this antenna ideal for implementation in 5G mobile handsets operating at millimeter wave frequency of 28 GHz.</p> Sagar Juneja Copyright (c) 2021 Sagar Juneja 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Covid-19 Vaccination and Case fatality rate in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3441 <p>The disease COVID-19 entered India in January 2020 and since then has spread substantially within the country. Till date India has experienced two severe wave of COVID-19 infection. In the absence of any effective therapeutics or drugs, emerging variants of the virus and with an unknown epidemiological life cycle, lockdown and restrictions at public places slowed down the spread of novel corona virus in the country [1]. &nbsp;However, a high number of new COVID-19 cases and deaths due to it are reported across the country. In India, vaccine against corona virus was initiated in January 2021 to elderly and individuals with chronic disease to control the spread and severity of the disease. It is anticipated that the third wave of COVID-19 will emerge in India in near future. The government has increased the vaccination rate and seeks to achieve higher coverage as early as possible to avoid a severe outcome in the third wave. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to assess the effectiveness of vaccination in controlling the severity of the disease (case fatality rate) in Indian population and six selected states.</p> <p>Corona virus disease (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11<sup>th</sup> March, 2020 [2]. In India, the first confirmed case of COVID-19 was reported from Kerala on 30<sup>th</sup> January 2020. There was a rapid increase in the number of positive cases thereafter and the first mortality due to COVID-19 was reported on 12<sup>th</sup> March 2020 from Karnataka, India [3-4]. <sup>&nbsp;</sup>As of August 06<sup>th</sup> 2021, more than 31.8 million confirmed cases of Covid-19 were reported in India, the second highest number of cases by any other country after United States of America [5]. Maharashtra, Kerala and Karnataka are the hot spots for COVID-19 infection. The number of deaths due to COVID-19 had surpassed 0.42 million in the country and the maximum mortality is reported from Maharashtra [5]</p> <p>India being the second most populated country in the world has faced a challenge in controlling the spread of the infection. During the first wave of COVID-19, the main challenges were acute shortage of beds, medicine and ventilators, lesser trained healthcare workforce, scarcity of Personal Protective Equipments (PPE) and unvaccinated healthcare workers [6]. Indian Council of Medical Research and the Ministry of AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy) recommended the use conventional preventive and treatment strategies to improve individual’s immunity against COVID-19 and to lower the severity of viral infection [7]. During the second wave of COVID-19, the main challenges were shortage of beds with ventilators and limited oxygen supply [8].There are a number of barriers prevalent in the country that hinders the achievement of high vaccination rate like illiteracy, access to healthcare services, belief in traditional medicines and myths associated with vaccine.</p> <p>We carried out a study to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination in India to control the severity of COVID-19 from 21<sup>st</sup> March 2020 to 6<sup>th</sup> August 2021 (total 72 weeks). The data was collected from the dashboard on the website of Ministry of Health, India, covid19india.org and cowin dashboard. In addition we randomly selected six states of India to include in the analysis.</p> <p>We divided the period of 72 weeks into pre-vaccination and post-vaccination phase. We analyzed the data of COVID-19 phase wise at national level and for 6 states of India. We calculated case fatality rate (CFR) by using the formula “total mortality due to COVID-19 in a given period divided by total confirmed cases” in that duration. The vaccination coverage was calculated by using the formula “cumulative frequency of vaccine dose given to the people in that duration divided by approximate population above 18 years”.</p> <p>In the time period of this study, March 21<sup>st</sup> 2020 to 6<sup>th</sup> August 2021, a total of 72 weeks of COVID-19 infection has completed in the country. In India, first dose of vaccination started in 44<sup>th</sup> week after the emergence of COVID-19 infection and second dose was initiated from 48<sup>th</sup> week. At the country level the highest CFR was 17.3% during pre-vaccination phase in 12-16 weeks and in post-vaccination phase the highest CFR was 21.0% in 64-68 weeks. The increased CFR post-vaccination may be due to the low coverage of vaccination as the country had first dose coverage of 300/1000 population and second dose coverage of 73/1000 population by 68 weeks.</p> <p>As on 6<sup>th</sup> August 2021, the 1<sup>st</sup> dose coverage of COVID-19 vaccine in India was 388/1000 population and 2<sup>nd</sup> dose coverage was 115/1000 population. Among the 6 states studied, 3 states [New Delhi-1<sup>st</sup> dose (668/1000 population) and 2<sup>nd</sup> dose (250/1000 population); Karnataka-1<sup>st</sup> dose (554/1000 population) and 2<sup>nd</sup> dose (157/1000 population); and Telangana-1<sup>st</sup> dose (449/1000 population) and 2<sup>nd</sup> dose (147/1000 population)] had higher vaccine coverage than at the national level.</p> <p>Telangana showed better vaccination coverage with low severity compared to other states, while New Delhi showed a decline in the case fatality rate after the first and second dose coverage of vaccination increased by two times. Thus, vaccination for COVID-19 infection is found to be effective in decreasing the severity of the disease. The eligible population should avail the services provided at the government facilities free of cost to reduce the disease burden of severe cases being admitted to health facilities.</p> Mohd Zuber Charu Khosla Nargis Begum Javed Copyright (c) 2021 Mohd Zuber, Charu Khosla, Nargis Begum Javed 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Puri-Konark Tourist Circuit of Odisha: Coastal Tourism Hotspots, Calamities, and Resurgence https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3521 <p><em>Natural hazards take place periodically every year in the sub-continent India, devastating the life of several residents placed around eastern and western coastal areas. The Tourism phenomenon is not immune to natural disasters. Due to the intrinsic scenery many tourism developments are often located in regions that are exposed to natural disasters, in particular beach and coastal areas promoting coastal tourism. Tourists travel to a destination only for a short time period and may not be aware of such local hazards and finally they may become the victims of such natural disasters which results in creating a negative impact on the image of the destination that can be both serious and long-lasting. The study focuses on Puri and Konark, two most preferred tourist destinations in Odisha, prone to natural calamity called cyclonic storms. The research paper may contribute a valuable insight and guidelines for policy makers and other stakeholders concerned to restore and reduce the hazards of natural disaster in Puri-Konark tourist.</em></p> Dr. Manisha Seal Dr. Shwetasaibal Samanta Saho Dr. Giridhari Mohanta Dr. B. Balaji Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Manisha Seal, Dr. Shwetasaibal Samanta Saho, Dr. Giridhari Mohanta, Dr. B. Balaji 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Understanding Information Seeking Behaviour Of Users In Academic Context https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2992 <p>Information has become quintessential for everyone. It has been hailed as the most valuable resource in modern times<sup>1</sup>. Owing to the rapid proliferation of technology and increase in the Internet adoption rate, acquiring/ interacting with this valuable resource has become easy<sup>2</sup>.&nbsp; Users seek information from myriad sources to satisfy their information needs<sup>3</sup>. The information needs are essentially secondary needs that arise out of some basic needs, which arise in some contexts<sup>4</sup>. Information seeking behavior is <em>"purposive seeking of information in response to a need to satisfy a goal”</em><sup>5</sup><em>.</em>The studies related to information seeking date back to the early 1900s. It is a concept of great interest and importance in library and information sciences<sup>6</sup>. With time and advancement in technology, the focus of researchers and scholars shifted from information systems to users' information needs and information use<sup>5</sup>. The present study has reviewed literature pertaining to various aspects of users' information seeking behavior, such as information sources, information needs, factors and challenges affecting it in academic settings. The studies reviewed here are mainly from the field of library sciences. This paper concisely attempts to elucidate the basic concepts of information seeking behavior and gauge the influence of technology on users' information seeking practices in academic settings. The review findings primarily suggest that faculty and students' information seeking behavior is concerned chiefly with their academic lives and the Internet being the most used and popular source/medium for academic information seeking process. The paper shall assist future researchers, scholars, students interested in understanding the concept of information seeking behavior qua affective factors and the usage of technology.</p> Salik Parveaz Asif Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Salik Parveaz, Asif Khan 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Religious Tourism and Visitor Perception: a case study analysis https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3076 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Religious tourism makes up a significant percentage of both local and international travel [1]. Religion is a significant incentive for travel and religious sites attract numerous pilgrims and tourists [2]. Every year 300 million people go on pilgrimages [3]. There exist strong connections between religious tourism and its stakeholder(s). The growth of this form of tourism counts majorly on its stakeholders and their contributions [4]. Several studies have discussed the relationship between religious tourism and its stakeholders but studies on assessment of visitors’ perception for tourism development have been somewhat neglected [5]. Hence, this paper delves into improving tourism development by taking into account the visitor perception at a venerated Hindu Goddess Temple in India, one of the 51 Shaktipithas, and dedicated to the Goddess Durga. Pilgrimage to Shaktipithas is an age-old practice in Hinduism, the third most popular religion of the world [6].&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The earliest study in religious tourism was reported in the 1980s followed on by studies on its evolution, pilgrimage movement, and its market potential [7]. Religious tourism is classified as one of the oldest sorts of tourism [8]. A recent study referred to it as “a multistakeholder and multidimensional phenomenon” and ranked the various stakeholder’s contributions inferring that the pilgrims, temple management, and the associated community plays the most significant role [4]. Therefore, there is a need to concentrate on their involvement in managing pilgrimage sites and religious tourism. Hence, this paper has been built on the perception of visitors to a temple and it has been used to conclude findings that will aid in enriching visitor spiritual experience and managing religious tourism efficiently.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keeping in line with the objectives of the research undertaken, a qualitative research approach has been followed. “The Qualitative research dwells on interpretation wherein researchers discuss issues with their social context and develop grounded theories that explains how people attach meanings to events and learn to see events from multiple perspectives” [9]. An inductive method has been used wherein theory is built from data. Various methods were employed which include case study method, participant observation, direct observation, questionnaire survey and interviews. This type of research was chosen to investigate the cultural associations that Shakta community attributes to their religious places, the significance of this pilgrimage and the visitor perception of the spiritual experience. The study helps to recognise how the enrichment of spiritual experience will promote religious tourism. For the statistical analysis, SPSS has been used. 150 survey questionnaires have been considered for research and stratified random sampling technique was used.</p> <p>This study will serve as an aid for all such religious heritage sites in India and abroad and will contribute to the current body of knowledge by creating an awareness of the visitor perception and their requirements at pilgrimage sites. It brings to light important aspects regarding pilgrimage that could inspire others and lead to completion of the cyclic frame of transformation. It will also promote religious tourism at the regional and national/international level due to increased spiritual experience, and spread of word of mouth (WOM) of these visitors. The findings of this study can be validated and can be applicable to all other Shaktipithas that are spread over the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) nations and promote cooperation for their protection and management internationally too.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The perceptions of the visitors such as the priests, the pilgrims and the secular tourist to a religious heritage site have been analysed and compared statistically. The conclusions derived will aid religious sites to retain their heritage significance and also enrich the visitor’s spiritual experience promoting tourism and visitor loyalty too. Firstly, Religious tourism has a strong potential and such sites can generate a huge amount of revenue. Secondly, pilgrimage is a time-bound ritual and the religious celebrations magnify the associated benefits of pilgrimage. However, the analysis shows that the majority of respondents spent more time in the temple in normal days as compared to the festive days as they have a better spiritual experience. Besides the lack of visitor spaces, they wished to sit within the sacred precinct and increase their spiritual experience. A large share of respondents feel that the temple needs improvements in terms of infrastructure and there is a need for a site interpreter/educator to guide the visitors. Conclusively, this research is an outcome of the investigator’s major concern of devising measures to enrich spiritual experience as well as manage our religious heritage to boost religious tourism. Sacred places have the power to transform human beings and the Hindu tradition reinstates that a pilgrim’s journey to a place is an experiential journey that establishes an unending relation between a pilgrim and his God. Hence, the visitor perception of their spiritual experience cannot be neglected.</p> Harveen Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Harveen Bhandari 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Transforming Traditional Cities to Smart Cities: An overview of HRIDAY Scheme, India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3091 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In ancient times, people were migrants, and with the passage of time they commenced to live in small settlements along river banks [1]. Rapid changes in societies and people’s living styles were witnessed due to the Industrial Revolution in 18th century A.D. People, in search of employment opportunities, created by the industrial revolution, migrated in large numbers from the river banks to cities. The advent of transportation and many civic facilities caused by urbanization which led to large-scale migration exerting immense pressure on the city’s existing infrastructure and social life.</p> <p>The traditional cities were usually unplanned and emerged organically as an outcome of colonization [2]. The persistence around these challenges activated numerous urban communities and managements to design new development plans and formulate regional development strategies to oversee all the above-mentioned challenges. The most important approach that was found suitable was the transformation of traditional cities into smart cities [1]. But for developing countries like India, a very sensitive approach is required for transforming traditional cities into smart cities [3]. In 2015, the Indian government introduced the HRIDAY Scheme (The National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana) under smart city mission, where 12 traditional cities were selected for revitalization. This paper discusses the strategies of HRIDAY scheme which were implemented in 12 traditional cities and elaborates on the challenges residents face after the implementation of this scheme.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Smart City concept is the recent paradigm shift in the new urbanization principles where all the cities are being developed to encourage sustainable and comprehensive cities that provide ‘Quality of Life’ to its residents [4]. The smart city mission, introduced by the Indian Government in 2015, comprises the planning of cities by integrating the physical, institutional, social and economic infrastructure [5]. The prior activities of preserving historic and cultural heritage in cities and towns of India have typically been conducted in exclusion from the desires and aspirations of the native communities together with the foremost urban development issues, such as local economy, urban planning, sustenance, etc. For making traditional cities vibrant, moderate and to address various urbanization challenges of the contemporary era, a planned approach was necessary [6]. In 2015, the Government of India launched the HRIDAY Scheme that envisaged to help developing cities preserve and revitalize their identity. The 12 selected cities namely- Ajmer, Amritsar, Amaravati, Badami, Dwarka, Gaya, Kanchipuram, Mathura, Puri, Varanasi, Velankanni, and Warangal initially selected by HRIDAY for heritage development and augmentation.</p> <p>The paper has been built on an extensive literature review done using keywords-sustainable cities, heritage cities, smart city mission, etc. after which an exhaustive set of papers were reviewed to identify a set of indicators associated with the revitalization process of traditional cities and their impact on residents. A qualitative approach was followed to understand the challenges faced by such cities after which an online questionnaire survey was conducted and semi-structured interviews with the citizens as well as the government officials. The section of the paper discusses the major findings of the survey analysis in tandem with the literature studies conducted.</p> <p>From the various literature studies, it has been found that revitalization approaches for transforming traditionally planned cities into smart cities are mostly tourist-oriented that are based on enhancing only the outward and noticeable look of the city. Following this approach, the aspirations and needs of the residents are somehow ignored. So, this study has identified five key indicators which need attention while planning the revitalization process and based on which a theoretical model can be developed.&nbsp;</p> <p>Witnessing the currents scenarios' when the cities are at the pace of becoming smart there is a need to bridge the gap between what governments/organizations are doing for residents of traditional cities and what people want. Through this study, the author has identified the following key indicators <em>such as local community, quality of life of residents, social connections with heritage, livelihood opportunities, and physical infrastructure</em> that helped to derive responses from the citizens.</p> <p>The study concludes that the:</p> <ul> <li>Development strategies by HRIDAY majorly cater to the beautification of historic districts wherein the community and their needs were not paid much attention.</li> <li>Development procedures adopted have not been fully successful as the city residents face common problems such as haphazard development, traffic congestion, lack of open spaces, parking spaces, etc.</li> <li>High impact of physical transformation on the livelihood of residents who were shifted to other areas form the heritage core.</li> </ul> <p>It has been found that there is a need for parameters that can guide the transformation of traditional cities into smart cities by linking the cultural context and addressing the various complex issues faced by the residents of those traditional cities. This can be done only by promoting the community’s participation in the decision-making processes and/or adopting public/private partnership schemes.</p> Parminder Kaur Harveen Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Parminder Kaur, Harveen Bhandari 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Worrywarts of employees in the Information Technology sector of India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3123 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The health of employees in the organization has been a researchable topic for a long time, and there is strong evidence that the workplace environment can have a significant impact on employee health. As a result, employee worrywart has become a major concern of IT organizations [1-2]. The present study focuses on worrywarts of employees in Information Technology sector of India. India's IT companies, which have been bedrock of the economy, are likely to lose business due to worrywarts of employees [3]. The present study concludes the reason behind the worrywarts in employees of IT sector. The study has been followed the review of literature approach and looked at employee worrywarts in the IT industry during the past two decades. The effort has been posited to recognize the significant worrywarts of workplace. The previous researchers [4-8] work shows that workload, digital change, a lack of analytics and coding skills, employment risk, health difficulties of employee have been identified as the significant worrywarts as the conclusion of study. The findings of the study are identified by alarming worrywarts in employee’s life. The study findings shall be helpful for employers, investors, employee, researchers and the other stakeholders of service sector of India to recognize the hassles in the employee productivity and organizational resilience.</p> Neha Chaturvedi Pawan Kumar Chand Copyright (c) 2021 Neha Chaturvedi, Pawan Kumar Chand 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Effects of Firm Reputation on Split Loyalty in Telecommunication Industry https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3157 <p>Brand switching is observed when a customer shifts from one service provider to another. The cost of brand switching is comparatively low in the telecom industry. Before 2018, the competitors of Reliance Jio, especially Vodafone Idea and Airtel were ruling the market. However, a unique change in the customers of Vodafone Idea and Airtel was observed. It was observed that in 2018-19, Reliance Jio was eating into the market share of its competitors. As per the data released by Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), Vodafone Idea lost 7.3 million users while Airtel lost 1.8 million users to Reliance Jio in October, 2018. Once Jio increased its customer base, a shift in customers’ choice was again observed when they changed their preference from Jio to Airtel in around 2020 (Pandey, 2018). The purpose of this paper is to determine which factors led to the brand switching by customers from Airtel to Jio and then again back to Airtel.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The research design used in this research is descriptive. 100 respondents are considered so the sample size is 100 while the sampling design is probability sampling under which simple random sampling is used. Primary data and secondary data are both collected. The primary data will be collected through questionnaires. Total 100 questionnaires will be distributed on a random basis. The secondary data will be collected from research papers, journals and authentic websites of TRAI.