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Nanogenerator (NG) devices based on gallium-doped zinc oxide nanorods (Ga-doped ZnO NRs) were developed by a simple fabrication. All nanostructures were grown on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) substrate at a low temperature of 90 °C for 6 h. After field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) measurement, a hexagonal wurtzite structure with good single crystallinity was exhibited, and a preferential growth with c-axis direction was revealed. The optical properties of all samples were annealed at high temperature and explored through photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, displaying two different emission peaks, including ultraviolet (UV) and green emissions. Furthermore, the measured average output voltages of GA0Z and GA1Z samples in the dark condition were about 0.0011 and 0.03 V, respectively, as shown in Figure1. As a result, the performance of ZnO NGs with Ga elements exhibits an outstanding improvement in electrical measurements compared with ZnO NGs.
How to Cite
 S. J. Young, C. C. Yang, and L. T. Lai. “Review—Growth of Al-, Ga-, and In-Doped ZnO Nanostructures via a Low-Temperature Process and Their Application to Field Emission Devices and Ultraviolet Photosensors,” J. Electrochem. Soc., vol. 164, no. 5, B3013–B3028, Dec. 2016.
 S. Senda, Y. Sakai, Y. Mizuta, S. Kita, and F. Okuyama, “Superminiature x-ray tube,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 85, no. 23, pp. 5679–5681, Dec. 2004.