Emergent energy storage sector in the developing world: A technological and strategic perspective


  • Apoorv Shaligram Alchemist E-Vaahan Pvt. Ltd.
  • Dr. Uttam Kumar Sen Log 9 Materials Scientific Pvt. Ltd.


Energy Storage, Battery, Lithium-ion, India, ASEAN


With the focus on clean energy, efficient devices and electric mobility solutions, the market for energy storage is on the rise in the developing world. In this paper, the requirements of Indian energy storage market have been highlighted based on the different categories of applications. An in-depth study of the utilitarian advantages and disadvantages of different energy storage technologies has been conducted. Based on this, suitable energy storage technologies for different applications have been suggested. We have further delved into the elements required for all the feasible energy storage technologies. The availability of strategic reserves of these minerals in India have been examined. We have calculated the elemental requirements for different technologies, normalized to their energy storage capacity. Finally, we have suggested technologies to achieve a best-case scenario for the Indian energy storage sector from technological as well as a strategic viewpoint, minimizing the import dependency of raw materials.


NITI Aayog Report & International Energy Agency, 2020. Digital archive.

NITI Aayog & World Energy Council, 2018. Digital archive

NITI Aayog & Rocky Mountain Institute, 2020. Digital archive

Global newswire report, July 28, 2020. Digital archive

Energy Storage News report, December 16, 2019. Digital archive

International Energy Agency report, January 23, 2020. Digital archive

EVReporter report, September 24, 2019. Digital archive

PIB Press release, March 23, 2018. Digital archive

Renewable watch report, June 2018. Digital archive

Times of India report “Tianjin Battery Co to buy cells from Munoth Industries” September 27, 2019

Company website https://godienergy.com/

Company website https://www.viryabatteries.com/

Yourstory report, March 19, 2019. Digital archive

Company website himadri.com/advanced_carbon_materials

Epsilon Carbon press release, August 24, 2020. Digital archive

J. Garche, RSC Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys, 3, 356 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1039/B005451H

S.P. Ayeng'o, et. al, Solar Energy, 162, 140 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.12.049

B. Hariprakash, et. al, Encyclopedia of electrochemical power sources, 494 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-044452745-5.00158-1

T. Placke, A. Heckmann, et. al, Joule, 2, 2528 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2018.09.003

W.H. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Z. Davis and B. J. Tatarchuk, Applied Energy, 106, 307 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.12.025

J. Geder, H. E. Hoster, et.al, Journal of Power Sources, 257, 286 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.01.116

W. Tang, L.L. Liu, S. Tian, L. Li, Y.B. Yue, Y.P. Wu, S.Y. Guan and K. Zhu, Electrochemistry Communications, 12, 1524 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elecom.2010.08.024

K. Mizushima, P.C. Jones, P.J. Wiseman and J.B. Goodenough, Materials Research Bulletin, 15, 783 (1980). https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-5408(80)90012-4

M.M. Thackeray, P.J. Johnson, L.A. de Picciotto, P.G. Bruce and J.B. Goodenough, Materials Research Bulletin, 19, 179 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1016/0025-5408(84)90088-6

G Amatucci, A Du Pasquier, A Blyr, T Zheng, J.-M Tarascon, Electrochimica Acta, 45, 255 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(99)00209-1

Kuthanapillil M. Shaju, Peter G. Bruce, Chem. Mater. 20, 5557 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1021/cm8010925

K. Padhi, K. S. Nanjundaswamy, J. B. Goodenough, J. Electrochem. Soc. 144, 1188 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1149/1.1837571

Wei-Jun Zhang, Journal of Power Sources 196, 2962(2011). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.113

K. Jalkanen, et. al, Applied Energy, 154 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.04.110

H.J. Noh, S. Youn, et. al, Journal of Power Sources, 233, 121(2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.01.063

K.J. Park, J.Y. Hwang, et. al, ACS Energy letters, 4, 1394 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1021/acsenergylett.9b00733

W. Li, S. Lee, and A. Manthiram, Advanced Materials, 32, 2002718 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202002718