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The hypotheses used here are:</p> <p>H<sub>0</sub>: Firm Reputation affects split loyalty of customers</p> <p>H<sub>1</sub>: Firm Reputation does not affect split loyalty of customers</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Several researches have been conducted to understand the role of ease of brand switching on the behaviour of customers in different industries. However, the telecommunication industry is famous for representing brand switching behaviour of customers. Thus, in the future, it will certainly be observed that some new players in the telecom market have entered and are ruling the industry. In such cases, this research will help the future researchers to understand which factors influence the brand switching behaviour of telecom customers.</p> <p>No research has been done to understand the factors behind the sudden shift of the customer preferences in the telecom industry. This research paper is written to find out why these factors are important in determining the brand switching behaviour of the customers and whether this behaviour can be predicted to understand the threat of new entrants into the telecom industry.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anjals Sehgal Sanjiv Marwah Copyright (c) 2021 Anjals Sehgal, Sanjiv Marwah 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Emerging prospective of phytomolecules as antioxidants against chronic diseases https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3195 <p>The term free radical can be characterized as any sub-atomic species equipped for autonomous presence that contains an unpaired electron in a nuclear orbital. They can either give an electron or accept an electron from different atoms, thus, acting as oxidants or reductants (1). The term oxidative stress is coined as imbalance between the regeneration of free radicals and antioxidant action. The oxidative stress contributes to progression of various ailments such as inflammation, ageing, diabetes, obesity, cancer, cardio vascular, skin and neurodegenerative disorders (2).&nbsp; An antioxidant is a particle fit for hindering the oxidation of different atoms. It is a substance which interacts with free radicals and kills them, in this way protects DNA from harmful impact. This ensuring system is called as "scavenger" (3).</p> <p>The various isolated natural compounds such as naringenin from citrus fruit, genistein, daidzein, glycitein from soya, favan-3-ols from tea and coffee, diterpenes from <em>Stevia rebaudiana</em>, curcumin from <em>Curcuma longa</em> have been exhibited strong antioxidant activity by deactivating the biomarkers involved in inflammatory responses. Resveratrol have been possess strong antioxidant activity in cardiovascular ailments. The various neuroprotective phytochemicals have been reported in scientific literature such as resveratrol exhibit neuroprotective activity via reduction in cognitive impairment, amyloid burden and tau hyper phosphorylation; curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin exhibit neuroprotective activity via optimized control of oxidative stress, activate cognitive function, activate / modulate cholinergic neuronal function, inhibit inflammation of neurones, prevent glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation and quercetin prevent protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis via neutralizing oxidative stress.&nbsp; The use of vitamins and minerals in dietary supplements has suggested the prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. The vitamin C (hydrophilic; scavenge radicals), vitamin E (lipophilic; interferes with the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation) and beta-carotene have been significantly decreases levels of glutathione and glutathione peroxidase and showing their antioxidant action in diabetic condition. Finally, it can be concluded that exploring aromatic and medicinal plants to discover newer and safer medicines for the effective treatment of various ailments always remained viable approach.</p> Vivek Dhir Reecha Madaan Deepak Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Vivek Dhir, Reecha Madaan, Deepak Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Advances in Additive Manufacturing Techniques for Bioprinting https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3229 <p>The advancements in the field of additive manufacturing have led to the significant developments in the field of biomedical sciences. This combinational progression has led to implementation of 3D printed biological components such as cartilage, bone parts, skin layers, and other implants. Moreover, the inception of this technology in tissue engineering through integration of living cells for specific functions is another achievement bringing about a revolution in biomedical sciences. This research article aims at providing an in-depth review of the development in the additive manufacturing technologies that have been utilized for bioprinting of various tissue types including dermal layers, bone implants, cardio-vascular parts etc. The authors will also discuss the challenges and limitations in the technology considering the biocompatibility, mechanical properties and incorporation of functional materials, to make these artificially 3D printed components mimic properties to human biology.</p> Gurmohan Singh Abhineet Saini BS Pabla Copyright (c) 2021 Gurmohan Singh, Abhineet Saini, BS Pabla 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Factors affecting stock price in Indian stock market https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3263 <p>The main purpose of this study is to examine the major and most appropriate factors that can affect the stock market of India. The study will help many individuals to understand how actually stock market moves, which could help them in enhancing their knowledge about stock markets and could create a source of passive income for them. It will also help various companies with a better understanding of movement of their own stocks so that the company could take appropriate steps to maintain and improve their stock price. It could also help them to create some wealth as well. As all companies have some unused cash so they can put their money in the preferred stocks according to the factors that I will be extracting in this research.</p> <p>(research design, sampling frame, sample size and sampling area)</p> <p><strong>Research</strong> <strong>Design</strong>- Exploratory</p> <p><strong>Sample</strong> <strong>Size</strong>- 100 people</p> <p><strong>Sampling</strong> <strong>frame</strong>- Brokers and people with 5+ years of experience</p> <p><strong>Sampling</strong> <strong>area</strong>- Delhi NCR</p> <ul> <li>Simple Random Sampling</li> </ul> <p>We will be collecting both primary data as well as secondary data. The primary data will be collected through questionnaires (created on google forms) and having a on call or if possible face to face interviews from our sample. We will be collecting 100 responses from primary sources. The secondary data will be collected from research papers, books, journals and websites.</p> <p>Several researches have been conducted to understand various factors that plays a vital role in determining the stock movement. Some of the examples are “In the paper of Pooja Joshi and A.K Joshi[1] is found they have established relationship between economic growth and stock prices. It is also mentioned that GDP is mains indicators that influence stock price”. “In other paper of Mrunal Joshi [2] tries to establish relationship between macroeconomic variables (like trade deficit, interest rate, index of industrial production) and stock price. According to them gold is inversely related to stock price and the value of Indian rupee id directly proportional to the price of stocks”.</p> <p>What most of the paper ignored or missed are the demand and supply of stocks, government policies and fundamental factors. These three factors contribute hugely in determining the stock price. By know that to what extent these factors affect the stock price, it could help the management personal to maintain and improve the stock price in order to improve the valuation of their organization. It could help the investors as well, so that they could put their money on right horse which could give them big and long term profits.</p> Roushan Raj Singh Shudhanshu Bhushan Copyright (c) 2021 Roushan Raj Singh, Shudhanshu Bhushan 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Climbing The Mount Everest : Exploring the Journey of Indian Women Leaders https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3422 <p>The women leadership in India can be traced back to the era when women like Begum Razia Sultan (1236) and Rani Lakshmibai (1857) had proved to excellent leaders. In industry, the women leadership started with family owned business where the leadership qualities were inborn and the women in the family were integrated in their own businesses. Times have changed and women leadership is taking a new shape. However, their progression in senior executives and leadership roles is sluggish. A report by Catalyst Inc. shows that for there are only 24% women in the pipeline (Entry to Manager/Director), 21% are currently occupying the positions of Managers/Directors, 19% are Senior Managers whereas only 14 % in the roles of Executive Officers in India. Women are less probable to be promoted up the ladder of leadership than men are, despite of the rise in women in the workplace<sup>.</sup>[1] [2] .Though facts reveals that the ratio of women in management is increasing, prejudice regarding the leadership skills and abilities of women still exist.The important thing is that only reaching at the top somehow is also not enough.</p> <p>According to Tannen (1990) [3] “The road to leadership and power is tough for women, and even if they reach there it's a bed of thorns”. However, getting at the leadership position is the first important step. The purpose of the research study is to explore the personality traits possessed by successful women leaders and to determine the challenges women leaders experience most in their today’s corporate work life. Women have been struggling through ages to climb up to the leadership positions. Some women have been successful in breaking all the barriers and shown their mark as successful leaders, but there is still a long way to go, and specifically when the question is of women occupying the highest levels&nbsp; of management. In Indian context, the problem is more severe. Indian working women are expected to perform dual roles. They should not only adhere to expectations as homemaker, but also perform as an employee. Although the field is attracting an increased practitioners’ interest, still there is scarcity of academic research in this area, specifically from the Indian perspective. Thus, the central question is: What are commonalities in the path of Indian women attaining leadership positions? How do Women leaders in India describe their leadership experiences? What were their experiences about leadership development, and in what context? The study applied the theory of intersectionality for analysing the success of the selected women leaders. A term coined by Kimberlé Crenshaw, (1991), intersectionality is rooted in the discrimination faced by black women in the United States. Crenshaw argued that black women are marginalised not because they are black or they are women but because they are black women. Intersectionality refers to the collective effect of different identity dimensions—race, sex, gender, class, position, sexuality or age—on the way women experience the world. The topic was explored using the lens of descriptive phenomenological method.</p> <p>The study will help in changing the mindset of the society at large. The study has implications for the concerned academic authority to create a conducive environment to encourage women participation in leadership positions and voicing their opinions overtly, especially from the perspective of their intersectional identities. The study provided valuable insights into the factors and strategies contributing to the professional advancement of women leaders in Indian academia. It would also reinforce the fact that diversity and advancement of women represent an opportunity which organization cannot afford to ignore.</p> Hemlata Vivek Gaikwad Suruchi Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Hemlata Vivek Gaikwad , Suruchi Pandey 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Aesthetics, visual design, usability & credibility as antecedents of E-learning: A theoretical framework https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2974 <p>Dramatic change in methods of delivery of education by closure of schools due to COVID- 19 with the exceptional increase of e-learning, thereby teaching done through digital platforms [1]. E-learning has developed as a novel method of teaching learning process [2]. To improve the quality, consistency as well as the accessibility of teaching, the curriculum may be improved [1]. Virtual reality will augment traditional teaching to make learning a real-life experience [2]. E-learning and Digital technology help in handling inequalities &amp; inconsistencies within the system [3]. The way educators educate in a traditional classroom cannot be transferred to a virtual setting in the same manner, thus other techniques like Visual Design must be utilised to ensure successful integration into the new educational system [4]. The purpose of the study is to develop a model based on the gaps identified through literature.</p> <p><strong>DESIGN</strong></p> <p>A preliminary review of the available literature was carried out to recognize appropriate articles associated with the research problem.</p> <p><strong><em>Usability and Credibility in E-Learning</em></strong></p> <p>Aesthetics play a key part in shaping user responses to websites based on visual elements to evaluate usability and Credibility [5]. It is critical to consider the educational role those aesthetic standards play in the development of online classes by faculties and educational institutions that are evaluated by students. When creating online courses, using visual content and adhering to aesthetic standards improves the visual look of the information as well as how students engage with and react to such courses. Hence, current practice was expanded by concentrating on cognitive and emotional factors that influence e-learning usability. [6], opined that the usability and visual acceptance are the two important criteria for the evaluation of e-learning applications. As there is very less concentration on the interactive functionality and the visual appearance of the e-learning application, the e-learning is still on the development stage. Therefore, keeping the e-learning 4.0 as the next gen advancement focusing on the e-learning application, it needs more of aesthetics and visual approach the function and the usability.</p> <p><strong><em>Visual Design in E-Learning: </em></strong></p> <p>Visual aesthetics, usability and design are the recent concepts in the online education. It is significant to investigated the impact of visuals on the learning due to the incrementation in the graphical representation of instructional content (Anglin &amp; Cunnigham, 2003). Many cognitive theorists, including Mayers’, proposed the multiple representation principle which states; concurrent use of audio &amp; visual can facilitate e-learning. To promote effective E-Learning, multimedia instructional design principles were developed by researchers on the basis of cognitive load theory developed by John Sweller (late 1980’s.) The theory explained the significance of various Visual elements need to be considered to plan an e-learning course like Font: sizes, styles, bolding and italics; Colors should be complementary to highlight specific elements.; Graphics: symbols, icons, illustrations and photos; Moving Graphics: Videos and Animations; Order/Sequence: of different elements is must. Messages must be clear, enhanced with visuals and focused to relevant content.[6]. To develop online course, one must consider minimally six basic components i.e visual design, web standards &amp; accessibility, principles of multimedia learning, information architecture, pedagogical considerations as well as the quality of material which is crucial to enhance the learning experience because the perception of information and learning, judgement of usability &amp; credibility and evaluation of online experience is intensively impacted by Design and Aesthetics. A good visual design simplifies the message, ensures legibility, focuses attention, motivates and increases learner’s engagement. It plays role in supporting &amp;enhancing teaching [6].</p> Akanksha Ghai Copyright (c) 2021 Akanksha Ghai 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Critical review of policy making process and policy indicators for governance in Indian context https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3052 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This paper points to policy making process based on governance theories with set of policy indicators necessary for quality governance in development efforts while making decisions. The fact is, public policies are made to run the governing system and implementation of the policies are the signs of good governance. Governance refers to theories and issues of social coordination and the nature of all patterns of rule. But the issue is, whether public policies decide the functioning of government or the government decides what would be the best public policy to run the system. This paper draws the focus to identify the major policy indicators to provide better policies for good governance.</p> <p>The study of policy is firmly grounded in the study of politics which is as old as of human civilization. Most of ancient religious books like Koran, Bible and Gita etcetera laid down political suggestions as well as religious guidelines but their primary focus was not politics. Some scholars like Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, Weber and Durkheim describe policy as use of power- a basic element of politics- in social settings. The interpretation of public policy can be <em>“Public policy is a tool by which the government maintains order to address the needs of its citizens.”</em> [1]Policies are generally being made on certain set of theories which are finally articulated and adopted based on various policy indicators to <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governance">govern</a> any state or nation. Policy making is closely related to decision making. However, it is not same as decision making. Policy making does not involve decision making, but a decision does not necessarily constitute a policy.</p> <p><strong>Research question: </strong>Is policy making process indicative of better governance?&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Research hypothesis: </strong>Policy making process affects the quality of governance.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To identify the major indicators in policy making process for the better governance.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>The philosophical worldview proposed in the study is pragmatic and the research design is qualitative. Although the present study is limited to identify the major policy indicators from the critical review of policy making process and governance theories&nbsp;[2]responsible of better governance, but for furthering the research to assess quality of governance, exploratory sequential mixed method would be best suited to approve research hypothesis.</p> <p><strong>Policy Making Process</strong></p> <p>Policy making process is cyclic in nature. Ideally, the stages of policy making begin with identification of problem and draft of policy is prepared with consultation of public representatives like MLA’s, MP’s and stake holders. After consideration of objections and suggestions of public, the final draft is tabled for adoption through legislation process and then implemented by administrative machinery. The outcomes of policy are evaluated by analysts from public and private sectors. But in reality, the policies are actually driven by political manifestos of political parties to polarize the vote bank. The social and elite forces majorly influence the agenda setting with convenience with politicians and the marginalized are always ignored. The bureaucrats enjoy the autonomy for framing the policies. Many a times, policies do not adhere to the objectivity of the issues comprehensively. The legal framework of policies [3]has many loop holes that corrupt administrators and politicians could easily bail out from the law by not elaborating the law in detail intentionally so that it could be interpreted in either way. The poor implementation which is often mismanaged is the biggest reason of their failures.</p> <p><strong>Policy Indicators and Governance Theories</strong></p> <p>There are eleven governance theories&nbsp;[2] (Policy network theory to measuring governance) which talk about seventeen policy indicators contributing to policy making process highlighting the various dimensions of governance drawn from international and national literature review. Almost one half of the theories&nbsp;[4] don’t include these indicators fully. Except the ‘Happiness Index’, rest all are discussed in one or the other theory of governance and Indian policy making is way behind to think on such indicator. The happiness index is recently been introduced in European Union policy study. The indicators are tested among the various policy objectives, instruments and implementation practices to provide better governance.</p> <p><strong>Expected Contribution of Work</strong></p> <p>The research will add the value to policy making process to provide better dimension of governance to society and to assess the inter-policy coherence for better planning of the cities.</p> <p>Policy making process is cyclic and the selection of right indicators results in quality governance through better decision making[3]. The process is influenced by political pulls and pushes. Indicators are not exogenous to governance which can make decision making instantly objective and scientific. The governance theories themselves have weaknesses in terms of structure and process to address the problems of directing the society and economy. Therefore, no theory is perfect and the dynamic behaviour of governance describes it as process of networking, steering and coordination i. e. setting and management of political rules with a search for control and steering, accountability, participation, legitimation, decentralization, transparency, democratization and efficiency etc. Recently, India has placed at 139<sup>th</sup> position out of 149 countries in the UN ‘Happiness index’ report 2021. Overall, it can be concluded that good policy indicators and implementable policy cycle leads to address the social issues and are the major elements of good governance.</p> Ajay Kaushal Copyright (c) 2021 Ajay Kaushal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Factors Influencing the Policy Formulations & Strategies for Disaster Risk Reduction https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3106 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Disasters are evolving and creating impacts in new shapes and sizes with each passing year. Types of risks and related consequence are growing resulting in unexpected outcomes. Although there are advances in warning systems and planning for disasters leading to reduction in casualties in sole disaster events, new dangers are emerging due to overlapping occurrences and intermixing of risk factors. It is critical that all stakeholders participate actively in the preparation of the disaster management plan breaking down the barriers between separate disciplines for better understanding and strategies formulations.</p> <p>A strategy is a specific plan developed to achieve organisational goals and objectives, whereas a policy is a set of guidelines developed by an organisation to help it make rationalised operational decisions. The exploratory study aims for identifying the various significant factors which influence the disaster risks and are required to be clearly understood for the development of appropriate policies and strategies for disaster risk reduction. The literature was reviewed for identifying the factors having significant impact in the research area with due consideration to multidisciplinary nature of disaster management. After analyses and synthesis of different literature reviews, recurring factors were identified and summarised in the paper.