The Effects Workplace Discrimination has on Veteran Male Adjuncts

A Literature Review of Current Issues Within Higher Education



Veteran, Adjuncts, Discrimination, Higher Education, Gender Balance


The paper addresses the problem of workplace discrimination of male veterans in higher education and how to enhance gender satisfaction. A solution to this problem will build policy awareness to implement and evaluate workplace discrimination measures. In order to solve this problem higher education institutions should also upgrade the hiring of veteran male adjuncts from part-time job categories to full-time. One approach according to Fruscione is tabling communication with the team would help devise ways that may lead to equitable treatment within the workplace and eliminate the current issue of male adjuncts discrimination. With regard to the background and solution, by framing the problem as an optimization policy toward discrimination approaches of veteran male adjuncts, higher education institutions could develop effective and interactive communication frameworks to engage adjuncts from each gender. The study provided some of the main gender challenges facing male adjuncts in higher education and their remedies. However, a further study should be quantitative to boost its reliability.


Bakley, A. L. (2016). Waiting to become: A descriptive phenomenology of adjunct faculty experiences at multi-campus community colleges.

Fredrickson, C. (2015). There Is No Excuse for How Universities Treat Adjuncts, Retrieved from

Fruscione, J. (2014, July 25). When a college contract "adjuncivitus," it's the students who lose. PBS. Retrieved from:

Keashly, L., & Neuman, J. H. (2010). Faculty experiences with bullying in higher education: Causes, consequences, and management. Administrative Theory & Praxis, 32(1), 48-70.

Reigle, R. (2016). Bullying of Adjunct Faculty at Community Colleges and Steps toward Resolution. Online Submission.



How to Cite

Clingan, P. (2021). The Effects Workplace Discrimination has on Veteran Male Adjuncts: A Literature Review of Current Issues Within Higher Education. SPAST Express, 1(2). Retrieved from



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