W. Zhao, J. Zheng, L. Zou, et. al, Advanced energy materials, 8, 1800297(2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201800297

J. Kim, H. Lee, Hyungyeon Cha, Moonsu Yoon, Minjoon Park, and Jaephil Cho, Advanced energy materials, 8, 1702028 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201702028

Tianyu Li, Xiao Zi Yuan, Lei Zhang, Datong Song, Kaiyuan Shi, Christina Bock, Electrochemical energy reviews, 3, 43(2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41918-019-00053-3

J. Yan, X. Liu and B. Li, RSC advances, 4, 63268 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1039/C4RA12454E

P.K. Nayak, E. M. Erickson, F. Schipper, T. R. Penki, N. Munichandraiah, P. Adelhelm, H. Sclar, F. Amalraj, B. Markovsky, and D. Aurbach, Advanced Energy Materials 8, 1702397(2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201702397

R. Santhanam, B. Rambabu, Journal of Power Sources 195, 5422 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.03.067

A. Manthiram, K. Chemelewski, E.S. Lee, Energy Environ. Sci, 7, 1339 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1039/C3EE42981D

J. Chen, H. Zhang, M. Wang, et. al, Journal of Power Sources, 303, 41(2016). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.10.088

C. K. Chan, H. Peng, G. Liu, K. McIlwrath, et. al, Nature Nanotech 3, 31(2008). https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2007.411

NREL report “Next Generation Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries” 2018.

X. Li, Andrew M. Colclasure, D. P. Finegan, et al., Electrochimica Acta, 297,1109 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2018.11.194

Z. Wang, et al., Ceramics International, 40, Part A, 10053 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2014.04.011

T.F. Yi, Y. Xie, et al., Journal of Power Sources, 222, 448(2013). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.09.020

H. M. Wu, I. Belharouak, H. Deng, A. Abouimrane, Y.-K. Sun, K. Amine, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 156 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1149/1.3240197

A.L. Robinson and J. Janek, MRS Bulletin, 39, 12 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1557/mrs.2014.285

T. Ohtomo, K. Kawamoto, S. Hama, Y. KATO, US Patent US9172113B2, 2011.

L. Chen, M. Fiore, J. E. Wang, R. Ruffo, D.K. Kim, and G. Longoni, Advanced sustainable systems, 2, 1700153(2018). https://doi.org/10.1002/adsu.201700153

C. Vaalma, D. Buchholz, M. Weil and S. Passerini, Nature reviews materials, 3, 18013 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/natrevmats.2018.13

B. K. Kim, S. Sy, A. Yu, et al., Handbook of clean energy systems (2015). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118991978.hces112

A. Borenstein, O. Hanna, et al., Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 5, 12653 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1039/C7TA00863E

Indian Bureau of mines report “Indian Mineral Industry at a glance 2017-18” July 2020

Statistica Report “Lead reserves worldwide as of 2019, by country” accessed on December 24, 2020

Your Article Library report “Production and Distribution of Manganese in India” accessed on December 24, 2020

Statistica Report “World reserves of Iron ore as of 2019, by country” accessed on December 24, 2020

AlCircle report “Top five countries with highest bauxite reserves in the world” December 17, 2016

ET Auto report “Lithium found in Mandya near Bengaluru” February 18, 2020

M. Kuenzel, G.T.Kim, et al., Materials Today, 39, 127 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2020.04.003

TechCrunch report “Tesla introduces its tables battery design on the road to 10 terawatt hours of production” September 23, 2020

X.G. Yang, T. Liu, Y. Gao, et al., Joule, 3, 12 3002 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joule.2019.09.021

K.H. Chen, M.J. Namkoong, et al., Journal of Power Sources, 471, 228475 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2020.228475



How to Cite

Shaligram, A., & Sen, U. K. (2020). Emergent energy storage sector in the developing world: A technological and strategic perspective. SPAST Express, 1(1). Retrieved from https://spast.org/ojspath/article/view/16



Reviews & Perspectives