</p> <p>The various factors of influence identified are: 1) Decision Making Theories 2) Disaster &amp; Development 3) Built Environment &amp; Construction Industry 4) Critical Infrastructure 5) Interdisciplinary &amp; Collaborative Approach 6) Community Resilience 7) Disaster Impacts on different sections of society 8) Administrative arrangements including visionary approach, finance, political interventions, effective communication &amp; accountability 9) Indigenous Knowledge &amp; Technological Interventions</p> <p>There are different theories based on the rational, irrational decisions or stakeholders behind the decision making process. Decisions related with disaster management are based upon set of challenges considering short/long term requirements with focus towards normalcy and reforms. It is a process towards desired solution based upon various rational/irrational assumptions [1].</p> <p>Exploration of the relationship between disaster &amp; development is necessary to achieve catastrophe risk reduction, sustainable development, and related policy goals [2]. While disaster management encompasses many aspects, it appears that those linked to the built environment are of particular importance. The Habitat Agenda promoted the establishment of acceptable land use standards and byelaws, as well as norms for construction and planning on the basis of technical hazard &amp; vulnerability assessments [3]).The operation and function of vital facilities &amp; infrastructure is of extreme importance during disaster operations. Critical facilities, such as emergency response units, hospitals, etc. and their related support systems together should be well panned to face for the disaster conditions [4].</p> <p>Although there is more awareness among stakeholders but still little is known about integration of Indigenous knowledge with disaster planning [5]. Technological interventions like artificial intelligence, Internet of things along with smart devices, utility computing networking &amp; digital transformations has opened new avenues for disaster management [6].</p> <p>The related study aims to find out the various factors behind efficient disaster management policies and strategies. Thorough understanding of these factors will help in identifying the vulnerability and risks associated with disaster management. Furthermore these factors will provide the foundation for identifying the gaps between policies &amp; strategies &amp; identifying the preparedness and capacitative capabilities with regard to disaster management.</p> <p>Understanding underlying factors having influence on formulations of various strategies and policies can add new dimensions and values to disaster management. The disaster management and sustainable development are closely related and both must be planned in harmony with each other. The Construction Industry specifically the critical infrastructure and support systems are critical sectors for efficient catastrophe protection. Disasters impact differently to the various sections of the society. Indigenous knowledge together with technological interventions can improve disaster resilience. Interdisciplinary &amp; Collaborative methods are required to be adopted to deal with disaster impacts in broader perspective. Administrative factors like visionary approach, political interventions, finance, effective communication, accountability &amp; community perspective have a definite role in disaster planning. The multi-organisation and multidisciplinary approach in dealing with the single or multiple hazard situations is the new appropriate direction for the management of all stages of disaster and can improve disaster resilience by manifolds.</p> Atul Dutta Ambuj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Atul Dutta , Ambuj Kumar 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 A Benchmark Gurmukhi Offline Handwritten Dataset of Tehsil and Sub tehsil names of Punjab https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3139 <p>In recent years, research into Indian handwritten document interpretation has received a lot of attention. Handwriting recognition refers to a computer's capacity to translate human handwriting into machine-readable text [1-2]. There is a dearth of a consistent library of handwritten texts for Indian languages to assess the performance of various document recognition algorithms and to compare them. However, a structured evaluation of the available techniques for Gurmukhi tehsil and sub-tehsil name recognition is not possible because of less amount of data of Gurmukhi script is available publicly. An unconstrained Gurmukhi handwritten words database (GHWD) is presented in this paper [3-4]. The GHWD has 62000 handwritten words drafted by 40 distinct editors subsist of 77 tehsil and 78 sub-tehsil names. During the collection of data each editor will scribble every single word for 10 times. Then this generated script is used for comparing the results of various technique used for recognizing the different handwritten names.</p> Bhavna Sareen Rakesh Ahuja Amitoj Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Bhavna Sareen, Rakesh Ahuja, Amitoj Singh 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Financial Portfolio Optimization with Digital Signal Processing Method https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3175 <p>Markowitz’s portfolio theory provides a mathematical framework for choosing the optimum balance of risk and return under certain assumptions of investor behaviour. The risk component of the model is measured by the pairwise covariance of all constituent assets. The model attempts to minimize the portfolio variance while keeping the return at the desired level by manipulating the weight of each asset. In order to implement this model in the real world, one key assumption is that the variance-covariance matrix of the historical data will be the same in the current period in which the optimization model is being run. In other words, the past period matrix acts as a simple predictor for current period variability of assets. Given the uncorrelated nature of volatility of financial series, it is worthy to question this assumption and attempt an improvisation of the same.</p> <p>Frequency domain analysis of financial series through wavelets is gaining researchers' attention as a specialized application of digital signal processing. Wavelet technology is especially useful in this context as it also works for non-stationary time series, common in finance. Research on US stock market data has demonstrated that dividing the variance-covariance matrix into high and low frequency bands and subsequently predicting the future variances based on this bifurcation, tends to produce better portfolio performance. It was found that this method consistently reduces the current period standard deviation by about 60 basis points, such that the variance of the overall portfolio is lowered by about 10% (Chaudhuri, 2018). The current extends the study to portfolios generated by Indian stock and verifies if out-sample performance is improved. Further, it proposes to explain the efficiency change by spectral breakdown from Financial principles.</p> Swapna Sen Copyright (c) 2021 Swapna Sen 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Applicability of The Star Model on Indian Neighbourhood Case of Malviya Nagar, South Delhi https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3212 <p>Over the years, there have been numerous debates and explanations on privatization of public space, its inclusivity and of course the degree of publicness such spaces offer. The distinction of pure public space is a layered progression folding the publicness into a private space. The character sketch of these pseudo-public spaces have been defined by many theorists on the basis of accessibility, control, ownership and typology transformation that happens amongst other factors. This paper bestows star model for measuring the publicness of such public spaces in a neighbourhood, aiming to analyse the behavioural shift in spatial control and democratic openness of public space that subsequently emulates. The model is deliberated to be of value for comparative purposes. The study concludes that a new form of public space is taking control over our cities, and how this complexity of urban space production has somehow redefined the meaning of publicness.</p> Simranpreet Kaur Pankaj Chhabra Copyright (c) 2021 Simranpreet Kaur, Pankaj Chhabra 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 RSM based parametric optimization during electro-chemical grinding process of hybrid Al/(Al2O3+ZrO2)-MMC https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3244 <p>In this paper the RSM based optimization technique is used in the electrochemical grinding (ECG) of hybrid Al/(Al<strong>2</strong>O<strong>3</strong>+ZrO<strong>2</strong>)-MMC. Experiments are performed on the fabricated ECG setup with a resin bonded copper impregnated diamond grinding wheel. A comprehensive empirical model has been developed for correlating the interaction and influences of the input parameters on surface roughness (R<em><sub>a</sub> </em>and R<em><sub>t</sub></em><sub>)</sub> to achieve optimal surface finish [1, 2]. The main influencing parameters such as rotational speed is the most significant and current density is the significant for Ra and Rt. The developed empirical models are validated through confirmation test. The test results depict significant improvement of – 684 % on Ra (μm) and – 417 % on Rt (μm) respectively [3, 4].</p> K.Z. Molla Jaswinder Singh Kashidas Chattopadhyay Deepika Choudhary Copyright (c) 2021 K.Z. Molla, Jaswinder Singh, Kashidas Chattopadhyay, Deepika Choudhary 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Influence of Behavioural Factors on Early Exercise of Employee Stock Options: Literature Review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3439 <p>Employees are a company’s greatest asset. Creating a good reward system (salaries, incentives, recognition, careers, and job design) improves the employee’s performance and enables the company to have an economic and strategic advantage. Employee Stock Option Plans (ESOPs) as incentives have gained prominence and have been widely promoted as a successful HR strategy.</p> <p>&nbsp; However, the time at which employees exercise their options determines the incentive that they derive from the ESOPs granted to them. An employee’s choice to exercise the options is one of the crucial financial decisions which can have wide implications to both employers and employees. According to Black Scholes Model the value of an option is maximum when it is held till maturity but most employees exercise their options early which comes with a cost to both the employee and the company [1-3]. The employee has to forfeit the remaining time value of the options and the high cost to the company by issuing the ESOPs is not justified when the employees don’t enjoy the incentive effects that the options were to provide. It is imperative to understand the reasons why employees exercise early [4-5].</p> <p>&nbsp; When faced with financial decisions, the individuals do not always refer to complex financial models and formulas and make decisions rationally, instead they resort to mental accounting and shortcuts leading to bounded rationality. Irrational beliefs or behavioural biases can unconsciously impact their decision-making process [6-7]. Studying the impact of employee’s behaviour on their exercise decision will help the employees to make a better decision minimizing the biases that may exist and also enable the company to design a better incentive plan thus justifying the high cost of ESOPs to the shareholders [8].</p> Manpreet K Arora Muskaan Arora Copyright (c) 2021 Manpreet K Arora, Muskaan Arora 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Extaction of Maximum Power from PV and Wind Energy Sources Using Predictive Control System in Microgrids https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3519 <p><em>The impact of global warming and changing climatic conditions due to over exploitation of fossil fuels, emission of high carbon levels and increased demand for energy have necessitated the application of renewable energy sources. Load demand is addressed by the default design of microgrids, with minimal changes in their architecture to adhere the introduction of electricity generated from different renewable sources. Renewable energy sources are generated from photovoltaic cells (solar), wind, ocean tides and India has been extending the deployment of solar and wind energy generation centres. When different zones are connected together for collection and transmission of energy to other zones which are remote, with no possibilities of generating such power, PV and wind energy batteries are proven to be a cost-effective solution. The microgrids are formed into proper clusters and as a standalone architecture, they are responsible for transferring the load to different regions based on remote demands. Controllers have to be designed with intelligence and be capable of handling inversions and act as an intelligent Interlinking Inverters. The intelligence is defined as the capability of assuring quality of power, efficiency in managing load voltage and determining the frequency of critical requirements in terms of sensitive load demanded by applications in different regions. The proposed system concentrates over the algorithms for Maximum Power Point tracking schemes to analyse how the renewable sources of energy are used to yield the maximum power. The same energy is stored in a battery storage and hence used whenever necessary. A definite set of control measures are defined within the Model Predictive Controlling mechanism, enabled to control the inverters, further defined to address the requirements of consistent AC load voltages. The inverters are controlled through a novel design of DC-DC Buck Boost Converter of battery and Model Predictive Controller is facilitated with DC-AC inverters. The controllers are modelled with MATLAB/SIMULINK with power droop controllers within the microgrid system. Proposed system was evaluated through simulations and from the investigative results, predictive controlling scheme has outperformed the other control strategies while handling the fluctuating PV and wind energy sources. </em></p> D. Lokesh Dr. C. Senthil Singh Copyright (c) 2021 D. Lokesh , Dr. C. Senthil Singh 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Microbial Kerartitis in a tertiary eye hospital in south India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2990 <h2>Introduction</h2> <p>Infectious keratitis has for long been the Achilles heel of most ophthalmic surgeons. Corneal ulceration is a major cause of monocular blindness in developing countries. The epidemiology of causative agents in keratitis varies significantly from country to country Successful treatment of this condition depends upon accurate and rapid identification of the causative organism. Untreated infectious keratitis can occur in any part of cornea, but the infection involving the central cornea if the paramount importance. This study describes the etiology of keratitis and attempts to identify risk factors preparing for the development of keratitis in order to help clinicians in Better management of such cases in this region.</p> <h2>Procedure</h2> <p>This is retrospective study conducted for a period of six months about clinical profile study of keratitis in 80 patients, at the Little Flower Institute of Medical Science And Research Centre, Angamaly. In this study included all patients received diagnostic corneal scraping and without corneal scraping with mild keratitis cases. Corneal scrapings were performed with a sterile number 15 surgical blade under topical anesthesia. Sample were routinely inoculated onto chocolate, blood, and sabouraud’s agar plate and sent to Department of Microbiology for culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Any positive growths from the specimens would be reported by the microbiologist. Scrapings were subjected to Gram stain, potassium hydroxide preparation and culture for bacterial and fungal pathogens. An index of this disease by epithelial defect infiltrates anterior chamber and location of lesions were analyzed visual outcome were analyzed.</p> <h2>Result</h2> <p>Of the 80 patients reported with Microbial Keratitis, there were 43 males (54%) and 37 females (46%) - (fig 1). Among the reported cases the mean age (mean) was 43.5 +/- 17.04. The reported limit was 81 and the minimum was 11. Among the symptoms (Redness, Irrigation, Photophobia, FB sensation, Blurred Vn, Pain), patients experience pain (59) as many, followed by Redness (50), Irrigation (37), Blurred Vn (26) , FB sensations (25), and Photophobia (6) – (fig 2). Among the symptoms (Corneal scar, Infilterate, Epithelial Defect, Feathery Margin, Vascularisation) the most common symptom was infilterate (41) followed by epithelial deformity (37), Corneal scar(35) ), Vascularisation (11), and least it was Feathery Margin (7)- (fig 3).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In microbiological studies mainly performed corneal cuts of the KOH mountain, Gram Stain, Culture and sensitivity, CBC, RBS, and Retroviral Viral Antibody test. In this case the most extensive tests of KOH mount, Gram Stain and Culture and Sensitivity. The KOH mount is designed to detect fungal hyphae and complete fungus done growth in (37.5%), with (30%) positive results and (70%) negative results. GramStain was made at (36.25%), because only (3.45%) had positive results and (96.55%) had negative results. Culture and sensitivity (21.25%) in that alone (29.41%) had positive results. Of the 80 patients 72 patients (90%) followed for two months as 60 patients (83.33%) developed their perception of good management.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Most cases of infectious keratitis, as well as bacterial keratitis, remain an important cases in ophthalmology and cause for concern among ophthalmologists, and in previous studies, it is clear that predominantly outdoor agricultural activity and vegetative injury are the main causative factor. Information on regional etiology is important regarding the empirical management of corneal ulcers as it will help reduce cases because many eye clinics do not have microbiological facilities. Complicated corneal ulcers due to treatment by village healers are another important concern and must be addressed through education of the rural population.Information on regional etiology will aid in experimental management because many eye clinics do not have microbiological facilities</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Steffy Johnson Williams Joju Mathews G Vadath Copyright (c) 2021 Steffy Johnson , Williams Joju, Mathews G Vadath 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Walkability in South Indian Cities: A Case Study of Bengaluru City https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3033 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Bengaluru, widely regarded as the IT capital of India, is home to the second highest number of vehicles in the country. The city's large vehicular count lays immense pressure on its infrastructure, making Bengaluru infamous for its mile-long traffic congestions. Bengaluru also compares poorly with other mega cities of the world, with a walk score of 46.0 [1]. This may be due to lack of proper facilities for last mile connectivity, such as ill laid footpaths, overhanging utilities and poorly lit pathways. Bengaluru’s walkability constraints have encouraged people to go for auto dependence. Pedestrian activity is further discouraged, due to increase in pollution from vehicular emissions. To make Bengaluru a planned IT hub, it is essential to increase the quality of life of residents, by eliminating barriers to walkability in the city. The objective of this research is to identify the causes of poor walkability in the city of Bengaluru.</p> <p>For the purpose of this research, review of literature was carried out by referring to various publications in print and electronic media, books, journal articles, conference proceedings, treatises, design manuals and web portals. The literature review has helped understand the definition of walkability in urban contexts, walkability benefits and factors affecting walkability. Some of the prime factors that affect walkability include the 7 C’s - connectivity, convenience, comfort, conviviality, conspicuous, coexistence and commitment [2]. The review of literature indicates that socio-cultural and socio-economic parameters and role of policy planners are also equally important factors [3-4]. Using the above-mentioned parameters, different walkability indices have been formulated to assess walkability in cities [5].</p> <p>The review of literature suggests that it may not be appropriate however, to use the same walkability matrix for assessment for different cities, as each city has its own geographical, political and social context [6]. Further, there appears to be limited literature on walkable cities in the Indian context. &nbsp;It is therefore necessary to conduct detailed research, to identify parameters that affect walkability in Indian cities, especially with respect to the city of Bengaluru. The objective of this paper is to present a review of existing literature and the research gap, relevant to Walkability in cities.</p> <p>After the Literature review and identification of research gap, the following research method would be adopted to understand the causes of poor walkability in Bengaluru city:</p> <ol> <li>Interview with local walkers- Walkable cities need to cater essentially to the most pivotal purposes of walking, which is travel for work. The subject of this research is those residents of Bengaluru who walk to mass public transit station (bus/ metro) to go to work. The sample group for this research would include such pedestrians, in 2 wards of Bengaluru city with high population density and 2 wards with moderate population density. They will be approached with a walkability survey questionnaire.</li> <li>Street network analysis- To examine the existing neighbourhood characteristics that may impact walking behaviour, factors that are barriers to walkability in a city such as connectivity of walkable lanes, distance to amenities, presence of dead ends, cul-de-sacs and the like, will be analysed graphically.</li> </ol> <ul> <li>Interview with transport planners- After the pedestrian survey and observation study, primary and secondary challenges to walkability in Bengaluru will be collated and discussed with transport planners and pedestrian planners.</li> </ul> <ol> <li>Interview with municipal planners and ward people- After the survey is completed, the Municipal planner of the city of Bengaluru and the Chairman of the corresponding wards will be approached for his/ her valuable inputs about walkability issues.</li> <li>Index preparation - With insights from in-depth literature review and inputs from all the stake holders, a comprehensive walkability index can then be formulated.</li> </ol> <p>The benefits of promoting Walkability in cities is manifold. Well-designed pedestrian environments ease traffic congestion, thus reducing pollution and making the city green and lively. They encourage use of the city’s infrastructure in a balanced manner. Apart from physical, social and environmental benefits, walkability can transform the direction of growth from auto centric to human centric cities. To understand the issues and challenges relevant to walkability in cities, structured research is required to arrive at a thorough analysis. Strategies that include academia, industry and governance are necessary to adapt theory to practice, be it through design interventions, social awareness or policy planning. This research can further help generate a walkability matrix, that is applicable to the city of Bengaluru.</p> Rajini Itham Tej Karki Copyright (c) 2021 Rajini Itham, Tej Karki 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Work-Life Balance and Organization Citizenship Behavior: A Study of Women Employees in IT Industry https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3074 <p>Indian IT-BPM industry is growing at a fast pace globally as India continues to be the leading destination for talent sourcing. As per the Quarterly employment survey report of January 2017 by the Labour Bureau of India, the IT/ BPO sector employs large number of women employees under 30 years of age (Ring, 2017). NASSCOM has been focusing on attracting and retaining women employees in the last five years and have invested in research on the same, the ‘Women &amp; IT Scorecard’ reports (2017, 2018) showcase their focus and effort.</p> <p>Sabattini (2012) in <em>E</em><em>xpanding Work-Life Perspectives: Talent Management in Asia </em>found that women in India encounter higher challenges in managing work and personal life. It has been observed that a large part of IT sector jobs is moving from fixed eight-hour schedules to being online twenty-four hours a day on all weekdays including weekends (Raghuram <em>et al</em>., 2017). For those desiring to have a good quality of life, balancing work and life has been and continues to be an area of concern (Breitenecker and Shah, 2018).