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Over the past years, the emergence of various endocrine disruptors have been seen inside the environment, raising the concerns regarding it. Amongst them, Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known group of xeno-estrogens since the 1950s which is extensively used to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. These kinds of plastics are being manufactured due to their transparency, thermal-resistant, as well as flame-retardant properties (1). Moreover, BPA is generally used for many applications for example baby bottles, food containers, beverages, as well as thermal papers that shows its universal applicability. The extensive utilization and large requirements of BPA in plastics at very low quantities have led to its rapid detection in environmental, food, and water samples (2-5). This is due to the instability of BPA that results in its leaching, generating alarms about the food safety and environmental health (1, 6). The assessed daily consumptions of BPA is found to be 0.007×10−4 μg/kg bodyweight/day, which is transferred from polycarbonate plastics to the food simulators (7). The BPA have caused various health difficulties in individuals such as reduced sperm quality, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and (8-11). Therefore, BPA monitoring and its determination have become necessary owing to large exposure of BPA in humans as it affects environment and human health.
Many methods like high-pressure liquid chromatography (12), liquid chromatography (13), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (14), as well as immunoassay-based examination (for example enzyme linked immunosorbent assay i.e., ELISA) (15) are applied for BPA detection. These methods for determination of BPA, are advantageous owing to high sensitivity (16, 17) but due to its various limitation such as costly, pre-requisite highly skilled operators, time-consuming, cumbersome, and laboratory-based procedure (18), it usage have restricted. Moreover, they are not suitable for onsite monitoring purpose as well as are typically slow in turnaround. Thus, innovative methods should be developed for detection of the trace amounts of BPA as it has become critical research problem. Recently, the electrochemical based methods (19) have established because of its simplicity, accurate, less sample preparation, and fast determination of BPA that provide small footprint, broad linear range, high sensitivity, and simple preparation (20-22).
Bearing this in mind, we have developed a selective, simple, fast, cost effective and sensitive electrochemical sensor based on silver nanoparticles [AgNps] using the green synthesized route that are deposited on reduced graphene oxide [RGO] nanocomposite for detection of BPA in water and milk samples. The preparation of AgNps-RGO nanocomposite was confirmed using different characterizations such as electron microscope (scanning as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy i.e. SEM and HR-TEM, respectively) as shown in Figure 1, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor nanoplatform was developed employing the indium tin oxide i.e., ITO glass via the electrophoretic deposition process. Figure 1 depicts (a) the electrochemical sensing analysis of AgNps-RGO/ITO electrode at numerous concentrations of BPA utilizing the Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and (b) shows the calibration curve describing the various sensing parameters. The sensor exhibits a good linear response ranging from 1.9 × 10-10 to 0.820 µM along with sensitivity [2.56 µA (log µM)-1 cm-2], and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.14 µM. The enhanced performance of the sensor electrode is primary attributed to the synergetic assistances of RGO and AgNps that are prepared in situ using the green synthesis via Cinnamomum tamala’s leaves extract. Besides, the sensor depicted good selectivity against the different interferents such as the organic, inorganic as well as analogs chemicals, along with remarkable reproducibility and repeatability data. The fabricated sensor nanoplatform have shown good practical application in real samples (for example stored bottled water, well water, as well as processed milk) for determining BPA with acceptable relative standard deviation (RSDs) and their recoveries values. At last, this nanocomposite is the first report of the prepared green synthesized sensing platform for detecting BPA with 40 s quick response time.
Figure 1. (a) SEM images, (b) TEM, (c) HRTEM and, (d) SAED pattern of AgNps-RGO nanocomposite
Figure 2. (a) Electrochemical response study via DPV technique of the AgNps-RGO/ITO electrode against numerous concentrations of BPA in PBS, (b) calibration plot of the AgNps-RGO/ITO electrode vs log 10 concentrations of BPA
How to Cite
Bisphenol A, nanocomposite, green synthesis, reduced graphene oxide, sensor, silver nanoparticles
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