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The rhetoric of forestry as a means of sustaining communal livelihoods has been met with scepticism. After agriculture, the forest sector is the second most important land use. In this way, the focus is on the perceptions of the forest as a self-contained resource. and the forest edge people as reliant on resources. People's livelihoods in forest-fringe areas, like those in other local and agricultural contexts around the country, are primarily based on subsistence agriculture. The problem of rural sustainable livelihoods in forest periphery societies has been noticed as a crucial way to addressing forest resource protection and management, as well as the communities that rely on the resource. However, recently, the necessity for a shift in this focus has spawned what is known as off-reserve forest resource management. Off-reserve regions, which are mostly populated by subsistence farmers engaged in agroforestry, have been proposed as desirable sites for forest resource protection and management. Many farmers consider agroforestry farming methods as the simplest way to increase and sustain agricultural output, as well as a supplementary source of income that may help alleviate agricultural revenue instability. As forest resources became scarcer, poor small farmers were more interested in agroforestry systems as a method of preserving their livelihoods. The correct agroforestry advice is believed to be a cost-effective alternative for strengthening agricultural livelihoods, which have been hit by a number of setbacks. In this framework, within forest communities, farmers and forest end-users are seen as agents of action and conversion. This has the declared objective of encouraging commitment to forest resource conservation and management for sustainable rural life across the country, particularly in forest fringe settlements.
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Agroforestry, climate change, Food security, Forest fringe communities, Sustainable livelihood
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