</p> <p>The organizations are increasingly required to enhance the work-life culture to augment positivity in the attitude and behaviours of employees. The positive perceptions can support the organizations to improve their workplace behaviours which go beyond the written job descriptions or the ‘extra role performance’. The ‘extra role performance’ has been studied as organizational citizenship behaviour by Organ (1988).</p> <p>Work-life balance studies have primarily focused on multiple roles of women employees as primary caregivers and nurturers rather than considering the other needs (Kalliath, 2008) acknowledged a shift in terminology as to denote all actions and tasks in the work as well as non-work domains with ‘work-life balance’ term and broaden the scope including employees who might not have child-care responsibility but desire time and space for other life activities, including entertainment, travel or further education.</p> <p>This study intends to understand the work life balance perception in detail and how it helps an organization to create and sustain organization citizenship behaviour from the employees.&nbsp; Thus, this study includes the work-life balance perception holistically (care and nurturing needs, work management flexibility and empowerment, training, manager support, willing of organization to employ WLB policies in their true spirit etc.) to build and enhance organization citizenship behaviour among women employees. Thus, the present study seeks answers to the questions; <em>w</em><em>hat is the perception of women employees towards work-life balance; and what is the relationship of perceived organization support, Managerial support with work life balance and organization citizenship behaviour for women employees.</em></p> <p>The theories considered as theoretical rationale for this study are Social exchange theory (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison and Sowa, 1986); Leader-member exchange model (Kahn <em>et al</em>., 1964); Organization support theory Eisenberger <em>et al</em>., 1986; Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002) and Herzberg theory of motivation (1950). The hypothesis are as follows:</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>H<sub>1</sub>:</strong> Perception of work-life balance has an impact on organization citizenship behaviour.</p> <p><strong>H<sub>2</sub>:</strong> Managerial support has an impact on organization citizenship behaviour.</p> <p><strong>H<sub>3</sub>: </strong>Managerial Support has an impact on the perception of work-life balance.</p> <p><strong>H<sub>4 </sub></strong>&nbsp;:Perceived organization family support has an impact on the perception of work-life balance.</p> <p><strong>H<sub>5</sub>:</strong> Perceived organization family support has an impact on organization citizenship behaviour.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The main purpose of the study is to understand the perceptions of women employees in IT and ITes organizations in Delhi NCR region.</p> Monika Garg Shuch Dawra Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Garg, Shuch Dawra 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 CRM—a study on customers perception on e-crm technology: A comparative study of public and private sector banks. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3089 <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has become the key tool in the hands of the banks that have moved away from pure banking to need based banking.&nbsp; This focal point of today’s need based banking is achieving customer satisfaction because organization survival depends upon satisfied customers and customer retention leads to revenue generation. Thus survival, growth and profitability in this present age technology driven and competitive world is a culmination of products, services and Customer Relationship. The main purpose behind this study is to analyze if the ECRM techniques used by particular banks have been successful in bringing about customer satisfaction. Long term satisfied customers reflect loyalty and bank’s success in implementing its Customer Relationship Management strategies [1-2]&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Sweta Leena Hota Copyright (c) 2021 Sweta Leena Hota 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 The Expansion of New Media Art in Indian Visual Art Practices: An Analysis https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3121 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The relationship between art, science, and technology is highly complex. The Digital age is a postmodern reality. The postmodern era is either on the verge of its conclusion or it has almost concluded [1]. Galleries and museums are far from exempt from the effects of these technological transformations [2]. By the mid’90s a number of young artists had begun to make installations and site-specific art objects even as others continued to work in the conventional mediums of painting, sculpture, and print-making. Notion of pluralism and multiculturalism infect the artists of the 90’s, as there is a confident borrowing from all cultures and frequent crossovers. Artists like Ranbir Kaleka, Shilpa Gupta, Sheba Chhachhi, Thukral and Tagra, Jitish Kallat and many more are blurring the gap between the art and cutting edge technology with their inter/multidisciplinary approaches in their art practices.</p> <p>Further, focusing on the medium, one needs to ask as to, - what we consider as New Media today is absolutely outdated and obsolete, considering artists working in Zero Gravity Art and Military Art. Then what is “New” about New Media. This attitude can be exemplified through the works of few artists who have mindfully analyzed globalism as an experiential phenomenon and have expressed them through their paintings and some have also extended the limits of painting by borrowing tools from new mediums. These issues shall be dealt with while analyzing the works of artists (painters) who have been segregated in two distinct categories based on the conceptual similarities who given the globalised world address the issues of locals as lived experiences; and the other artists &nbsp;who look at non contextualized, generalized situations and outcomes of the globalised world. These artists even have held to their original practice of paintings and have transgressed boundaries of expression when required [3].</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>In the book by (Graham; Cook, 2010), the author&nbsp; explores the characteristics distinctive to new media art, including its immateriality and its questioning of time and space, and relates them to such contemporary art forms as video art, conceptual art, socially engaged art, and performance art [4]. According to (Smuts, 2009), He mentioned mechanically reproduced artworks can be interactive and hence concreative. Something is interactive for an individual if it responds in a way that is neither (1) radically random nor (2) almost completely controllable. He proposed that interactivity is a kind of responsiveness that is neither random nor fully controllable [5].</p> <p>In the study of (Rafi &amp; Ahmad, 2016), it addresses the social, political, and related concerns by blurring the boundaries between different disciplines ‘interdisciplinary art practices’ has become a tool for the artist as well as for the viewer. Though continuously increasing multidisciplinary practices in the art have begotten certain issues and challenges related to the exhibition and preservation of artwork [6]. The methodology of this study is mentioned below:</p> <p>1) The research is primarily qualitative in nature and it will be based on the collection and interpretation of primary sources of data such as interviews with academia, journalists, artists, art historians, critics, curators and general masses through random data sampling.</p> <p>2) This research will bring out the newer forms of expression in contemporary art of India and it will explore the role of different materials and tools of interactive art.</p> <p>3) This study is also based on observation it demands for site visits such as art galleries, art exhibitions, art fairs and libraries which also includes data collection from books, art magazines, newsletters, catalogues and other relevant writings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Art has always been in close proximity with contemporary social techno-political developments. Digital language is acting as a catalyst for creative and scholarly experimentation and transformation across art, science, technology, and culture. There are many practicing artists who are experimenting with technology with art and taking the art to a whole new level and are blurring the gap between the art and cutting edge technology with their inter/multidisciplinary approaches in their art practices[1]. These artistic experiments are creating multi/interdisciplinary art practices which have more than one dimension when it comes to defining a particular genre and it is difficult to fit a particular work of art in a single genre. The art world has to move on either with or without postmodernism or deconstruction and spell out its own stance in the emerging digital age [1]. New media can replace the theoretical vacuum created by the absence of postmodernism.</p> Alisha Sharma Arjun Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Alisha Sharma, Arjun Kumar Singh 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Effect of kernel size in Deep Learning-based Convolutional Neural Networks for image classification https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3155 <p>In recent years deep learning models are very popular for image classification. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are commonly used for image classification and based on the architecture of these models there are various transfer learning models which are pre-trained on the ImageNet dataset. The accuracy of these models depends upon the various parameters such as the number of layers, kernel size, image size, etc. In the current study, we analyze the effect of kernel size on the CNNs model for image classification. We consider the CGIAR wheat rust disease image dataset for experimentation. After performing various experiments, it is found that using a small kernel size leads to the reduction of some parameters of the model and also has a significant effect on the accuracy of the model.NA</p> Shivani Sood Harjeet Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Shivani Sood, Harjeet Singh 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Concepts in Mental Health for Sentimental Analysis of Tweets – A Review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3193 <p>Ontologies demonstrate a vast prospective for addressing a lot of the challenges of&nbsp;component-based&nbsp;research and is a good practice of&nbsp;technology-supported&nbsp;science.&nbsp;A Mental Health Ontology [1] can be designed to&nbsp;provide a model of mental health concepts<strong>&nbsp;</strong>and relationships&nbsp;that can be used to form a semantic framework for many data storage and retrieval systems.&nbsp;Social media have received more attention nowadays. Public and private opinion about a wide variety of subjects is expressed and spread continually via numerous social media. Twitter is one of the social media that is gaining popularity [2].&nbsp; If we look at the bigger picture, by analyzing these interactions we can judge the mental state of a human being. For analyzing we require a proper understanding of concepts.&nbsp;The main aim of this paper is to describe Mental Health [1-3] &nbsp;and its related terms. The listed keyword can be used further to design an ontology on Mental Health. The designed ontology can be used as metadata for data tweets extraction. The outcome of this study is to understand mental health and its related concepts, to find a list of keywords that have a close association with Mental Health, and to design an ontology using protégé as a tool.</p> Puneet Kaur Deepika Chaudhary Jaiteg Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Puneet Kaur, Deepika Chaudhary, Jaiteg Singh 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 mpact of organizational culture on performance and effectiveness https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3227 <p>Organizational performance and effectiveness have remained one of the prime objectives of all businesses. There are various social, economic and environmental factors along with organizational functions that influence the performance and organizational effectiveness. However, organizational belief, its’ way of working and outlook that shapes the organizational culture impacts it the most through its’ tiny attributes. This research sets-up a model of organizational culture on performance and effectiveness based on four traits of organizational cultures - Agility, Shared Values/ goals, leadership behaviour, and consistency. The attributes were examined through literature reviews and past work done on the subject area and the theoretical framework is used. The theory originating from the existing literature reviews and management models are used to understand the impact of traits on effectiveness.</p> <p>Two of the attributes, agility and leadership behaviour, are indicators of flexibility, being responsive and welcoming which displayed as the predictors of growth. The other two traits, consistency and shared values/ goals, are indicators of collaboration, vision, action and were better predictors of performance. Each of the four attributes were also prime predictors of other effectiveness factors such as quality, staff satisfaction, morale and broad performance. The indicators also displayed that the four traits were strong predictors of subjectively-rated effectiveness factors, in general but were good predictors of objective factors like return-on-assets and deliverables by employees.</p> <p>This study suggests that culture can be found to be an integral part of adaption process of any firm and that identified culture traits should be examined to find its impact on performance and effectiveness. The research can provide a new outlook to assess organizational performance and effectiveness that is not always dependent on strategies or other visible factors, but may also have root cause into organizational culture and its traits.</p> Amresh Kumar Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Amresh Kumar Mishra 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Cryptocurrency: An Emerging Trend in Indian Economy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3261 <p>The paper focuses on the emerging trend of cryptocurrencies in the Indian market. Cryptocurrency is a digital asset that is distributed over a network of computers. Because of its decentralised structure, this network is immune to government regulatory oversight. The name "cryptocurrency" comes from the encryption techniques that are employed to keep the network safe. Study shows details about how to invest in Cryptocurrencies and risk factors involved in investment [1]. The cryptocurrency market has advanced sporadically and at extraordinary speed over the course of its short life expectancy. Since the arrival of the pioneer anarchic cryptographic money, Bitcoin, to general society in January 2009, a larger number of than 550 cryptocurrencies have been created, the larger part with just a speck of accomplishment. Examination on the business is still scant [2]. Most of it is uniquely centered around Bitcoin instead of a more different spread of cryptographic forms of money and is consistently being outperformed by liquid industry improvements, counting new coins, innovative movement, and expanding unofficial law of the business sectors. However, the ease of the business does, honestly, present a test to research, an exhaustive assessment of the cryptographic money industry writ enormous is important. This paper looks to give a brief yet thorough investigation of the cryptocurrency industry with specific examination of Bitcoin, the principal decentralized cryptographic money. Specific consideration will be given to inspecting hypothetical monetary contrasts between existing coins.</p> Ansh Motiramani Dr. Jolly Masih Rashi Rajput Jasleen Dutta Shashwat Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Ansh Motiramani, Dr. Jolly Masih, Rashi Rajput, Jasleen Dutta, Shashwat Mishra 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Accelerated AI Inference at CNN Based Machine Vision in ASICs: A Design Approach https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3420 <p>Machine Vision (MV) has become an increasingly popular technology in Industry 4.0 for advanced manufacturing processes. Specially, assembly lines require fast MV of the machine objects, assembly-functions and operations to improve accuracy and quality. In orderto achieve this, MV deployed customized Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). These ASICs designed to run Convolution Neural Network (CNNs) and perform AI inference. The processing needs high performance computing (HPC) of a large number of tensors with least energy spending in the ASICs[1-3]. In this paper, we propose a design approach for efficient tensor processing in tensor cores for accelerated AI inference at CNN based MV in ASICs. The design approach deploys the small DNN (Deep Learning Neural Network) model SqueezeNext along with application of quantization, fast arithmetic reduction, tensor cores aware tuning, pruning and fusion for the efficient AI inference in ASICs [4]. Successful implementation of proposed design can provide a competitive advantage to industries in terms of quality and cost of product along with time saving in manufacturing process.</p> Aabha Jain Neha Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Aabha Jain, Neha Sharma 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 To identify the areas of service quality gaps in services provided by cab aggregators. https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2972 <p><strong>Objective and scope of this study:</strong></p> <p>The main objective of this research paper is to understand, study and compare the customer perception and expectations from customers using services of the cab aggregators within India to identify the areas of service quality gaps. Since customer perceptions and expectations affect the service quality, so this study helps to understand and identify the service quality gaps in services provided by cab aggregators to customers in India using Service Quality Gap Analysis between perception and expectation. The most important objective of service quality is retention of the customer to provide repeatability of services through customer satisfaction [1, 2].</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Research Methodology:</strong></p> <p>Primary Data was collected from 495 respondents from various cities across different demographic variables such as gender, age, income, education, and occupation. The responses were taken using Google Forms, which consolidated in an excel sheet. These responses were then analysed in SPSS 21.0. Differences in the level of Expectation and Perception of Service have been assessed using non-parametric tests including the Gap analysis. Also, secondary data was referred to search related to service quality, service quality related issues, factors impacting customer satisfaction related articles and research papers from different industries and of various countries. The keywords were made more specific for search pertaining to services of cab aggregators within India. Each article was carefully reviewed for its relevance to the present study [2].</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Findings and Discussion:</strong></p> <p>This section analyses the gap between expectation and perception along with relevant inferences. The gap analysis has been done between expectation and perception along with relevant inferences. The statistical significance of each of attribute of 5 dimensions (including tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, empathy, and assurance) is also assessed to provide insights.&nbsp; Overall perception is 20.43% lesser than expected level of service. Likewise, on other dimensions viz., the perception is lesser than expected level Tangibility by 21.56%, Reliability by 19.78%, Responsiveness by 22.19%, Empathy by 19.30%, Assurance by 19.16%. Also, statistical significance of Expectation and Perception of each attribute has been studied and analysed.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Following are the possible areas where app-based providers need to focus –</p> <ul> <li>Booking app to be easy to use.</li> <li>First aid kit to be available inside the cab.</li> <li>Fire extinguisher to be available inside the cab</li> <li>Emergency button to be there in the cab.</li> <li>Driver to be dressed properly.</li> <li>Enable customers to redeem coupon while making the payment to book the cab.</li> <li>Doorstep pick-up to be provided.</li> <li>Prompt search to be there for different options on their app.</li> <li>The wait time to be less than expected.</li> <li>Personalized attention to be provided to the customers during the ride.</li> <li>Building customer's trust through their services provided.</li> <li>Driver to always act in a professional way.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion, implications, and areas of future research:</strong></p> <p>The current study helps to understand and identify the areas of service quality gaps in services provided by cab aggregators to customers in India by understanding, analysing, and studying the differences in terms of expectations and perceptions of services provided by the app-based cab service providers. Since Service quality is an attribute that affects customer satisfaction, customer retention and repeatability of services. It is therefore important to understand the relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction by mapping the five dimensions (Tangibility, Reliability, Assurance, Empathy and Responsiveness) of Service Quality with customer perceptions and expectations leading to satisfaction model. Further study can also be carried out to understand the relation between customer satisfaction, customer retention and customer loyalty. Basis the study, a proposed framework could be created to understand the service quality and the 5 dimensions and their impact on customer satisfaction, customer retention and customer loyalty.</p> Gaurav Dua Amandeep Singh Copyright (c) 2021 Gaurav Dua, Amandeep Singh 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Accountability in Print Media: An Analysis of Regulatory Mechanism with Reference to Newspaper Reporting in India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3015 <p><strong>Abstract</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Emergence of television news channels and new media including web-portals and other internet media has not diminished the significance and importance of reading newspapers.&nbsp; According to Registrar Newspapers in India (RNI) data, till 31 March 2018, there were 1, 18,239 registered publications in India which included 17573 newspaper category and 100666 in periodical category. To preserve the freedom of press and to maintain and improve the standards of press (here press is used for newspapers), the regulatory body is Press Council of India (PCI).&nbsp; The present paper discusses the effectiveness of PCI which is the only statutory body regulating the print media in the country. The Council functions as a quasi-judicial body having power of civil court and is in an advisory role. The Council has the same powers that are vested in a Civil Court and its annual reports are sent to the Parliament. All the complaints against and by the press for violation of ethics and also for violation of the freedom of the press are adjudicated by the PCI.&nbsp; The ' Norms of Journalistic Conduct' have been prepared by it to regulate media reporting on various issues. This study is a content analysis of the 1094 complaints filed against the media persons during five years (2013-14 to 201718).&nbsp; These complaints before the PCI were filed under different categories including, Principles and Publication, Press and Defamation, Paid News, Communal, Casteist, Anti-National &amp; Anti-Religious Writings and Press and Morality. The study also examines the kind of decisions taken by PCI including dismissal of complaints, admonishing/warning the newspaper organization, making observations, settling the cases on acceptance of mistakes by the newspaper and dismissal of complaints on merit etc. The study also summarises findings of structural interviews which were taken by researchers of members of PCI who have adjudicated many such complaints for a considerably long period in PCI to supplement and to know the effectiveness of the Council.