Agroforestry and Livelihood Security For Forest Fringe People Rural sustainable livelihood in forest fringe areas

Main Article Content

Article Sidebar

Published Sep 8, 2021
GYANARANJAN SAHOO Afaq Majid Wani Amita Sharma


The rhetoric of forestry as a means of sustaining communal livelihoods has been met with scepticism. After agriculture, the forest sector is the second most important land use. In this way, the focus is on the perceptions of the forest as a self-contained resource. and the forest edge people as reliant on resources. People's livelihoods in forest-fringe areas, like those in other local and agricultural contexts around the country, are primarily based on subsistence agriculture. The problem of rural sustainable livelihoods in forest periphery societies has been noticed as a crucial way to addressing forest resource protection and management, as well as the communities that rely on the resource. However, recently, the necessity for a shift in this focus has spawned what is known as off-reserve forest resource management. Off-reserve regions, which are mostly populated by subsistence farmers engaged in agroforestry, have been proposed as desirable sites for forest resource protection and management. Many farmers consider agroforestry farming methods as the simplest way to increase and sustain agricultural output, as well as a supplementary source of income that may help alleviate agricultural revenue instability. As forest resources became scarcer, poor small farmers were more interested in agroforestry systems as a method of preserving their livelihoods. The correct agroforestry advice is believed to be a cost-effective alternative for strengthening agricultural livelihoods, which have been hit by a number of setbacks. In this framework, within forest communities, farmers and forest end-users are seen as agents of action and conversion. This has the declared objective of encouraging commitment to forest resource conservation and management for sustainable rural life across the country, particularly in forest fringe settlements.

How to Cite

SAHOO, G., Afaq Majid Wani, & Amita Sharma. (2021). Agroforestry and Livelihood Security For Forest Fringe People: Rural sustainable livelihood in forest fringe areas. SPAST Abstracts, 1(01). Retrieved from
Abstract 29 |

Article Details


Agroforestry, climate change, Food security, Forest fringe communities, Sustainable livelihood

