Effect of Gift Receiving Situations on Brand Attitude Change
Keywords:critical incident technique, relationship realignment, balance, congruity, ambivalence, involvement, brand attitude change
Although, there has been a deep history of research on gift giving and receiving behavior
in the psychological and social literature, however, in the field of marketing, surprisingly there
is a lack of systematic attempt to explore the change of recipient’s attitude toward a brand and
giver-recipient relationship relation as well as the emotions appearing after the gift is received.
In order to fill that gap, this book makes a systematic effort to investigate the probable array of
receiving situations that are likely to make recipients change their attitude towards both brand
and relationships. Toward this end, this book proposes two main variables of gift receiving
situation, include prior brand attitude and prior giver-recipient relationship based on recipients’
perception. Under the foundation of literature review and the coping psychological mechanism
of balance theory, congruity theory and involvement theory, we expect that recipients may change
their attitude toward a brand and giver-recipient relationship systematically after the gift receipt
by solving the incongruity or imbalance between the two entities: (1) recipient’s prior attitude
toward a brand, and (2) recipient’s prior attitude towards a giver-recipient relationship.
To reach this expectation, the specific purpose of the study in this book is if four folds. First,
we explore the effect of incongruity on recipient’s emotions as well as attitude change toward
a brand and giver-recipient relationship after the gift receipt through the different gift-receiving
situations. Second, we examine the effect of recipient’s prior attitude toward a brand on his/her
brand attitude toward that brand after receiving the gift. Third, we examine the effect of recipient’s prior perception of strength of giver-recipient relationship on brand attitude change. And
finally, we try to present some marketing strategies using gift giving/receiving context.
Qualitative and quantitative methodologies are conducted for the initial issue exploration as
well as testing the proposed hypotheses in this current studies. The results of empirical study with
critical incident technique and experiment concluded that our prediction are almost confirmed,
and hereafter are the findings of this current research: For the Vietnamese students’ behavior:
(1) the gift-recipients change attitude toward both a brand and giver-recipient relationship after
the gift when there is incongruity between the two mentioned entities; (2) the recipient’s attitude
change greatest after receiving the neutral brand from a giver who has strong relationship if
comparing to other cases and this is the best situation to influence to the change of recipient’s
brand attitude; (3) receiving the gift from a giver who has strong relationship, the recipient
have greater change in attitude than receiving that gift from a giver who has weak relationship;
(4) the recipients have different emotions after receiving the gift across different gift receiving
situations, especially they feel satisfied when receiving the favorable brand and no particular
emotion or unsatisfied after receiving the unfavorable brand. For the Korean students, the author
just conduct interview and the results is mentioned the final part of this research. In addition
to its theoretical implication, this thesis describes the study’s managerial implications for the
development of brand management in the gift giving/receiving context.
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