&nbsp; The main aim of the study is to examine or scrutinise the effectiveness of the currently available mechanism that regulates the newspaper reporting in India. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ajay Kumar Dr Ashutosh Mishra Copyright (c) 2021 Ajay Kumar, Dr Ashutosh Mishra 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Performance analysis of diabetic retinopathy using diverse image enhancement techniques https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3050 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Most retinal diseases can be manifested by retinal fundus images. However, the fundus image quality is not adequate for diagnosing retinal disease such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) due to color distortion, low contrast, uneven illumination, and blurring. Therefore, there is a need for enhancing the images by applying various enhancement techniques. This paper implements diverse methods for image enhancement such as wiener filter, median filter, Contrast Stretching, Histogram Equalization, Contrast adjustment, Morphological top hat filter, morphological bottom hat filter, Adaptive Histogram Equalization, Contrast limited Adaptive histogram Equalization (CLAHE) on retinal images. The performance has been evaluated on DRIVE and STARE dataset which includes Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Structural similarity Index, Mean Square Error,&nbsp; Maximum difference, Normalized cross-correlation, structural Content, Normalized absolute error,&nbsp;&nbsp; Average difference, and Entropy of the images. It is concluded that wiener filter performs best in noise removal techniques. However the contrast of the images can be improved by CLAHE. Moreover Morphological operators are used for effective segmentation of blood vessels.</p> Dimple Nagpal Surya Narayan Panda Copyright (c) 2021 Dimple Nagpal, Surya Narayan Panda 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Influence of Various Asset Classes on Equity as an Asset Class: A USA Based Study https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3104 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The study investigated the influence of asset classes like bond, commodity, venture capital and real estate on the performance of equity as an asset class. The bond index, commodity index, US venture capital index and real estate index data was taken only for USA market. The study revealed that US equity market doesn’t perform in isolation and is highly related other asset classes except bond/debt asset class[5-6]. Therefore, it can be concluded that equity market doesn’t work in isolation and it related to performance of other asset classes in the financial market[1-4].&nbsp;</p> Manu Sharma Gunmala Suri Kriti Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Manu Sharma, Gunmala Suri, Kriti Sharma 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Ultra Wideband planar monopole antenna with pair of C-shaped slots and T-shaped sleeve for Microwave systems https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3137 <p>This paper presented a compact UWB planar monopole antenna for microwave imaging systems. An antenna consist of square shaped radiating patch with a couple of C shaped slots for exciting resonance. By introducing T shaped sleeves on the ground plane, wide impedance bandwidth is achieved in range of (3.6 - 12 GHz). The proposed antenna has compressed size having dimensions L<sub>sub</sub> ×W <sub>sub</sub>×H<sub>sub</sub> mm<sup>3. </sup>By embedding C- shaped slots with varying dimensions on radiating patch additional resonance are excited which results better wide impedance bandwidth. Simulated results such as return loss, gain, radiation pattern authenticate the convenient antenna structure for different microwave imaging system applications.</p> <p>Generally, microwave imaging systems plays a vital role in terms of array antenna for several application involved from civil to biomedical. recently, microwave imaging technology[1].Recently microwave imaging technology addresses more interest in health monitoring for detection of cancer tissues [2]. Nowadays development in healthcare monitoring systems shows a rapid growing interest due to predominant effect on the society. Microwave imaging systems inspect unknown targets with the use of electromagnetic waves at microwave frequencies [3-6].</p> <p>In cylindrical microwave imaging systems main objective is to design appressed size antenna over UWB spectrum band. Monopoles antenna are extremely interesting for UWB applications [7].</p> <p>The monopole antenna has a square radiating patch fed by microstrip line printed on FR4 substrate of thickness 1.6mm, permitivity 4.4 &amp; loss tangent 0.002. the antenna consist of a feedline, a square radiating patch has a width W and a ground plane. On the back side of substrate, ground plane of width W<sub>sub</sub> and length L<sub>gnd</sub> is placed and designed antenna connected to wave port for signal transmission.T-shaped sleeve adjust coupling effect between ground and radiating patch [8].</p> Lovish Matta Parminder Kaur Manish Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Lovish Matta, Parminder Kaur, Manish Sharma 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 A systematic review on effect of regular whole blood donation on body iron stores https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3171 <p>Depletion of iron stores is a common side effect in whole blood donors. Approximate 200-250 mg loss of iron take place in one whole blood donation of 450 mL. This loss recovers in approximately 3 months in males while much longer in female donors [1-2]. During whole blood donation in female donors’ depletion of iron stores is around three times more as compared to male donors [3]. It has been seen that haemoglobin levels are not always the true indicators of iron stores in the body since haemoglobin levels may be normal despite reduced iron stores in the body [4-6]. Iron deficiencies have three stages (i) Reduced iron (Prelatent)s; (ii)Iron deficiency erythropoiesis (Latent); (iii)Iron deficiency Anemia (Iron Deficiency Anemia) [7]. Voluntary blood donors do not maintain their iron levels in blood due to repeat blood donations which increases their chances of deferral due to low hemoglobin especially in developing countries like India. World Health Organization recommends serum ferritin as an indicator of body iron stores and the test of choice to screen the iron deficiency anemia [8]. The levels of serum ferritin can increase in inflammation and infectious conditions because serum ferritin is an acute phase reactant. Hence, this review focused on impact of regular whole blood donation on body iron stores in relation to serum ferritin &amp; Iron profile of regular blood donors. This systematic review involved searches made through academic bibliographic databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Scopus and the literature searches using Google Scholar and the references of included publications. From review of literature, it has been found that chronic iron deficiency is mostly observed in long term blood donors. Some authors recommend that serum ferritin is early marker to estimate the body’s iron depletion as compared to hemoglobin [9]. Mostly blood banks are using hemoglobin estimation to estimate the iron status but still there are chances hemoglobin is normal with depleted iron stores. The criteria of screening blood donors are still hemoglobin with values &gt;12.5 g% for both male and female donors. Some authors have reported that there is need of iron supplementation for donors for treatment of iron deficiency in both male and female donors. The literature so far has shown that there are studies which have been conducted on donors based on frequency and/or number of donations of donor in their lifetime [10-12]. Serum ferritin and body iron stores have been used so far as the marker but sometimes these markers give false positive result because ferritin is an acute phase reactant and it also raised in the cases of inflammation. The donors were given iron supplements and were advised for iron rich diet. To maintain our voluntary donor pool, there is need to do some markers like serum ferritin, iron profile and complete hemogram.</p> Neha Narwal Pooja Mahajan Sachin Garg Copyright (c) 2021 Neha Narwal, Pooja Mahajan, Sachin Garg 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 A Structural Framework for Smart Cities Evaluation https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3209 <p>A smart city is emerging as a strategy to the issues caused by rapid urbanization and urban population growth. Despite the fact that cities continue to grow and improve their economic, social, as well as environmental objectives, a minimal study has been conducted on this topic. Due to an urgent need for smart city concepts to be applied, stakeholders, city authorities, and local communities have gained a better understanding of how their city is performing today. As a result, establishing a structural framework for smart city evaluation is essential to communicate emerging shortcomings and strengths, highlighting areas of genuine development, and informing a strategy for future growth. The evaluation may also help cities in setting priorities for their response. This research provides a useful tool to assist assess the relative success of smart cities, based on the exploration of an enormous as well as a broad range of literature from many academic fields and on the conceptual literature. Moreover, it is crucial to consider the evaluation extent of smart cities.</p> Ashish Batra Pankaj Chhabra Copyright (c) 2021 Ashish Batra, Pankaj Chhabra 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Impact Of GDP Growth Rate, Inflation Rate And Interest Rate On The Sensex Growth In India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3242 <p>Stock Markets across the globe react positively or negatively based on numerous environmental factors ranging from micro-economic to macro-economic level. Hence, there emerges a need to estimate the effect of predominant determinants such as (a) GDP Growth rate, (b) Inflation rate(INF) and (c)&nbsp; Interest rate(INT) on stock prices&nbsp; of quoted companies (BSE Sensex) and it’s growth in India. From the existing empirical and theoretical work on stock market returns[2-3], it was observed that these three variables are the primary determinants for any economy .To know how much inflation rate is good enough is a question that experts have always thrived to answer. How inflation rate, interest rate and GDP growth rate impacts the sensex growth: positively or negatively is a question that we are looking answers for.The sensex growth is the dependent variable in our study.This study, to know if all the three variables-GDP growth rate, Inflation rate and Interest rate impact the sensex growth will be descriptive in nature. The quantitative data collected will be secondary in nature and the Proposed hypothesis for the research would be:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Hypothesis 1: Is there a significant impact of GDP Growth rate on the sensex growth</p> <p>Hypothesis 2: Is there a significant impact of Inflation rate on the sensex growth</p> <p>Hypothesis 3: Is there a significant impact of Interest rate on the sensex growth</p> <p>The method used for analysis will be Multiple Regression. Further work can be done to develop a model for finding the stabilised inflation rate after analysing the impact of inflation rate After COVID-19, the structural break in the market can be seen. Knowing how the variables impact the sensex growth will give the society the knowledge as to how the market will move in the coming time.</p> Ritu Singh Swapna Sen Copyright (c) 2021 Ritu Singh, Swapna Sen 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 A review and analysis of IoT in the disease’s diagnosis and detection https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3278 <p>In this paper a review and analysis were performed based on the Internet of Things (IoT) for the disease’s diagnosis and detection. This paper covers different aspect of IoT applications in the direction of disease’s diagnosis and detection. This paper explores the opportunities through different sensor devices. The assessment and analysis were performed based on different parameters which covers the parametric evaluation of IoT based sensor for the growth of the medical structures. It also covers the new challenges and prospective solutions with detail discussion and analysis. It shows the detail exploration of applicability of artificial intelligence and machine learning.</p> Ravita Chahar Ashutosh Kumar Dubey Copyright (c) 2021 Ravita Chahar, Ashutosh Kumar Dubey 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Affordable Housing with Prefabricated construction technology in India: An approach to sustainable supply https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3437 <p>The housing shortage is a global problem, no country has yet achieved complete satisfaction in providing enough housing even to its urban population. There are a huge number of homeless people in the world that have nowhere to live or inadequately living in the slums with a lack of basic amenities [1]. The housing sector of India found itself in a paradoxical situation where 11 million houses are vacant in urban areas [2] despite the huge demand of 18.78 million urban housing in India [3]. This huge demand for urban housing led the government to initiate the “Housing for all” scheme in 2015, under which 20 million urban houses have to be constructed by 2022, this brings to around 8000 the number of units to be constructed per day [4]. The issue has reached a stage where such a huge demand cannot be addressed using traditional construction methods, as these procedures are time-intensive, wasteful, and have inherent quality control issues besides pollution &amp; GHG emissions [5]. Hence, this advocates that there is a vital requirement of an efficient and quick-to-build method to meet the ever-increasing requirement of affordable housing in India.</p> <p>As mankind progresses through the twenty-first century, sustainable development has become a global imperative. In the construction world, prefabricated construction is a relatively new idea and to achieve sustainability, the housing initiatives must be economically viable, socially acceptable, technically practicable, and environmentally suitable [6]. Prefab houses have the advantages of reducing time consumption and being environmentally friendly. Its benefits include site and health safety during construction, less wastage, improved quality of the indoor environment, and assurance of overall quality management. Prefabricated homes claim to be less damaged in natural disasters and also ensure long-lasting durability. It also helps in environment-friendly construction with low waste generation, less pollution, controlled use of water and other resources. The usage of prefabrication technology is theoretically in line to deliver a sustainable supply of affordable housing by embracing sustainable housing initiatives.</p> <p>Despite the huge demand for affordable housing, prefabrication is yet to be adopted by the stakeholders because most of the developers are averse to invest in prefabricated building technologies and are hesitant to use prefabrication in new and ongoing projects because of its associated challenges and financial issues because many people perceive prefab homes are of sub-standard quality and it’s for the poor people’s, which makes them extremely difficult to resell. Although increased financing for prefab companies is encouraging but banks do not appear to be more interested in smaller clients who intend to utilise the non-traditional construction methods. Banks must also be more willing to provide financing to those who buy prefabricated homes [7].</p> <p>This study aims to explore the issues associated with the adoption of prefabrication technology in the Indian context that needs to be addressed for the design of affordable housings.&nbsp; A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Various publications from journals and conferences were used to compile a thematic analysis.</p> <p>This research will help to understand the present scenario of prefabricated construction technology and its potential to supply sustainable affordable housing in developing nations like India. This research will also address the major challenges that need to be addressed in the present scenario to enable the adoption of prefabricated construction technology as an efficient method to fulfil the demand-supply gap in the housing sector of India. The key challenges identified in this study will further provide a base to conduct further researches by the developers and other construction agencies.</p> <p>Despite having high potential, prefabricated construction is not a widely adopted mode of construction across India. The research findings indicate the major issues which are obstructing the stakeholders to adopt the prefabricated construction technology. &nbsp;Adoption, implementation and widespread deployment of prefabrication are urgently required to improve the efficiency, quality, and speed of construction, as well as to raise public awareness. The prefabrication process has significance to propel the Indian affordable housing sector to the next level and to meet India’s ever-increasing demand for affordable housing.</p> Shubham Jain Harveen Bhandari Copyright (c) 2021 Shubham Jain, Harveen Bhandari 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Interoperability: A Challenge for IoMT https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3517 <p><em>Internet </em><em>of Medical Things is the interconnectivity of highly sophisticated medical grade devices and software applications to work together and provide a new improved version of health care environment in this era. Wearable and standalone devices like Fitbit, remote patient monitoring system use sensor technology to exchange medical information of patients from remote areas to health workforces’ over wireless network. Apart from being advantageous IoMT faces challenges like safety, cyber security and scalability, interoperability, verification and validation. Interoperability is a facility through which m-health devices, databases share and maintains health records seamlessly. Interoperability basically deals with the exchange, interpretation and usage of data delivered through different computerized gadgets without restrictions. Currently there are numerous government-certified EHR products each of which has different technical, clinical and serviceable capabilities. Being heterogeneous in nature it becomes hard to achieve a single standard&nbsp;interoperability&nbsp;format to exchange data.</em></p> Gausiya Yasmeen Nashra Javed Tasneem Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Gausiya Yasmeen , Nashra Javed, Tasneem Ahmed 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Examining the Role of Fintech in the Future of Retail Banking https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2987 <p>FinTech is a broad term and can refer to both sustaining and disruptive financial innovations [2].</p> <p>Ongoing FinTech developments include peer-to-peering financing, crowdfunding, alternative exchanges, initial coin offerings, and decentralized digital currencies, among others [1]. The aim of this research is to examine the effect of FinTech development on the future of retail banking in India. This aim is attained by exploring the effect of FinTech on the market power of banks in India and their relation with technical efficiency. The association between FinTech and the competition (market power) and efficiency of banks is explained by the Structure-Conduct-Performance (SCP) theory. The data used in the research covers the period of 2011-2019 for thirty-four banks from India. The financial data have been collected from the Bureau van Dijk. FinTech is represented by the volume of mobile banking transactions retrieved from the Reserve Bank of India.</p> <p>This study offers three types of contribution, namely: empirical, theoretical, and methodological. The empirical contribution is that it is the first study to examine the relationship between FinTech development, market power, and efficiency of banks in India. The main theoretical contribution is that this research extends the traditional SCP framework by including the exogenous factors of FinTech that drive innovations. The main methodological contribution is that this study estimates the technical efficiency of all scheduled banks in India using DEA, with various assumptions such as variable returns to scale (VRS), constant returns to scale (CRS), and decreasing returns to scale (DRS). Findings indicate that FinTech is making the banking industry in India more competitive.</p> <p>Market power is positively associated with efficiency, suggesting that the banks with higher concentration in the industry are also more efficient. At the same time, FinTech is negatively related to efficiency, which implies that the growth of FinTech leads to lower technical efficiency of banks. This could be a negative factor for producer surplus, but it is a positive factor for consumer surplus.</p> <p>A robustness check performed by changing the dependent variable to ROA, ROE, Net Margin, Efficiency Score with CRS, and Efficiency Score with DRS demonstrates that FinTech is significantly and negatively associated with efficiency when the latter is represented by ROA, ROE, Efficiency Score with VRS, and Efficiency Score with CRS.</p> <p>In conclusion, FinTech is making the banking industry more competitive in India. At the same time, FinTech has a negative impact on the efficiency of banks, which could be explained by the reduction of the producer surplus at the expense of the increase in consumer surplus. The results are consistent with expectations that FinTech is disrupting the traditional banking industry, making it adapt to the new reality even if the new way of doing business brings less efficiency.</p> Parminder Varma Shivinder Nijjer Copyright (c) 2021 Parminder Varma, Shivinder Nijjer 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Identifying factors influencing purchase of school books in India: Identifying role of Attitude, Trust and Aspiration https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3031 <p>Objectives:</p> <p>The objective of this study is to explore the intellectual development of consumer behaviour in purchase of school books through previous published research studies.</p> <p>Following are the research objectives.</p> <p>O1: To examine the impact of physical attributes, perceived enjoyment, cost and attributes on attitude towards purchase of text books.[1-7]</p> <p>O2: To analyse the impact of physical attributes, perceived enjoyment, cost and attributes on trust towards purchase of text books [3-4]</p> <p>O3: To investigate the impact of physical attributes, perceived enjoyment, cost and attributes on aspiration towards purchase of printed books.[4-5]</p> <p>O4: To study the impact of attitude, trust, aspiration on repurchase intention of text books [6]</p> <p>O5: To understand the moderating role of habit between attitude, trust, aspiration and repurchase intention of a print book. [4], [6-7]</p> <p>Importance:</p> <p>We try to explore as to what will be those factors that will directly have an impact on the purchase making decisions of the consumer i.e., the purchase intentions of print books. The constructs identified from the study shall provide significant insights to marketers to define and operationalise different strategies specially in education publishing industry which today stands at several thousand crores. This would also help them to understand as to what drives the consumers purchase intention in lieu of school books.</p> <p>Research Methodology:</p> <p>Future study will be based on exploratory and descriptive research design followed by mixed method approach. While most of the factors will be drawn from existing literature. Some will be identified new basis Exploratory research analysis.</p> <p>Hypotheses:</p> <p>Basis Literature review and identified constructs, following hypotheses were formulated.</p> <p>H1: Physical attributes have a positive impact on attitude towards purchase of a print book.</p> <p>H2: Physical attributes have a positive impact on trust towards purchase of a print book</p> <p>H3: Physical attributes have a positive impact on aspirations towards purchase of a text book.