[1] A. Bijalwan, C.M. Sharma, V.K. Kediyal, Socioeconomic status and livelihood support through traditional agroforestry systems in hill and mountain agro-ecosystem of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Indian For. 138 (12) (2011) 1423-1430.
[2] A.K. Mohanty, G.A.K. Kumar, B.B. Singh, S.N. Meera, Developing multidimensional scale for effective measurement of rural leadership. Indian Res. J. Ext. Educ. 9 (2016) 57–63.
[3] B. Sinha, A. Vasisht, M.D. Omprakash, M. Ghosh, R.M. Devi, M.K. Patasaraiya, R.N. Yadava, G.A. Kinhal, J. Bisaria, Opportunities of Renewable Energy Interventions in Forest Fringe Villages of Madhya Pradesh; New Connaught Place Dehradun: Connaught Place, India, (2018).
[4] B.M. Kumar, Agroforestry : The new old paradigm for Asian food security, J. Trop. Agric. 44 (1-2) (2006) 1-14.
[5] B.O. Lundgren, J.B. Raintree, Sustained agroforestry, In: Nestel, B. (eds), Agricultural Research for Development: Potentials and Challenges in Asia, ISNAR, The Hague, The Netherlands, (1982) 37-49.
[6] B.P. Nayak, P. Kohli, J.V. Sharma, Livelihood of local communities and forest degradation in India: Issues for REDD+. A policy brief. (2014).
[7] C. Bélair, K. Ichikawa, B.Y.L. Wong, K.J. Mulongoy (eds.),: Sustainable use of biological diversity in socio-ecological production landscapes, Background to the ‘Satoyama Initiative for the benefit of biodiversity and human well-being’, Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Technical Series no. 52 (2010) 184.
[8] C. Mbow, M. Noordwijk, R. Prabhu, T. Simons,: Knowledge gaps and research needs concerning agroforestry’s contribution to Sustainable Development Goals in Africa, Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 6 (2014 a) 162–170.
[9] C. Mbow, P. Smith, D. Skole, L. Duguma, M. Bustamante,: Achieving mitigation and adaptation to climate change through sustainable agroforestry practices in Africa Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain.. 6 (2014 b) 8–14.
[10] D.A. Ofori, A. Gyau, I. K. Dawson, E. Asaah, Z. Tchoundjeu, R. Jamnadass, Developing more productive African agroforestry systems and improving food and nutritional security through tree Domestication, Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 6 (2014) 123–127.
[11] D.P. Garrity, Agroforestry and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, Agrofor. Syst. 61 (2004) 5–17.
[12] FAO, Forest-based poverty reduction: A brief review of facts, figures, challenges and possible ways forward. Paper prepared for the International Workshop on “Forests in poverty reduction strategies: Capturing the potential, 01-02 October, Tuusula, Finland. (2002).
[13] FAO; CIFOR. FAO Framework Methodology for Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments of Forests and Forest Dependent People; FAO: Rome, Italy, (2019).
[14] Forest Survey of India, India State of Forest Report. Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India, Dehradun, (2013).
[15] Government of India, Report of the Task Force on Greening India for Livelihood Security and Sustainable Development. Planning Commission Government of India, (2001).
[16] Government of India, National Environment Policy, Ministry of Environment, Government of India, (2006).
[17] Government of India, Pocket Book on Agricultural Statistics. Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare Directorate of Economics & Statistics, New Delhi, (2015).
[18] IDFC: India Rural Development Report 2012-13. Rural Development Network, Infrastructure Development Finance Company Limited, Foundation, ORIENT Blackswan Private LIMITED (2013) 280.
[19] G.R. Sahoo, A.M. Wani, Multifunctional Agroforestry Systems in India for Livelihoods. Ann. Hortic. 12 (2) (2019) 139-149.
[20] G.R. Sahoo, A.M. Wani, Agroforestry in Food Security. Recent Research in Agriculture for doubling of farmer’s Income (2020) 73-78.
[21] G.R. Sahoo, A.M. Wani, B. Satpathy, S. Rout, Agriculture and Rural Development for Sustainability. Agriculture and Rural Development: Spatial Issues, Challenges and Approaches (2020) 75-82.
[22] G.R. Sahoo, A.M. Wani, A. Sharma, Enhancing Food Security through Agroforestry for Sustainability – A Review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, Special Issue 11 2020, 2001-2020.
[23] G.R. Sahoo, A.M. Wani, A. Sharma, S. Rout, Agroforestry for Forest and Landscape Restoration, International Journal of Advance Study and Research Work. Special Issue (2020) 536-542.
[24] A. Sharma, G.R. Sahoo, Confronts and prospects for enhancing farmers livelihood protection. Sustainable Agriculture and Farmers welfare for Rural Development (2021) 14-32.
[25] International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry. Summary for Policy Makers. Geneva, Switzerland, (2000).
[26] J. A. Morgan, R.F. Follett, L. H. Allen, S. Del Grosso, J. D. Derner, F. Dijkstra, A. Franzluebbers, R. Fry, K. Paustian, M. M. Schoeneberger, Carbon sequestration in agricultural lands of the United States, J. Soil Water Conserv. 65(1) (2010) 6A-13A.
[27] J. Matocha, G. Schroth, T. Hills, D. Hole, Integrating Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Through Agroforestry and Ecosystem Conservation In P.K.R. Nair and D. Garrity (eds.), Agroforestry - The Future of Global Land Use, Advances in Agroforestry, (2012) 105-126.
[28] J. C. Dagar, Utilization of degraded lands/ habitats and poor quality water for Livelihood security and mitigating climate change. Indian J. Agrofor. 14(1) (2012) 1-16.
[29] K. Warner, Forestry and Sustainable Livelihoods. Unasylva, 58 (2007) 226 –227.
[30] L.C. Richard, P. K. T. Munishi, Nzunda, Agroforestry as Adaptation Strategy under Climate Change in Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania, Int. J. Environ. Protec. 3 (11) (2013) 29-38.