</p> <p>H4: Perceived enjoyment has a positive impact on attitude that may lead purchase of print books.</p> <p>H5: Perceived enjoyment has a positive impact on trust that may lead to purchase of print book.</p> <p>H6: Perceived enjoyment has a positive impact on aspirations that may lead to purchase of print books.</p> <p>H7: Cost has a positive impact on attitude that may lead purchase of print books.</p> <p>H8: Cost has a positive impact on trust that may lead to purchase of print books.</p> <p>H9: Cost has a positive impact on aspirations that may lead to purchase of print books.</p> <p>H10: Social Norms have a positive impact on attitude that may lead purchase of print books.</p> <p>H11: Social Norms have a positive impact on trust that may lead to purchase of print books.</p> <p>H12: Social Norms have a positive impact on aspirations that may lead to purchase of print books.</p> <p>H13: Habit moderates the relationship between Trust and repurchase intention.</p> Hardarshdeep Singh Madan Urvashi Tandon Copyright (c) 2021 Hardarshdeep Singh Madan, Urvashi Tandon 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Leading Inclusive Schools for Diverse Learners: Principals Perspectives Track 3: Education https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3072 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>&nbsp;School principals play a vital role in providing equal opportunities to all learners and building a culture of acceptance. The paper attempts to explore the organizational conditions that support effective inclusive schools with focus on National Education Policy, 2020 in the Indian context. Further, it examines the role of school principals in implementing inclusive education in their respective schools and the impact of inclusion of children with disabilities on their leadership practices. The study offers the policymakers and practitioners useful suggestions in terms of the challenges and opportunities for developing effective inclusive schools and designing programmes for inclusive leadership in the light of the New Education Policy 2020.</p> Harpreet Kaur N. Mythili Sneh Bansal Sangeeta Pant Copyright (c) 2021 Harpreet Kaur, N. Mythili, Sneh Bansal, Sangeeta Pant 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Financial Literacy and Financial Inclusion: A Systematic Literature Review https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3087 <p>Globalization and Innovation coupled with technological advancements has opened up a plethora of options for consumers across the world to choose the best as per the need and suitability (Grohmann &amp; Menkhoff , 2020).One of key areas which drives a country’s economy is the financial services .The health of the economy depends on how its citizens have been included in the financial&nbsp; mainstream (Hogarth,2006) .The world of&nbsp; financial services have&nbsp; seen&nbsp; rapid changes in the&nbsp; last decade (Sukumaran,2020).The 2008 financial crisis was a shattering experience for the financial world comprising of Banks, financial institution and exposed the vulnerability of consumers (Björklund &amp; Sandahl 2020). The event set the stage for the need for financial education and awareness for one and all (Atkinson &amp; Messy 2012). The United Nations have defined removal of poverty as a sustainable development goal and financial inclusion has been defined as a means to achieve it (Ahmed &amp; Singel, 2020). Financial inclusion and inclusive growth involves collaboration of all players of financial sectors working for wellbeing of all individuals (Santini et al., 2019) and with products and services which are made accessible and affordable to all&nbsp; On one side we see a lot of stress by policy&nbsp; makers on inclusive&nbsp; growth which have&nbsp; lead the policy makers to dole out credit schemes, financial products, fin-tech enabled application to&nbsp; spread&nbsp; the reach ( Lusardi et al, 2017 ), however&nbsp; data&nbsp; and survey&nbsp; show that the financial inclusion still&nbsp; remains at low levels. (Tustin, 2010).The need for simplified financial education for empowering consumers to participate and choose the products and schemes is still desired (Connell, 2009).</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The last two decades have seen a surge in literature on financial literacy ,defining criteria&nbsp; of measurement of&nbsp; financial literacy&nbsp; and studying the&nbsp; outcome&nbsp; of&nbsp; financial literacy programs&nbsp; and campaigns , in terms of financial behaviour of the consumers&nbsp; (Brunson 2017).&nbsp; The definition of financial literacy&nbsp; has&nbsp; also&nbsp; been reviewed&nbsp; and&nbsp; analyzed&nbsp; by&nbsp; the researchers in the last few years to encompass all the aspects&nbsp; (Hung A. et al 2009) and&nbsp; make it more inclusive&nbsp; keeping in mind the socio economic conditions of the developing&nbsp; countries (Sholevar,&amp; Harris, 2019), The most critical outcome&nbsp; and impact&nbsp; assessment is financial inclusion&nbsp; for&nbsp; which a composite index was developed to&nbsp; be used&nbsp; for measurement .Customized financial programs need to designed and conducted across population to improve financial inclusion (Lusardi, 2019).&nbsp; Measures to improve financial literacy and programs have also been advised by United Nations to the governments in order to achieve sustainable development (<a href="http://www.unsgsa.org">www.unsgsa.org</a>).</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The review of the literature and detailed content analysis has established the importance of financial literacy but need for effectiveness has been highlighted.The research gaps are</p> <ul> <li>The method adopted for financial education intervention plays a critical role in increasing financial literacy.</li> <li>The quality and effectiveness of intervention needs to analyzed to ensure efficacy of the efforts in this direction</li> <li>Longitudinal studies are required to track the impact of intervention to understand factors of sustainable literacy</li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>After examining and analyzing the literature, similar constructs were identified and examined .These are then categorized under antecedents and consequences of financial literacy intervention.&nbsp; The 5 dimensions of the method of intervention were also enlisted in the framework. The method adopted has been used by (Santini et al. 2018; Goyal &amp; Kumar, 2020)</p> <p>The primary scope of this paper is to analyze the evolution of financial literacy and financial inclusion across the last two decades.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Amanjot Kaur Rajit Verma Copyright (c) 2021 Amanjot Kaur, Rajit Verma 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Dialysis water quality and its impact on Maintenance Hemodialysis Community https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3119 <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>The quality of water for Haemodialysis (HD) is a concern for all the dialysis centre because of its impacts on the health of HD patients. There is guidelines for maximum limits for chemical contaminants, bacterial colony forming unis and for endotoxin limits by Association for advancement of medical instrumentation (AAMI. But some of the contaminants like Fungus and Algae are still missing from guidelines. Impurities in dialysis water can lead to so many health issues among HD community and it can increase the mortality rate as well. The present paper focus on the health impacts of different contaminants in dialysis water and health impacts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>It is well known that the impurities in water used for (HD) can affect the quality of life of people on maintenance HD[1]. People on maintenance HD are exposed to 300-600 liters water to their blood thrice a week. There are international standards established for a safe HD treatment since the world started to face the adverse events related to quality of water used for HD[2]. The parameters of water used for HD should be maintained for maximum allowable limits for chemical contaminants and microbiological contaminants as per association for advancement of medical instrumentation (AAMI)[1,2]. The impact of different chemical and microbiological contaminants on the health of people on HD also available with AAMI. Still the researches in-progress about current allowable limits of contaminants and based on the researches AAMI is updating new allowable limits time to time. Hemodialysis is a popular treatment mode since 1960 and the new inventions are happening day by day in this field. Still there are few areas to be noticed by the researchers to help the quality of life of HD community. Water quality assessment is very difficult in underdeveloped countries due to the lack of water analysis labs and higher cost. Only the developed countries are able to maintain the quality of dialysis water as per the international standards due to the availability of resources. The rural areas of developing countries also facing lack of resources to maintain the dialysis water quality as per the international standards[1-4]. So, the objective of the paper is to understand the health impacts of different contaminants to the HD community as well as&nbsp; to understand the different contaminants present in HD water other than AAMI recommendation in Various HD centers all over the world.</p> <p>Review of literature.</p> <p>As per the health issues which can occur in people on HD due to various contaminants in water used for HD, there are international guidelines available like European, Association for advancement of medical instrumentation (AAMI) standards etc. Some Countries follows their own guidelines incorporated with AAMI or American national standards institute (ANSI). Among these guidelines, most popular and world widely accepted one is AAMI standards mentioned in Table 1</p> <p>Table:1-</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Contaminants</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>Maximum allowable limits(mg/L) of Chemical contaminants for HD water as per AAMI RD52 guidelines</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Calcium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>2</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Magnesium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>4</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Potassium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>8</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Sodium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>70</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Antimony</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.006</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Arsenic</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.005</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Barium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.10</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Beryllium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.0004</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Cadmium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.001</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Chromium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.014</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Lead</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.005</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Mercury</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.0002</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Selenium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.09</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Silver</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.005</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Aluminum</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.01</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Chloramines</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.10</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Free chlorine</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.50</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Copper</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.10</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Fluoride</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.20</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Nitrate (as N)</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>2.0</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Sulfate</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>100</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Thallium</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.002</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="138"> <p>Zinc</p> </td> <td width="325"> <p>0.10</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Table 3 [1,2,3]</p> <table width="576"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="123"> <p><strong>Microbiological contaminants</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>Maximum allowable limits of microbiological contaminants as per </strong><strong>ANSI/AAMI/ISO 13959:2009<sup>a</sup></strong>&nbsp;<strong>and 23500:2011 and ANSI/AAMI RD 23500:2014</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="123"> <p>Bacteria (water and dialysate)</p> </td> <td width="454"> <p>&lt;100 CFU/ml (Action limit is more than or equal to 50CFU/ml) &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="123"> <p>Endotoxin (water)</p> </td> <td width="454"> <p>&lt;0.25 EU/ml (Action limit is more than or equal to 0.125 EU/ml)</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>As per the year 2015, nearly more than 380000 people in united states on maintenance HD. As per the year 2018 the patients on maintenance dialysis in India is approximately above 180000.Microbial contaminated dialysis water can lead to bacteremia, chronic inflammation and symptoms of septicemia or a pyrogenic reaction [1,2,5,6].</p> <p>&nbsp;Anemia in HD community can be due to higher levels of aluminum, chloramine, copper and zinc in dialysis water. Bone diseases can be due to the higher levels of Aluminum and fluoride. Hemolysis can happen due to the increased level of contaminants like chloramine, copper and nitrates. Hypotension can occur among HD community if there is an increased level of bacteria, endotoxin, nitrates, calcium and magnesium. Presence of sulfates, copper and a low pH of dialysis water can lead to acidosis. Increased limits of calcium and magnesium in dialysis water can cause muscle weakness among HD community. Nausea and vomiting can also precipitate by the increased presence of bacteria, calcium, copper, endotoxin, low pH, magnesium, nitrates, sulfates, and zinc in dialysis water. Neurological deterioration is the one of the side effects of increased aluminum in dialysis water. Fever and chills can be precipitated by Bacteria, endo toxin, copper and zinc. Increased copper in dialysis water alone can cause severe headache as well as liver damage among HD community. The impurities which is present in dialysis water will lead to hypertension are calcium, magnesium, copper and sodium [6,7].&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>As per the research in Iraq about water quality in HD unit showed that 75% of the Units having high aluminum and some units showed elevated total chlorine level in dialysis water[6,7,8,9]. Research in Iran also showed the reality of inability of hemodialysis centers to maintain the dialysis water quality as per the AAMI standard. Researcher in Italy reported the importance of checking the presence of fungi in dialysis water [10,11].Research in Morocco showed the presence of different types&nbsp; of gram negative bacteria and antibiotic resistant bacteria[12].</p> <p>Researcher from Japan reported that most of the HD units showed an endotoxin level &lt;0.05EU/ml and the rate of all cause of mortality were high in dialysis water quality having more than or equal to 0.01EU/ml [13].</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong></p> <p>This is a narrative review.</p> <p>Key words: Dialysis fluid; hemodialysis; water quality</p> <p><strong>Expected contribution of your PhD work.</strong></p> <p>It can be helpful to understand the severity of the impacts among HD community related to dialysis water impurities and the efficiency of dialysis water quality maintenance among different countries. it will be helpful to understand about more severe contaminants in their drinking water to be taken care.</p> <p><strong>Major Findings and Conclusion</strong></p> <p>There is a need for strict regulation for dialysis water quality in all over the world and its periodic evaluation will be able to save the dialysis community from water contaminants related complications. Application of a provision to achieve approval for initiating dialysis center from government authorities based on water quality and its regular evaluation and maintenance will help to improve the quality of life of HD community. Proper disinfection of dialysis water circuits to be done regularly to avoid the microbiological contaminants for the safety of HD community. The presence of fungi and antibiotic resistance bacteria in dialysis water shows the need of an updated standards of currently available AAMI standard.</p> Kiran VT Jyotsna Kaushal Copyright (c) 2021 Kiran VT, Jyotsna Kaushal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Worrywarts of employees in the Information Technology sector of India https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3153 <p>The health of employees in the organization has been a researchable topic for a long time, and there is strong evidence that the workplace environment can have a significant impact on employee health. As a result, employee worrywart has become a major concern of IT organizations [1-2]. The present study focuses on worrywarts of employees in Information Technology sector of India. India's IT companies, which have been bedrock of the economy, are likely to lose business due to worrywarts of employees [3]. The present study concludes the reason behind the worrywarts in employees of IT sector. The study has been followed the review of literature approach and looked at employee worrywarts in the IT industry during the past two decades. The effort has been posited to recognize the significant worrywarts of workplace. The previous researchers [4-7] work shows that workload, digital change, a lack of analytics and coding skills, employment risk, health difficulties of employee have been identified as the significant worrywarts as the conclusion of study. The findings of the study are identified by alarming worrywarts in employee’s life. The study findings shall be helpful for employers, investors, employee, researchers and the other stakeholders of service sector of India to recognize the hassles in the employee productivity and organizational resilience.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Neha Chaturvedi Pawan Kumar Chand Copyright (c) 2021 Neha Chaturvedi, Pawan Kumar Chand 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Taste Masked Anthelmintics Chewable Tablets by Using chewable tablet https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3191 <p>The aim of the current study is to develop and evaluate patient friendly taste masked&nbsp;anthelmintics chewable tablets for pediatrics and geriatrics use. However, the chewable tablets have to disintegrate in the mouth before swallowing, which makes the chewable tablet dosage forms inappropriate for bitter active ingredients [1]. For people with dysphasia (difficulty in swallowing), chewable tablets are an excellent alternative to conventional tablets. Chewable tablets reduce the risk of drug-induced esophagi is-when a tablet is caught in the esophagus and dissolves while remaining in contact with the sensitive esophagus lining. Chewable tablets can help to avoid this problem.These dosage forms are large in sizes which are hard for swallowing consequently, chewable tablets chewing in buccal depression earlier swallowing. Ideal characteristics of chewable tablets that incorporate easy to bite, Palatable (taste-conceal or of adequate taste) and suitable size and shape. The excipient incorporate extraordinary thought, they should be given to those materials that structure the reason for chewable tablet formulation [2]. FDA published guidance in 2018 on quality attribute considerations for chewable tablets. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by flukes (trematodes) of the genus&nbsp;<em>Schistosoma</em>. More than 140 million people, 90% of who live in Africa, are infected with schistosomiasis. An estimated 700 million people are at risk of infection in 76 countries where the disease is considered endemic, as their agricultural work, domestic chores, and recreational activities expose them to infested water. Since no vaccine exists against schistosomiasis. Treatment of schistosomiasis has relied on the anthelmintic drug praziquantel (PZQ) for more than a generation. PZQ is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis; it is effective against all major forms of schistosomiasis, although it is less active against juvenile than mature parasites [3]. In this study, a polymer (Eudragit® EPO) has been used as coating to overshadow the unpleasant taste of drug. The taste-masking study in human volunteers revealed that Coating solution of Eudragit EPO was applied on praziquentel granules by “granules coating technique” with help of Fluid Bed Processor GPCG 1.1 (Top Spray). This strategy is better as compared to coating of praziquentel granules with Eudragit EPO in Rapid Mixer Granulator. At high pH, formulation shows low disintegration and dissolution due to its low water solubility. Initially eudragit EPO coating on praziquantel was performed in RMG and coated granules were compressed to form taste masked chewable tablets of praziquantel.&nbsp; But sensory evaluation studies shows that they were failed to mask the bitter taste of praziquantel. For this reason Eudragit coating in RMG was replaced by Eudragit coating in FBP so that more efficient coating can be achieved for the development of taste masked chewable tablets. Sensory evaluation data reveals that increasing percentage composition of eudragit coating in FBP was able to mask the bitter taste of praziquantel to significant levels. But bitterness of praziquantel was not completely masked. To mask the bitter taste of praziquantel completely additionally mannitol was added in the formulation as sweetening agent. Sensory evaluation data shows that mannitol addition in formulation aids in taste masking and bitter taste of praziquantel was completely masked. The optimized formulation of Praziquantel taste masked chewable tablets were then subjected to accelerated stability studies as stated by ICH which showed that the tablets were stable for eight weeks.&nbsp; The drug release were&gt;98% in 60 min. The key excipient in chewable tablets incorporate flavor enhancing agent and sweetening agent. In this present research work, the chewable tablets were prepared by wet granulation method [4]. Compression of chewable tablet was done by Rimek mini press tablet compression machine. The pre-compression parameters assessed for the granules produced. All these pre-compression parameters are include angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr’s index, Houser’s ratio (32°, 0.4674 g/cc, 0.5658 g/cc, 17.39 %, 1.21 respectively). Chewable tablets are evaluated by chemical and physical evaluation methods [5]. Physical methods and chemical methods that include Average weight (pass), Hardness (9 Kpa), Friability (0.10%), Thickness (6.92mm), Dissolution (97.8-98.3%), drug content (98.1%), Accelerated stability studies (no change after 8 week), Drug release kinetic (first order, 0.9955) and sensory evaluation (bitterness average value 0).</p> Anita Antil Sukhbir Singh Neelam Sharma Rahul Sharma Copyright (c) 2021 Anita Antil, Sukhbir Singh, Neelam Sharma, Rahul Sharma 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Artificial Intelligence enabled Customer Relationship Management revolutionizing Mutual Fund decisions, - review paper https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3225 <p>Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has redefined the outlook of the business in 21st Century. Customers have started evaluating companies on the basis of relationship that a company develops with the customers. Companies have stated giving respect to the voice of customers. In last few decades marketing has a new component that is Relationship Marketing (RM) which with the inculcation of technology has been named as CRM. Relationship has become one of the most import aspects of businesses. Relationship makes customers loyal and motivates them to repeat purchase. Companies are now being differentiated on the basis of the relationship that they develop with the customers through technology driven CRM. CRM has evolved over the years in terms to theories, models and usage of technologies. It came to lime light in late 90’s with the introduction of computer software and programs like database management, Excel, etc. Companies are using latest technologies and concepts in CRM are trying to evaluate the outcome of concepts like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Gamification and Block Chain in CRM software. Not much study has been done on the evolution of CRM with respect to these latest technologies impacting financial services like mutual funds.</p> <p>A comprehensive study has been done in this review paper basis on the usage of new technologies in the evolution of CRM over the years and how it has benefitted the fintech industry especially in Mutual Fund sector. Four major journals have been considered for this review paper these are, Taylor and Francis, Emerald, IEEE and Ebasco. For latest technologies like Blockchain, AI and Gamification, researchers also considered Gratner as well which is a global research and advisory firm.&nbsp; Gartner is been considered as much papers are not published in the above four databases The goal of this paper is to review the revolution of CRM like ECRM, Social CRM, Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Gamification and Blockchain in parallel with evolution of CRM in Mutual Fund sector.</p> Suman Kumar Deb Ruchi Jain Sanjiv Marwah Copyright (c) 2021 Suman Kumar Deb, Ruchi Jain, Sanjiv Marwah 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Unravelling The Interactions Prevailing in Mixed Micellar System of Surface-Active Ionic Liquid and Cationic Surfactant https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3258 <p>The investigation of mixed micellar behavior of surface-active ionic liquid (SAIL) i.e. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexadecyl sulfate [C<sub>4</sub>mim][HS] with cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been done to explore the type of interactions prevailing in SAIL/Surfactant mixed system. For this, the conductometric measurements are carried out at (298.15, 308.15 and 318.15) K for various mole fractions of [C<sub>4</sub>mim][HS]. Various theoretical models such as Clint, Rubingh, Motomura and Rodenas have been applied to understand mixed micellar behavior of SAIL/Surfactant mixed system. The value of critical micelle concentrations (cmc), ideal critical micelle concentrations (cmc*), micellar mole fraction based upon various models, interaction parameter (β) and various thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated for the studied systems. The variations of various parameters with respect to temperature and mole fractions give insight to type of interactions present in mixed system.</p> Gagandeep Kaur Harsh Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Gagandeep Kaur, Harsh Kumar 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Transformation of the Design Studio in New Learning Spaces: Virtual Design Studio in Architecture Pedagogy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3418 <p>With the outbreak of COVID-19 at the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, China from where it spread rapidly all over the world and subsequent declaration as pandemic by World Health Organisation on March 11, 2020 [1], the entire world came under strict lockdown. All sectors including education could continue to function only through internet using ICT tools. Like many educational institutions, architectural education, too, turned towards a ‘new normal’ – online classes but with its own problems as architecture programme is majorly dependent on the social studio setting, and hence, facing a major challenge[2]. Design Studio, a core component, relies on face-to-face interaction in a physical studio environment for constructive feedback [3]. Under this ‘new normal’, manual drafting and model making has been replaced with digital design platforms [4]. Therefore, in addition to software skills, students are required to develop their online presentation and organisational skills for showcasing design ideas [4-5].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Various researchers have conducted surveys amongst students and faculty members on the impact of online education and remote design education since the beginning of global lockdown in 2020. More than 65% were not satisfied with online design studio as faculty members had difficulty discussing ideas visually without hardware [6]. Kauser (2021) reports that teaching design studios online was not effective due to issues like plagiarism, increased stress levels, loss of student interest, reduced design quality, lack of access to resources, psychological and emotional challenges, and, lack of self-motivation [7]. 75% of faculty members support teaching theory subjects online but 65% felt that virtual design education was ineffective. It was reported that psychological, communication, privacy and time management issues were faced by the faculty members [8]. Other issues include malpractice during exams, lack of interaction [9], fixation on design, difficulty in emulating traditional studio environment, difficulty in creative discussion [10], reduced social connectivity and lack of peer support [4].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>As solution to the issues addressed above, some of the researchers have suggested a few best practices. To list the same – For effective communication in virtual studio environments, one could use Miro, an alternative drawing and brainstorming software. To avoid malpractice during exams, open-book tests or project-based evaluation methods may be adopted [2]. Similarly, virtual field trips could improve student engagement and their overall interest [11]. Also, to maintain social connectivity during the period of social distancing, group assignments [12] and studio desk reviews [4] can stimulate peer-to-peer student interaction [2]. Amongst the digital technologies, Extended Realities (XR) like Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (VR) and Mixed Reality (MR), could be integrated in digital learning to provide students with enhanced experience in the learning of both theory and studio subjects [2]. The benefits of these ER are improved spatial perception [10], safety and less expensive [12].</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The review of literature reveals that hardly any such research has been conducted amongst the architecture colleges of India. This research proposes to take up the same to further it in the Indian context. The proposed hypothesis is –</p> <p><em>“Conducting design studio online during the pandemic situation is the beginning of a new era for ‘Virtual Design Studio’ and is here to stay even after the pandemic situation is over.”</em></p> <p>The main objectives of this research would be to get an understanding of difficulties faced by teachers and students of architecture institutions in India during the pandemic situation; to determine the teaching-learning methods preferred in the online design studio pedagogy as well as the effectiveness of online studio environment that replaces the physical studio; to measure the level of adaptation of digital technologies in online design studio teaching-learning process.</p> Sachin Harry Ambuj Kumar Copyright (c) 2021 Sachin Harry, Ambuj Kumar 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 Representation of the Postcolonial Migrants’ Multi-Religious Cultures and the Fantasy of Christianity in John Lanchester’s Capital https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3535 <p><em>The world broaches the religious cultural discrimination between the imperialist countries and the colonized immigrants. John Lanchester spreads over the conflicts of multi-religious culture of migrants and the proud of Christmas festival in European countries in his novel, Capital. The Christian countries have defeated the migrants by showing pretentious prevailing city life in London. Unfortunately, some migrating labourers are illiterate to encounter them all. Some literary writings have broadened it to world people. He tries to solve the conflicts of religious cultures among the poor people. He forces migrants not to convert themselves from one religion to another for getting job. He also emancipates his presser to look after the life of migrating people in European countries. This novel elongates many themes related to the social and economic exploitation of poor migrants at Pepys Road in London. He then indirectly talks about the three religions: Hinduism, Islamism and Christianity in it. He proves that London is a place for Christianity by decorating for Christmas. </em></p> Vijay P Vijayakumar M Copyright (c) 2021 Vijay P, Vijayakumar M 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Determinants of Technology Adaption within the framework of TOE: An Insurance sector perspective https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3048 <p><strong>Abstract: </strong>Over the last 4 years several interesting technology drivers have hit the market. Each of the technology has affected the Insurance Industry significantly. The cost of acquiring the customer through the digital medium is the least compared to the traditional methods. These changes in the industry could be analyzed based on the Social, Technological, Economic, Environmental, and Political aspects.[1]. The social Changes include non-interaction with customary channels including agents and using social media and online channels where they can make the decisions.[2].The main technology disruptors in digitalization in the insurance industry are Digital platforms; Internet of Things; Telematics and Telemetry; Big Data and Data Analytics; Comparators and Robo advisers, algorithm-based product comparison and advice; Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence. Big data has enabled new pricing models with greater risk segmentation.[3] Artificial Intelligence and Machine learning algorithms are used for predicting Customer churn in the insurance industry.[4], Several companies have invested in different models of Chatbots with Natural language processing.[5],Distributed ledger technologies are used as alternate currencies in Insurance. The authors feel it will take another 4 -5 years to have a successful blockchain application.[6] Nine elements of digital transformation talk about how Digitalization and digital transformation is changing existing businesses and organizations. They also feel digital activity combined with Strong leadership amounts to Digital Maturity.&nbsp; Important aspects like&nbsp; Executive involvement and Participation in the Management of Information Technology and Top management support in providing a supportive climate and providing adequate Human capital is an absolute requirement for Technology Adoption.[7] Management support by providing vision and resources as the complexity and the sophistication of the technology increases. Need to have partner relationships with the IT vendors and how the relationship evolved over the period. how technology is designed to use with the Employees, customers, and all other Human partners. This will lead to large-scale re-skilling, re-inventing, and re-employing a significant chunk of the employees. 8]&nbsp; in their study of readiness in technology, pressure from the competitors and the collaboration with the trading partner are important for IT adoption. The High-tech technology firms will be facing constant changes, cost pressures and they need to stay ahead or at least follow the competition’s adoption of New Technologies</p> <p>The model which will be used here is the TOE (Technology, Organization, and Environment) framework. In addition, to the TOE model, the origin of the country and the effect in the adoption of Technology is the novelty of the study. This study analyses the following Hypothesis.H1: IT Infrastructure will have a positive and significant effect on IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H2: Complexity will have a negative and significant effect on IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H3: The compatibility will have a positive and significant effect on IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H4: Top management support will have a positive and significant effect on IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H5: The firm size will have a positive and significant effect on IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H6: Technology competence will have a positive and significant effect on IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H7: Competitive pressure will have a positive and significant effect on IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H8: Service Provider sponsorship will have a positive and significant effect on IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H9: The origin of the country will moderate the relationships between the TOE framework and IT Adoption in the insurance sector.H9(a): The origin of the country moderates the relationships between IT Infrastructure and IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H9(b): The origin of the country moderate the relationships between complexity and IT Adoption in the insurance sector.H9(c): The origin of the country moderate the relationships between compatibility and IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H9(d):The origin of the country moderate the relationships between top management support and IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H9(e): The origin of the country moderate the relationships between firm size and IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H9(f): The origin of the country moderate the relationships between technology competence and IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H9(g): The origin of the country moderates the relationships between competitive pressure and IT Adoption in the insurance sector. H9(h): The origin of the country moderate the relationships between service provider sponsorship and IT Adoption in the insurance sector.</p> <p>The survey was done for the insurance companies in the USA and India for convenience. It also does not account for the availability of trained manpower in the new Insuretech technologies and the effectiveness of the re-skilling of the technology employees. The study is important as most of the Insurance companies are moving away from the age-old tradition of the Agent-based model to direct to the customer. This has lead to changes in the technology by which the companies increase the outreach and the digital mindset of the leadership.This will be a guide on how the adoption of new technologies is governed by the environment, organization, and the technology itself. This also sheds light on how the origin of the country moderates these adoptions and how the country through its Digital, legal ecosystem supports it.</p> Manoj Kumar P A Arun Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 Manoj Kumar P A, Arun Aggarwal 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Design and Analysis of Real Time Applications Based on Software Designed Radio (SDR) Using 2×2 MIMO USRP 2920 and LabVIEW https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3102 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>The utilisation of radio spectrum is becoming more necessary in light of recent advancements in wireless technologies. The available spectrum, on the other hand, is very constrained. In other words, Cognitive Radio (CR) is utilised to make the best use of the spectrum that is available. It is a software defined radio (SDR) for use in RF applications, developed by National Instruments as the USRP (Universal Software Radio Peripheral). It is possible to specify as many radio functionalities as possible in software using the NI USRP -SDR. In light of the SDR, we should be able to make changes to the radio architecture as needed. In the end, hardware problems become software problems. Broadcast and receive RF signals in a wide range of bands are possible with NI transceivers, making them suitable for educational and research applications in communications. Wireless algorithm designs may be cost-effectively tested using in-band signals utilising USRPs and the LabVIEW development environment. National Instruments created the USRP-2943r radio transceiver for use in wireless communication teaching and research (NI). National Instruments combines the strengths of NI.Using Software Defined Radio as an example of how rapidly and efficiently technology advances in telecoms are speeding up communication (SDR). A new and interesting technology for the telecommunications industry is software-defined radio, or SDR. As a result of this process, the system is more flexible and adaptable. Video communication is another emerging media. He also employs it in the fields of health care, the military, education, business, and politics, to name a few. It is now possible to utilise a video connection as a communication tool by transmitting video over the internet. All of these processes, from modulation/demodulation to signal processing through programming, rely on SDR technology in some manner. As many settings as possible will need to be modified to get the required quality while constructing the software radio system. Changing the parameters used in hardware-based radio systems requires upgrading the hardware, which presents unique difficulties. With the help of GNU Radio Companion and USRP, a radio system based on SDR technology and using different protocol layers and modulation/demodulation techniques may be simulated and controlled remotely. GNU Radio can help with the design and simulation of hardware and software. needed to build an OFDM video broadcast in real time. The USRP is utilised to transform the base signal to a radio frequency before it can be sent as real-time video. So it's a transmitter and a receiver in one. To begin, there is a video system. Video allows for the transmission and modification of moving images. The most popular techniques are celluloid film, electrical signals, or digital media. Video may be compared to a series of still images that are displayed one after the other at a certain frame rate over the course of time.While unlicensed users should use CR technology to validate the spectrum before utilizing it, licensed users should always employ CR technology. Constant spectrum detection is the main objective of cognitive radio. Recovery depends on people and communities staying in contact with first responders, support networks, and each other after a disaster occur. Communication and information technologies that are both easy to use and dependable are critical for resilient communities. LabVIEW was used to operate the NI USRP 2920, a universal software radio peripheral. With the introduction of MIMO, greater use of limited spectrum may be accomplished by utilising lower power usage. In certain instances, outcomes of actual implementations are poorer as compared to simulated findings. In this study, real outcomes will be evaluated utilising USRPs. The coding method utilized in the study is space time block code that provides capacity gain and aids in enhancement of resilience of the connection.</p> Gaurav Soni Harsimranjit Kaur Copyright (c) 2021 Gaurav Soni, Harsimranjit Kaur 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Perception Gap Analysis of “Employability” amongst Academia, IT-Industry and Fresh Engineering Graduates https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3135 <p>Employability challenges of fresh graduate engineers are widely known and well accepted globally. Hitherto studies have focused on improvisation required in the academic approach to bridge these challenges. Creating fresh employable graduate at entry level is a process, which is impacted by multiple factors and academia cannot be single handedly held responsible for the lacunas of the overall talent ecosystem. One of the major shortcomings observed in this context is the lack of understanding of concept of employability by the important stakeholders of the ecosystem – i.e. Academia, Industry &amp; Graduate Engineers. IT Industry has been the key beneficiary of ever-expanding talent output from academia, which has grown multifold in last two decades, but the contribution of the industry towards enhancement of quality of education and providing a uniform threshold level understanding of employability and its constituents has been lacking. Authors in this research endeavor has tried to understand the perception of term “Employability” for the IT Industry (employers), Academia (Faculties and Training &amp; Placement Officers) &amp; fresh engineering graduates. The findings identified from the study are important in creating a common shared understanding amongst the important stakeholders to channelize their precious resources and efforts in right direction.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Uniform interpretation of skills relevant to industry and its application, is an important step towards building shared understanding between industry and academia [1]. Collet et al. have highlighted the importance of uniform understanding of employability skills to ensure common understanding. Each Stakeholder is using different meanings of skill &amp; its application, which is the biggest challenge and needs to be resolved [2]. Employers have been often inconsistent in defining threshold level or definition of employability, its often variable of their business model which is very contextual in nature. At national level, the educational institutes and industry has a relationship which is very contextual in nature [3]. Rosenberg et al., in their study have concluded that industry/employers lack in articulating their requirements clearly to academia [4], even at workplace as well employers have varying perceptions basis their views of different tradition, political biases and other factors, for employees with similar educational qualifications [5]. The empirical studies very clearly highlight the need to develop a common understanding of employability skills amongst all stakeholders. This research study leverages blended approach of quantitative, non-experimental design survey and qualitative semi structured interviews. All three stakeholders’ categories ~ Industry (Employers), fresh graduate students and academia (Faculties and Training &amp; Placement leads) are provided with questionnaires to capture their understanding and views on employability.</p> <p>This study leverages employability factors described in the policy research paper published by World Bank “Employability and Skill Set of Newly Graduated Engineers in India” [6].Three skills factors (Core employability Factor, Professional Skills factor and Communication skills factor) are defined by the authors. The input received from the stakeholders indicate that perception of employability for each stakeholder is significantly influenced by their respective contexts and the key drivers of the same. The IT industry is more driven from their business context which is dominated by Professional skill factors and Communication Skill factors. For Fresh Graduate Engineers Communication Skill factor is found to be dominant with more importance communication in English, advanced computer skills. Academia representative gave more importance to Core Employability Factors and Communication skills factors. Although, inputs received from Industry need to be given higher weightage as industry is the end user of the talent produced by academia but this agreement on employability skills by all stakeholders can lay foundation to develop the shared understanding of Employability concept amongst all stakeholders in the talent ecosystem.</p> Shekhar Kamble Suruchi Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Shekhar Kamble, Suruchi Pandey 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Impact of Electronic WOM on the Purchase Intention of Body Shop’s Customers in Delhi NCR https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3169 <p><strong>Purpose/Aim</strong>: The aim of this study is to provide more insights on how electronic word of mouth impacts the purchase intention of female customers in regards to Body Shop’s products.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong></p> <p>The research design is descriptive and the questionnaire will used for primary data collection.</p> <p>The sample unit is a female aged between 20 to 22 living in Delhi NCR region.</p> <p>The sample size is 100, location is Delhi NCR.</p> <p>The&nbsp; analysis of data will&nbsp; done through SPSS.</p> <p>Result and findings: Based on the analysis ,&nbsp; every 1% increase in EWOM increases the&nbsp; purchase intention of customers by .535%.