[31] M.A. Islam, S.M.S. Quli, Motivation strategy for agroforestry intensification among small holders. Advances in Life Sciences, 5(10) (2016) 3878-3883.
[32] M.A. Islam, S.M.S. Quli, P.A. Sofi, G.M. Bhat, A.R. Malik, Livelihood Dependency of Indigenous People on Forest in Jharkhand, India. Vegetos, 28 (3) (2015) 106-118.
[33] M. M. Schoeneberger, Agroforestry: Working Trees for sequestering carbon on ag lands. In: Brooks, K.N. and Folliot, P.R. (eds). Moving Agroforestry into the Mainstream. Proc. 9th N. Am. Agroforestry Conference, Rochester, Dept. of Forest Resources, Univ. Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. (2005).
[34] M. Norman, The world’s forests and human populations: The environmental interconnections. In Davis, K. and Bernstam, M.S. (eds). Resources, Environment and Population: Present Knowledge, Future Options. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. (1991) 237-251.
[35] M.S. Ali, O.P. Chaturvedi, Pattern and constraints of adoption of agroforestry systems in north Bihar. J. Trop. For. 24 (1/2) (2008) 10-15.
[36] National Research Centre for Agroforestry (NRCAF) Vision-2025: NRCAF Perspective Plan. Jhansi, India. (2007).
[37] N. Byron, M. Arnold, “What futures for the people of the tropical forests?”, World Development, 27(5) (1999) 789 – 805.
[38] N.H. Ravindranath, N. Srivastava, I. K. Murthy, S. Malaviya, M. Munsi, N. Sharma, Deforestation and forest degradation in India implications of REDD+. Current Science, 102 (8) (2012) 1-9.
[39] Oxfam International, Combating rural poverty and hunger through agroforestry in Bolivia, Oxfam Case Study, Oxford: Oxfam International. Place F., Ajayi. (2011).
[40] O. C. Torquebiau E. Detlefsen G. Gauthier, G. Buttoud, Improved policies for facilitating the adoption of agroforestry, In M. Kaonga, (eds) Agroforestry for biodiversity and ecosystems services: science and practice, Croatia, (2012) 113–128.
[41] P. Chakraborty, H.R. Tewari, M.K. Jha, Sustainable rural livelihoods through participatory natural resource management: A case study. Journal of Rural Development, 28 (1) (2009) 85-100.
[42] P. Davidar, S. Sahoo, P. C. Mammen, P. Acharya, J. P. Puyravaud, M. Arjunan, J. P. Garrigues, K. Roessingh, Assessing the Extent and Causes of Forest Degradation in India: Where do we Stand? Biological Conservation, 43(12) (2010) 2937–2944.
[43] P. K. R. Nair, An Introduction to Agroforestry, International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, (1993) 499.
[44] P. K. R. Nair, Directions in tropical agroforestry research: past, present, and future, Agrofor. Syst. 38 (1998) 223–245.
[45] Planning Commission, Government of India, Report of the Task Force of Greening India for Livelihood Security and Sustainable Development. (2001).
[46] R. Banyal, N.A. Masoodi, T.H. Masoodi, L.K. Sharma, S.A. Gangoo, Knowledge and attitude of farmers towards agroforestry practices in north Kashmir- a case study. Ind. For. 137(12) (2011) 1377-1381.
[47] R. Jamnadass, F. Place, E. Torquebiau, E. Malézieux, M. Iiyama, G.W. Sileshi, K. Kehlenbeck, E. Masters, S. McMullin, I.K. Dawson,: Agroforestry for food and nutritional security, Unasylva, 241 (64) (2013) 23-29.
[48] R. R. B. Leakey, Should We be Growing More Trees on Farms to Enhance the Sustainability of Agriculture and Increase Resilience to Climate Change?, A Special Report, International Society of Tropical Foresters, USA, (2010) 1-12.
[49] Goli, S.; Maurya, N.K.; Sharma, M.K. Continuing caste inequalities in rural Uttar Pradesh. Int. J. Sociol. Soc. Policy. 35 (2015) 252–272.
[50] S. Puri, P. K. R. Nair, Agroforestry research for development in India: 25 years of experiences of a national program. Agrofor. Syst. 61/62 (2004) 437–452.
[51] S.K. Dhyani, V.N. Sharda, A.R. Sharma, Agroforestry for water resources conservation: issues, challenges and strategies. In Agroforestry: Potentials and Opportunities. Edited by: PS Pathak, & Ram Newaj. Jodpur, India: Agribios. (2003).
[52] S. Tyler, (ed.) Communities, Livelihoods, and Natural Resources Action Research and Policy Change in Asia. IDRC, Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd. Warwickshire, UK. (2006).
[53] S.K. Jha, S. Mishra, B. Sinha, J.M. Alatalo, R. Pandey, Rural development program in tribal region: A protocol for adaptation and addressing climate change vulnerability. J. Rural Stud. 51 (2017)151–157.
[54] S.M.S. Quli, Agroforestry for NTFPs conservation and economic upliftment of farmers. Indian Forester,127 (2001) 1251–1262.
[55] T. Tscharntke, Y. Clough, S.A. Bhagwat, D. Buchori, H. Faust, D. Hertel, D. Holscher, J. Juhrbandt, M. Kessler, I. Perfecto, S. Scherber, G. Schroth, E. Veldkamp, T.C. Wanger, Multifunctional shade-tree management in tropical agroforestry landscapes–a review, J. App. Ecol. 48 (2011) 619–629.
[56] The World Bank, Agricultural land (% of land). (2016). Retrieved from http://
[57] UNDP, India,: Greening Rural Development in India, Vol-I”, United Nations Development Program, New Delhi, (2012) 61.
[58] Mishra, V.; Shah, R.; Garg, A. Climate change in Madhya Pradesh: Indicators, Impacts and Adaptation; Indian Institute of Management: Ahamdabad, India, (2016).
[59] World Bank, Unlocking opportunities for forest dependent people in India. New Delhi, India: The World Bank Agriculture and Rural Development Sector Unit, South Asia Region, (2006).
[60] World Forestry Congress, Press release: World Forestry Congress sets out vision for future of forests, 11 September (2015), Durban, South Africa.
SF1: Societies, Sustainability, Food and Agriculture

Most read articles by the same author(s)