</p> <p><strong>Implications: (theoretical and managerial):</strong></p> <ol> <li>The aim of the study is to provide more insights into how electronic word of mouth</li> </ol> <p>impacts the purchase intention of female customers in regards to Body Shop’s products.</p> <ol start="2"> <li>The potential researchers will be able build up on this study to explore the impact of electronic word of mouth and how it impact consumers buying decision for consumer products[3].</li> <li>It will also provide insights to the organisation in term of word of mouth about their product. The manager can use the results of the study to make marketing strategy around word of mouth and its potential in increasing sales as if their products have more and more positive referrals they will have an increase in sales [1-4].<strong>&nbsp;</strong></li> </ol> <p><strong>Originality/Uniqueness:</strong> Authors have referred to many previous researches but this study is unique because no study has been conducted in the context of 'The Body Shop ' brand.</p> Supriya Sehgal Ragini Aggarwal Copyright (c) 2021 Supriya Sehgal, Ragini Aggarwal 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS USAGE OF MOBILE BANKING: AN INVESTIGATIVE ANALYSIS https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3207 <p>Consumers in olden days kept using traditional system of banking. As years passed by, Technology revolutionized the entire world and it did not spare the banking industry. Technology is used for offering or delivering banking services to the loyal customers and consumers. Main purpose of using technology is to cause enormous benefits to the consumers. Bankers use the technology to make the consumers keep upto date in terms of banking services[1-2]. Though Technical Snarls decreases the performance of Mobile Banking, Users of Mobile Banking have started marginally increasing and Consumer Behaviour changes over time when they come to use mobile banking. In this study, totally 152 respondents are surveyed and results are arrived at according to that. Empirical Research Design was used by the researcher.</p> R. Rajesh Kannan P. Sarika Dr. S. Vasantha Dr. S. Thameemul Ansari Copyright (c) 2021 R. Rajesh Kannan, P. Sarika, Dr. S. Vasantha, Dr. S. Thameemul Ansari 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 REFRAMING OF ETHICS AND AESTHETICAL VALUES OF RASASIDHANTA IN THE CONTEMPORARY INDIAN ART https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3240 <p>Natyashastra has discussed about drama is an art and it has a relation with other 6 classical arts of India. Since Ancient time to present, Rasasiddhanta helps to developed Aesthetical views with nine emotions in Indian art. (Ghosh, Manomohan (2002).&nbsp;<a href="https://archive.org/stream/NatyaShastra/natya_shastra_translation_volume_1_-_bharat_muni#page/n1/mode/2up"><em>Natyasastra</em></a>. Royal Asiatic Society) It is observed that Indian art is less realistic but are having more emotion. But in under the influence of Western art, moving through surrealism to abstract expressionism art, adhering with pop and the optical illusionistic approach brings more materialism rather them emotionally. It is interesting to see, how the implementation or reframing of these ethics and Aesthetical judgments can work in contemporaries art of India.</p> <p>For the explanation of the research topic, I am going to explain some of the contemporary artist works from India have shown lots of great emotions in their artwork. Here I have selected some of the great artworks of Indian Artist like Tayab Mehta, M.F.Hussain, S.H. Raza, F.N. Suza, V.S. Gaitonde, J. Swami Nathan,BikashBhattacharjee and Ganesh Pyneetc.</p> <p><strong>Literature review and hypothesis development: </strong>In the 3<sup>rd</sup> century Bharata Muni in his text Natyashastra explained Bhava is the state of mind while rasa is the aesthetic flavor that results from maturation and stabilization of bhava. The Rasa is given pivot position of aesthetical views of Indian art Hence Philosopers likes A.K Kumaraswami, Nandlal Bose, Avanidranath Tagore, Moti Chandra, Shivrama Murti and Percy Brown accept the Ethical values of Rasasiddhanta.</p> <p>H1- Rasasiddhanta helps to developed Aesthetical values with emotions in the Contemporary Indian art.</p> <p>H2 – We can observe the Influence of Rasa theory works in contemporaries’ art of India.</p> <p>H3 – Some of the contemporary artist works from India have shown lots of great emotions in their artwork.</p> <p>H4- Highest artwork of contemporary Indian Art shows highest level of emotions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Image 1-&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>In 1993 tyeb Mehta was in shantineketan a small town near the Kolkata,distributed by the riots of 1992, Mehta saw this opportunity to create a topical artwork of – Durga mahashasur mardini. The iconic visual of goddess Durga killing a demon was harnessed by Mehta to give shape to a powerful idea that anything anti-democratic will eventually distributed to the India. (The shifting domain of tyeb Mehta- Mint) The depiction of sthayibhava of veer rasa with use of Lines, form, color scheme and the composition shows very deep visual and emotional sense of Artist.</p> <p>&nbsp;1</p> <p><strong>Methodology, survey Instrument and Data Collection: </strong>Some of primary and lot of secondary sources are available and has been used to explain this research paper. A pilot study was conducted with 35 to 45 contemporaries’ artists from India.&nbsp; A total of 45 Artist was going to be survey, of which 30 Artist were considered for the study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The knowledge of Rasasidhanta helps to develop the emotions for contemporary Artist. Among the higest artworks by Tyab Mehta, M.F.Husain, V.S.Gaitonde, Krisha Khanna, Bikash Bhattacharjee, Atul Dodiya, Gogi Saroj Pal, Somnath Hore, Jogen Chowdhury, K.C.S Paniker, A.Ramachandran, as well as rare works of S.H.Raza showing the Great emotions in their Artwork. Natyashastra explained Bhava is the state of mind which gives the aesthetical flavor those results from maturation and stabilization of Rasa. Today it is observe that Under the influence of Western art, some of Indian Artist moving through surrealism to abstract expressionism art, adhering with pop and the optical illusionistic approach brings more materialism rather them emotionally. But on other way some of Indian Artist knows the value of Navrasa, and they have to apply it in their art work. We can observe exception some of abstract art lot of highest artwork of contemporary Indian Art shows highest level of emotions.</p> Ganesh G.Gule S. K. Sarkar Copyright (c) 2021 Ganesh G.Gule, S. K. Sarkar 2021-11-03 2021-11-03 1 01 Impact of Social Intelligence on Entrepreneurship Orientation of Faculty Members from Business Schools https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3275 <p>The essence of entrepreneurship lies in creativity and to undertake novel tasks and to harness opportunities that the common man is not able to do. Faculty members having an entrepreneurial orientation are seen to be innovative, risk - taking individuals, decision makers and more proactive, who would try to help students overcome challenges. Social Intelligence is the ability to know oneself and others. It develops with experience as learning from success and failures that are faced in life and in the social setting. Social Intelligence is the ability to understand and manage human beings so that they behave wisely and exercise proper emotional management in their relations[1-3]. Since the most crucial role of a teacher involves overall grooming and development of the students, the faculty members have not only to impart theoretical knowledge but also facilitate the learning of the students, help him to be self - sufficient and make him employable. Faculty members have to be empathetic towards students’ requirements and they need to be innovative and proactive in developing newer pedagogies of teaching so that the students benefit[4-5]. Faculty members having social competence would be able to gauge the students’ needs correctly and orient their teachings accordingly. Also, if the faculty members have entrepreneurial orientation, they could be more proactive and creative towards facilitating the students. Such faculty members would be the need of the hour[6].</p> Manoj Pandey Harshali Bhalerao Sanjeev Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2021 Manoj Pandey, Harshali Bhalerao, Sanjeev Kulkarni 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES OF TRUSTABILITY AND ISSUES IN CLOUD COMPUTING https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3435 <p>Cloud computing is a technology still used today. The cloud is used by a large number of people and can belong to any organization. There are many issues such as security, trust and reliability. To help end-users and protect them from various attacks, there is a need to analyze the existing Trustability methods [1-3]. The word "Trustability" comes from two factors: trust and reliability. In a cloud environment, one needs to design a framework that calculates Trustability. But first, there is a need to analyze and apply current Trustability methods. Trustability factor that determines how reliable a device is for a given attack. The trust management system provides support to cloud administrators and customers. This article analyzes the current problems of cloud computing and applies the Trustability method.</p> Amanpreet Singh Amanpreet Kaur Deepali Gupta Copyright (c) 2021 Amanpreet Singh, Amanpreet Kaur, Deepali Gupta 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 1 01 PREDICTORS OF ACADEMIC BUOYANCY: A STUDY OF DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3515 <p><em>Academic Buoyancy refers to </em><em>to Learners’ potential to face challenges and difficulties that are regular in nature under educational settings or environment. Demographic Correlates were found and its effect on Academic buoyancy was obtained through regression analysis. </em><em>The sample consists of 1200 High School students belonging to three different boards of Lucknow City. students Multiple Regression Analysis was done in variables where independent variables which are non-metric and a single dependent variable viz. Academic Buoyancy is metric in nature. Regression analysis is done through Dummy Coding where predictors of Academic Buoyancy are found by keeping one benchmark sub-category in each category.</em></p> Divya R. Panjwani Copyright (c) 2021 Divya R. Panjwani 2021-11-23 2021-11-23 1 01 Indicators for Exploring the Accountability of Development Cooperation Projects by Supreme Audit Institutions https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/2985 <p>Development Cooperation refers to the not-for-profit financial, material, technical, capacity building and policy change support provided by governments or multilateral development agencies like the World Bank etc. This assistance is provided to under-developed and developing countries to support their <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_development">development</a> over a longer term with sustainable benefits.</p> <p>Accountability in the use of development cooperation funds is important for providing assurance to the donor countries, their taxpayers, international agencies and the citizens of the country where the assistance is received[1-2]</p> <p>Supreme Audit Institutions (SAI) around the World, like the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) are entrusted with providing assurance on the use of funds in implementation of projects by governments. As part of the in country Public Financial Management (PFM) Systems, they are also entrusted with some audits of projects and agencies utilizing development cooperation funds. Other audits are entrusted to private sector auditors.</p> <p>There have been several studies looking into the contribution to accountability and good governance by SAIs in different countries including India [3-4]. There have also been studies examining accountability issues in the implementation of development cooperation projects [2-3]. However, there is limited work and a resultant research gap in terms of accountability of development cooperation projects by SAIs.</p> <p>This study has been undertaken to examine the perception of experts and practitioners in understanding the contribution of SAIs’ audits towards accountability in development cooperation projects. This is one of the components of the research undertaken on the subject which includes a study into the contribution of the audit mechanism of SAI India to accountability in development cooperation projects; and a study into the differences in the audits conducted by SAI India and private professionals in respect of development cooperation projects.</p> <p>The study has been undertaken with the null hypothesis of there being no significant relationship between audit of SAIs and accountability in development cooperation projects in the international scenario as per the perception of global experts and practitioners.</p> <p>Primary data has been collected by administering a survey questionnaire to practitioners in the area of research. These practitioners include those from international SAIs, SAI India and international development cooperation agencies. The questionnaire had 20 questions based on 18 independent variables that have been validated by three subject matter experts. The dependent variable - Contribution of SAIs’ audits towards accountability in development cooperation projects has been examined in terms of independent variables adapted from the SAI Performance Measurement Framework (SAI PMF) and additional resources.</p> <p>The qualitative data obtained through the questionnaire has been quantitised using the scores on the respective questions on the Likert Scale [1]. Data analysis has been carried out between the different variables leading to the dependent variable in respect of ‘SAIs contributing to accountability of development cooperation projects.</p> <p>Analysis of the responses indicate that the null hypothesis is disproved. Audits by SAIs can be relied upon for providing accountability in development cooperation projects in terms of the independent variables under consideration.</p> <p>The study will enable the different stakeholders in development cooperation including donors, implementing agencies and citizens to place greater reliance on SAI audits as accountability mechanism as part of in country PFM system [5]. The study can be further expanded to drill down into accountability of specific development cooperation projects, being implemented across states in India or across countries. Expectation gap amongst stakeholders regarding the audit of development cooperation projects by SAIs can also be studied.</p> Shourjo Chatterjee Rajit Verma Copyright (c) 2021 Shourjo Chatterjee, Rajit Verma 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Dual modulation of IL-6 pathway by flavonoid- metal complexes as immune boosters for SARS-CoV-2 therapy https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3029 <p><strong>Abstract </strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>The present study was conducted because of the recent scenario on this pandemic Coronavirus outbreak worldwide. Currently, this disease cannot be treated through specific vaccines and therapeutic medicines. While many vaccine candidates are being investigated, it takes some time for the mass public to access them. Eventual evidence indicates that many COVID-19 patients may die from an irregular release of cytokines called cytokine release syndrome (CRS) due to the excessive reaction of their immune systems. In worsening patients with COVID-19, CRS plays an important role, from pneumonia via ARDS, to cumulative systemic inflammation and eventually to a failing of the multi-system organ. A large number of cytokines participate in the 'cytokine storm' in COVID- 19 individuals, including IL-6, IL-1, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-α, but IL-6, whose higher serum levels are associated with respiratory failure, ARDs, and adverse clinical outcomes, tend to be a crucial factor. More importantly, as the levels of IL-6 increase, the mortality rate also increases. In China, the COVID-19 mortality indicator has been tested by a multi-center retrospective analysis in 150 COVID-19 patients. The study analysed that 82 cases are resolved from COVID-19 and 68 cases are dead due to enhancement of IL-6 levels in the serum. In this research, the secondary plant metabolites from Indian traditional medicine are identified through a computational technique and the selected seedling metabolite is sealed to block the IL-6 receptor. “Tocilizumab is the only choice to treat cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients as an IL-6 inhibitor. However, tocilizumab production is a time-consuming process; it's expensive (not affordable for patients with low economic status); also, it is administered in the parenteral route. These are some of the major demerits of Tocilizumab. At the same time, by looking at the emerging intense scientific evidence for ameliorating inflammatory conditions by flavonoids and due to their safe and cost-effective attributes, to work on designing flavonoids as a possible lead ‘IL-6 blocker’. We used <em>in-silico </em>molecular docking to study numerous flavonoids &amp; found that quercetin has an efficient binding affinity with IL-6. Previously we have noted that metal deficiency is also an effective reason that triggers IL-6 production. Thus, we planned to conjugate flavonoids with metal to improve the efficiency of our lead molecule. Our main objectives are to identify potential flavonoid and divalent metals as inhibitors of the catalytic pocket of IL-6 using structure-based <em>in-silico </em>screening. To synthesize the designed flavonoid-metal complexes and their characterization by spectral analysis and analytical methods. To investigate the <em>in-vitro </em>IL-6 inhibitory activity using human breast cancer cell lines, other cell lines which express more IL-6 levels and IL-6 Elisa plate method. To assess the toxicity of synthesized flavonoid metal complexes by haemolytic assay.</p> <p>From the previous literature reviews, I also understood that IL-6 is a bad proinflammatory cytokine causing a large number of diseases like cancer, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, anaemia, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. This pandemic troubled, depressed, weakened a lot of people and has taken our loved ones from us. But in my perception, I conquered my fears, strengthened my mind, gained so much knowledge on the other side of our immune system. Unfortunately, we lost so many lives due to this pandemic, especially the poor people who couldn’t afford the treatment. These heart-wrenching scenarios motivated me to enter a completely different path of casting a new medicine that can be accessible and affordable to everyone. I don’t know whether I would achieve or not, but my journey for this good cause made me feel successful.</p> Krishna Swaroop Akey Jubie S Vasanth P Jeyaprakash Mr Jawahar N Copyright (c) 2021 Krishna Swaroop Akey, Jubie S, Vasanth P, Jeyaprakash Mr, Jawahar N 2021-11-05 2021-11-05 1 01 Narration of Narcissism for Psychological Genre Subsumption: A Study of White Oleander and The Devil Wears Prada https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3069 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>The narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is bound to occur in one out of ten individuals, it is deducible to almost one percent of the total population. Over the years narcissism has been stealthily increasing, and empathy has taken a back seat. Narcissism was initially a myth brought into literature by Ovid’s <em>Metamorphosis</em>, but it was not until the psychoanalytic study by Freud in 1914 that gave the concept its appropriate edifice. <em>Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders</em> has deployed NPD as one of the ten disorder types, whose roots lay in the argument by Freud. However, very little emphasis on its recurrence in fiction for psychological genre study has been made. The two texts namely<em>, White Oleander</em> (1999) by Janet Fitch, and <em>The Devil Wears Prada</em> (2003) by Lauren Weisberger have two such characters, i.e., Ingrid, and Miranda that fit the box for narcissistic personality. The investigation of their previous studies found an absence of genre and narration interpretation, while the works did ascribe the specific characters as narcissists. Therefore, the study conducted here has approached their narration under the lens of narcissism to establish a new genre.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>My central framework which incorporated all the other theories began with Rhetorical Genre Studies (RGS). I have conducted it with a special focus on Charles Bazerman, in his work he and the other scholars inspect genre as an exemplified social action, as ways of acting based on persistent social situations. This work allowed for the pathological disorder of narcissism to be juxtaposed with the literary characters of the mentioned texts in terms of narrative. The two works inculcate two fierce female characters who are typical of narcissistic traits which were discussed under the concepts of Sigmund Freud, Julia Kristeva, and Christopher Lasch for psychoanalytical reading. In conclusion, cues of narcissism in the narrative structure have been analysed based on Roland Barthes’s narrative framework as mentioned in his work <em>S/Z. </em>The tri-section of the three frameworks, narcissism, narration and rhetorical genre was the proposed methodology of my study. My working hypothesis was that if the characters of Ingrid, and Miranda are narcissists then does the personality disordered narration lead to a psychological fiction genre of the novels? The study was conducted here keeping in mind the diversity of narration and genre techniques, the former is a bildungsroman while the latter is a chick-lit, with two extremely differently-abled women. The whole story is woven to be spun around them. I believe that to read these texts and the characters as an archetype of a person/character suffering from NPD augments the psychological depths of these texts which had previously categorized them to fit just one bracket of either bildungsroman or chick-lit.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Anjuli Thawait Copyright (c) 2021 Anjuli Thawait 2021-11-06 2021-11-06 1 01 Effect of different abiotic stresses on Allium cepa plants: Results from a field study of two different seasons https://spast.org/techrep/article/view/3085 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Plants are an integral part of our life. They yield vital medicines because they contain various phytoconstituents that are responsible for innumerable pharmacological activities (1). Environmental conditions have a significant impact on plant growth, morphology as well as secondary metabolite production. Modifications in abiotic factors during the growth of plants can influence the biosynthesis and amount of phytoconstituents (2-4).</p> <p><em>Allium cepa</em> (AC), commonly known as onion, is a member of family Amaryllidaceae. Onion is a perennial plant, grown as a food and also for medicinal purposes. The plants can grow in the temperature range of 6-30<sup>o</sup>C (5). AC requires dry conditions and can be cultivated in clay loamy, sandy loamy, black and red soils (6). It is a bulb crop and both edible portion and outer skin are effective for various diseases. The skin may have different colors like white, yellow, red, dark red, brown (7). Since the ancient times onion bulb and juice are used in the treatment of cold, flu, sting, insomnia and blood cleaning. It has been highly praised to treat variety of respiratory problems such as bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma and to prevent microbial infections (8, 9). AC is a rich source of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, folic acid, biotin, riboflavin, thiamine, vitamin A and vitamin B6. Various secondary metabolites identified from the plant are organosulphur (OS) compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids, sterols and saponins. There are two subclasses of flavonoids present in onion, flavonols (like quercetin and its derivatives) and anthocyanins (10-11). Many pharmacological activities (e.g. anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-viral, neuroprotective etc.) are attributed to the OS compounds and flavonoids present abundantly in the bulbs. The cultivation of this plant is well documented, however the focus has been on the bulb yield. This investigation was des